(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The BrickBuilder (1911)"

^mi: }Aj. 



'I#^0^ 




*>^^x 



i \ 





California State Library 

CALIFORNIA 



State I^ibrahy 
1661>95 



f^^m 



Call ^7>. 
Copy A'o. 




2o 



J 



CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY. 

SACRAMENTO 



This book is due on the last date stamped below. 

A book may be kept for three weeks and renewed 
Tor two weeks longer. 

A fine of five cents a day will be charged on over- 
due books. 




Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2013 



Iittp://arcliive.org/details/brickbuild20unse 



THE 



^ 



i 



BRICKBVILDER 




ARCHimCVRAL 

MONTHIY 




Q^ JANUARY 




PVBLISHED BY ROGERS & MANSON 
EIGHTYFIVE WATER STREET BOSTON MASS. 



TRADB MAMK 




Bag. UAPMLMk 



The Most Artistic and 

Permanent Building 

Material in the World 

There Is only one '• Tapestry " Brick. It 
is made exclusively by Fiske & Ce. Inc. 
Our trade mark '• Tapestry " U branded 
on each brick. It stands for the hiehest 
product of our skill and 45 years experi- 
ence. It protects you aKainst substltutlea. 

» Tapestry " Brick has been used by lead- 
int architects on residences, churches, 
libraries, hospitals, club bouses, schools, 
fraternal buildings, and high grade 
apartments. 

TZ^ISKE 6- COMPANY INC 
E\CE BRICKSJ ESTABLISH 
llRE BRICKSi ED IN 1664 

BOSTON, » Arch St. NBW YOVK. Phrttrra Bide. 



NEW YORK BALTIMORE 

I I 70 Broadway American Building 

WASHINGTON 

Home Life Building 

O. W. KETCHAM 

Master Builders Exchange 
PHILADELPHIA 



Front Brick Enameled Briok 

Hollow Tile Fireproof Ing 

Roofing Tile 

ARCHrrECTURAL TERRA COTTA 

Works : Crum Lynne, Pa. 

SwMt's lodn.paKOT 116.117 



CENDIIIE HEW IRGLAIID **HAt?AtD" BRICU 



FRONT BRICKS ENAMELED 

ARTISTIC FACE BRICKS 
VITRIFIED HOLLOW BUILDING BLOCKS 

Carter, Black & Ayers 

CENTUIOAN BUILDING 

1182 Broadway 
NEW YORK 



Atlantic 
Terra Cotta Company 

11 70 Broadway, N.Y. 



In Adandc Terra G>tta even • 
strictly commercial building may be 
made architecturally beautiful at little, 
if any, advance in cost, because 
Atlantic Terra Cotta combines decora- 
tive possibilities and practical construct- 
ive efficiency to the highest degree. 

For the same reason a monumental 
building may be erected in Atlantic 
Terra Cotta on a strictly commercial 
basis. 

And because Atlantic Terra Cotta 
is suitable for both the strictly com- 
mercial and the primarily beautiful, it 
is doubly appropriate for the ordinary 
building that it a combination of the 
two. 



Southern Branch 

Atlanta Terra Cotta Compai^ 
East Point G*. 



GRUEBY FAIENCE & TILE GO. 

K AND FIRST STS^ BOSTON, MASS. 



Durable Jlrcbitectiral 
faience 

for 
Cxterltn M Uterton 



CORRESPONDENCE INVITED 



m 



The Hartford Faience Go. 

HARTFORD, CONN. 



NEW YORK 

lU FUTII4I iUILOJiS 



BOSTON 

•ID SWn IHILSIM 



ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE 

(All Color*) 

FAIENCE MANTELS 
FAIENCE TILE INI BUCK 

Write for •ur new catalogue. 



ROOKWOOD 

Architectural Faience 

MAT OLAZea IN ALL COLORS 
ABSOLUTELY PERMANENT 
EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR 

THE ROOKWOOD POHERY CO. 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 

New York Office - - I Madison AveniM 



Brick, Terra Gotta & Tile Co. 

M. E. GREGORY, PROPRIETOR 
MANUFACTURERS OF 

ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA COTTA 

Works and Main Office ; CORNING, R Y. 

NEVTOK .... E.N. THOMAS, 1 121 BrM*n} 

AGENCIES 

All th* Principal Cities 



PFOTENHAUER-NESBIT GO. 

St hmm BdMiac. Bre«dwty. Car. 26tk St, Rot T«h 

IMPERVIOUS 

FRONT BRICK 

In Red, Buff, Cray, Mottled, White, Etc. 

Enameled Brick, Roofing Tiles, Paving Clinkers, Ete. 

Cenulno" KITTANN I NO" BHck 
Cenulne "HARVARD" Brick 



The AMERICAN TERRA COTTA 
AND CERAMIC COMPANY 

Architectural 
Terra Cotta 

CHICAGO - ILLINOIS 



G)nkIing-Armstrong 
Terra Cotta Coe 

Manufactursn of 

Architecttiral Terra Cotta 

Work*, PHILADELPHIA 

OFFICES 
Bdklef/ Exchange, PHILADELPHIA 

1133 Broadway, NEW YORK 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Index to Volume 20. 



January — December, 191 1 



FRONTISPIECES — FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Title. Month. 

Dome of Santa Rosa de Viterbo, Oueretaro, Mexico January 

Church of San Jose, Puebla, Mexico Februarj' 

Carrere, John M . Half -Tone Illustration from Photograph • March 

Church de la Compania de Jesus, Puebla, Mexico April 

Church of San Diego, Aguas Calientes, Mexico May 

Church, Las Recojidas, San Luis Potosi, Mexico June 



Title. Month. 

Tower of Chtirch San Fernando, Mexico City, Mexico July 

Church of Santa Clara, Oueretaro, Mexico August 

Chtirch of Nuestra Senora del Carmen, Tehuacan, Mexico. September 

Church of San Cristobal, Puebla, Mexico October 

Church Tower, Mexico City November 

Tower of the Church la Santisimo, Mexico City December 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Exterior views denoted by Ext. Interior views denoted by Int. Plans denoted by PI. 



Title and Location. 



American Antiquarian Society Building, Worcester, Mass Ext., PI. 



American Pavilion, Rome, Italy 

Bank, Yolo, Woodland, Cal 

Bank, Merchants National, Salem, Mass 

Bank, Tanners National, Catskill, N. Y 

Chapel, Little Helpers of the Holy Souls, St. Louis, Mo. 

Church, Hebrew Congregation, Chicago 

Church, Presbyterian, Chattanooga, Tenn 



Church, St. John, Kingsbridge, N. Y 

Church, Mary Immaculate of Lourdes, Newton Upper Falls, Mass. 

Church, Christ Congregational, New York City 

Church, St. Joseph's Parish, Dayton, Ohio 

Church, Linden Baptist, Camden, N. J 

City Hall, Chelsea, Mass 

Club, The Bellerive, St. Louis, Mo 

Club, Athletic Association, Pittsburgh, Pa 

Club, Yale Boat House, New Haven, Conn 

College, Engineering Building, Rutgers College 

College, Grace Hall and Dormitories, Williams College 

College, Law Building, University of Virginia 

College, Library, Smith College 

College, Gymnasium, Syracuse University 

Engine House, No. 2, Washington, D. C 

Engine Hou.se, Baltimore, Md. 

Engine House, Washington, D. C 

Exposition Building, American Pavilion, Rome 

Field House and Gymnasium, Chicago 

Garage, Roslyn Heights, Pa. 

Garage, Cleveland , Ohio 

Gymnasium, Mt. Hermon, Mass 

Gymnasium, Syracuse University, Syracuse 

Hospital, Dispensary, Yonkers, N. Y 

House, New Haven, Conn 

House, Bronxville, N. Y 

House, Sherborn, Mass 

Hou.se, Chestnut Hill, Pa. 

House, West Newton, Mass 

Hou.se, Ro.slyn Heights, Pa. 

Hou.se, St. Louis, Mo 

Hou.se, Waterbury, Conn 

Hou.se, Brookline, Mass 

House, Cleveland, Ohio 

House, Huntington, Long Island, N. Y 

House, Cleveland , Ohio 

Hou.se, Detroit, Mich 

House, Overbrook, Pa. 

House, Minneapolis, Minn 

House, Cleveland, Ohio 

House, Havre de Grace, Md 



Ext., 


PI. 




Ext., 


Int., 


PL 


Ext., 


Int., 


PI. 


Ext., 


Int. 


PI. 


Ext. 


Int. 


PI. 


Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


Int. 


PL 


Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


Int. 


PI. 


Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


Int. 


PI 


Ext. 


PL 




Ext. 


Int. 


PI 


Ext. 


Int. 


PI 


Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


Int. 


PI 


Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


Int. 


PI 


Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


PL 




Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


PL 




Ext. 


Int. 


PI 


Ext. 






Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


Int. 


PI 


Ext. 


Int. 


PI 


Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


Int 


PI 


Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


PL 




Ext 


PI. 




Ext. 


Int. 


PI 


Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


PI. 




Ext. 


Int. 


PI 


Ext. 


PL 




Ext. 


Int. 


. PI 


Ext. 


, PI. 




Ext. 


, PL 




Ext. 


, PI. 




Ext. 


, Int. 


, PI 



Architect. 

Bigelow & Wadsworth and R. C. 

Sturgis 

Carrere & Hastings 

Hoover, Ira W 

Little & Browne 

Reynolds, Marcus T 

Mauran & Russell 

Alschuler, Alfred S 

Bearden & Foreman and McKim, 

Mead & White 

Davis, McGrath & Kie.ssling 

Graham, Edward T. P 

Hoppin & Koen 

Maginnis & Walsh 

Truscott, A. and A. H. Moses 

Peabody & Steams 

Garden, Edward G 

Janssen & Abbott 

Peabody & Stearns 

Williamson, D. D. and Hill & Stout. 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson 

Peebles, John Kevan 

Lord & Hewlett 

Revels & Hallenbeck 

De.ssez, Leon E 

Ellicott & Emmart 

Hornblower & Marshall 

Carrere & Hastings 

Perkins & Hamilton 

Cope & Stcwardson 

Meade, I'rank B 

Parish & .Schroeder 

Revels & Hallenbeck 

Chamberlin, G. Howard 

Atterbury, Grosvcnor 

Bates, William A 

Bigelow & Wadsworth 

Brockie & I lastings 

Brown, Frank Chouteau 

Cope & Steward.son 

Cope & Stewardson 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson 

Cummings & Howard 

Dyer, J . Milton 

Eyre, Wilson 

Garfield, Abram 

Ingraham, George Hunt 

Keen, Charles Barton 

Kenj'on, William M 

Meade, Frank B • 

Parker, Thomas & Rice 



Plate No. 


Month. 


167, 168 


December 


118-120 


September 


164-166 


December 


72, 73 


June 


41, 42 


March 


141-143 


November 


87 


July 


78-80 


June 


39, 40 


March 


656-7 


May 


n 


June 


62-64 


May 


106, 107 


Atigust 


11-14 


January 


121, 122 


September 


88-92 


July 


60, 61 


May 


124 


September 


15-19 


February 


123 


September 


21, 22 


Februarv 


74-76 


lune 


55, 56 


April 


159 


December 


160 


December 


118-120 


September 


149, 150 


November 


94 


July 


154 


November 


20 


Februarv 


74-76 


June 


28 


Februarv 


127, 128 


October 


54 


April 


136, 137 


October 


129 


October 


161, 162 


December 


93, 94 


July 


155-158 


December 


37, 38 


March 


139 


October 


140 


October 


130-133 


October 


138 


October 


81, 82 


June 


97, 98 


July 


68 


May 


163 


December 


95, 96 


July 



THE BRICKBUILDER — INDEX. 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — Continued. 



Title and Location. 



House, Hartford, Conn Ext. 

House, Fitchburg, Mass Ext. 

House, Minneapolis, Minn. • • Ext. 

Houses, Charles River Embankment, Boston, Mass Ext. 

Houses, Two, Pittsburgh, Pa Ext. 

Houses. Two, Pittsburgh, Pa. Ext. 

Houses, Seven, Cleveland, Ohio Ext. 

Library, Price Hill Public, Cincinnati, Ohio Ext. 

Librarv, Smith College, Northampton, Mass Ext. 

Library, Divoll Branch, St. Louis, Mo Ext. 

Library, Public, Brookline, Mass Ext. 

Office Building, Gas Light Co., Springfield, Mass Ext. 

Office Building, United Illuminating Co., New Haven, Conn Ext. 

Post Office Building, Chautauqua, N. Y Ext. 

School, The Westwood, Cincinnati, Ohio Ext. 

School, Industrial Arts, Trenton, N. J Ext. 

School, The Nichols, Buffalo, N. Y Ext. 

School, The New Carr, St. Louis, Mo Ext. 

School, The New Humboldt, St. Louis, Mo Ext. 

School, The New Lyon, St. Louis, Mo Ext. 

School, The New A.shland, St. Louis, Mo Ext. 

School, The New Franklin, St. Louis, Mo Ext. 

School, The New Meramec, St. Louis, Mo Ext. 

School, Technical High, Newton, Mass Ext. 

School, The Lincoln, Lincoln, Mass Ext. 

School, Carl Schurz High, Chicago Ext. 

School, Grover Cleveland High, Chicago Ext. 

School, The Winsor, Brookline, Ma.ss Ext. 

School, Manual Training High. Whiting, Ind Ext. 

Store and Office Building, Chautauqua, N. Y Ext. 

Temple, Hebrew Congregation, Chicago Ext. 

Temple, Mohammed, Peoria, 111 Ext. 

Town Hall, Westwood, Mass Ext. 

Town Hall, New Canaan, Conn Ext. 

University Buildings 

Women's Union. Fall River, Mass Ext. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, White Plains, N. Y Ext. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Newton, Mass Ext. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Wilmington, Del '■ Ext. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Hyde Park, Chicago Ext. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, St. Paul, Minn Ext. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Norfolk, Va Ext. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Marblehead, Mass Ext. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Baltimore, Md Ext. 

Y. W^ C. A. Building, Pittsburgh, Pa Ext. 



Architect. 

PI. Piatt, Charley A 

PI. Rantoul, William G 

PI. Reed & Stem 

Int., PI. Bourne, Frank A 

PI. Tans.sen & Abbott 

PI. MacClure & Spahr 

Int., PI. Meade, Frank B 

PI. Garber & Woodward 

PI. Lord & Hewlett 

PI. Mariner & LaBeaume 

Int., PI. Sturgis, R. Chpston 

Int., PI. Bigelow & Wadsworth 

PI. Foote & Townsend 

PI. Green & Wicks 

PI. Garber & Woodward ■ • ■ • 

PI. Gilbert, Cass 

Int., PI. Green & Wicks 

PI. Ittner, \Villiam B 

PI. Ittner, William B 

PI. Ittner, William B 

PI. Ittner, Wilham B 

PI. Ittner, William B 

PI. Ittner, William B 

PI. Newton, George F 

PI. Parker, Thomas & Rice 

PI. Perkins, Dwight H 

PI. Perkins, Dwight H 

PI. Sturgis, R. Clipston 

PI. Perkins & Hamilton 

PI. Green & Wicks 

PI. Alschuler, Alfred S 

PI. Hewitt, H. E. and Hewitt & Emerson 

PI. Hurd & Gore 

PI. Josselyn, Edgar A 

(See list under College Buildings) . . . 

PI. Hooper, Parker Morse 

PI. Albro & Lindeberg 

PL Brainerd & Leeds 

Int., PI. Day, Frank Miles & Brother 

PI. Frost & Granger 

PI. Johnston, Clarence H 

PI. Mitchell, R. E. and Wood, Donn & 

Deming 

PI. Newhall & Blevins 

Int., PI. Sperry, Joseph Evans 

PI. Janssen & Abbott 



Plate No. 


Month. 


134, 135 


October 


1, 2 


January 


70 


May 


57-59 


May 


35, 36 


March 


69 


May 


48-53 


April 


116 


September 


21-23 


February 


117 


September 


3-6 


January 


114, 115 


September 


113 


September 


148 


November 


33, 34 


March 


85, 86 


July 


125, 126 


September 


29 


March 


31 


March 


30 


March 


151 


November 


152 


November 


153 


November 


71 


June 


32 


March 


45-47 


April 


43, 44 


April 


7-10 


January 


144-146 


November 


147 


November 


87 


July 


104, 105 


August 


83 


June 


84 


June 


24,25 


Febniary 


131 


August 


102 


August 


112 


August 


103 


August 


110 


August 


100, 101 


August 


99 


August 


108, 109 


August 


26, 27 


February 



For additional illustrations not listed above see index of " Illustrations in Letter-Press." 

ILLUSTRATIONS IN LETTER-PRESS. 

This list does not include certain miscellaneous illustrations made in connection with articles, nor those of terra cotta details. 
E.xterior views denoted by Ext. Interior views denoted by Int. Plans denoted by PI. 



Title and Location. 

Academy of Music, Brooklyn, N. Y., Detail of Ext. 

Apartment, Central Park West, N. Y. C Ext. 

Apartment, New York City Ext. 

Apartment and Store, Washington, D.C Ext. 

Apartment Hotel, Central Park, N. Y. C Ext. 

Art Museum, Copley Square, Boston Ext. 

Automobile vSupply Station, Chicago Ext. 

Bank Building, First, Corey, Ala Ext. 

Cafe and Rathskellar, Washington, D. C Ext., Int. 

Cathedral, St. John the Divine, N. Y. C Int. 

Church, Scientist, Boston, Mass Int. 

Church, St. Ambrose, Brooklyn, N. Y., Detail of Ext. 

Church, St. Francis de Sales, Phila., Pa Int. 

Cow Barn, State Hospital, Norristown, Pa Ext. 

Drug Store, Detroit, Mich Ext. 

Factory Building. Cleveland, Ohio Ext. 

Factory Building, Minneapolis, ^linn Ext. 

Fountain, Bradley Memorial Ext. 

Garage and Stable, Fitchburg, Mass Ext. 

Gate Lodge, Cincinnati, Ohio Ext. 

Gate Lodge, Lake Forest, 111 Ext., Int., PI. 

Greenhouse, Tuxedo Park, N. Y Ext. 

Gymnasium, Beloit College, Beloit, Wis Ext. 

Hall, Symphony, Boston, Mass , Int. 

Hall, Franklin Union, Mass Int., PI. 

Hotel, La Salle, Chicago, 111. Ext.' 

Hotel, Marlborough-Blenheim, Atlantic City Ext. 



Architect. Page. Month. 

Herts & Tallant 80 April 

Schwartz & Gross 177 August 

Waid & W^illaner 43 February 

Heaton, A. B 63 March 

Mulliken & Moeller 64 March 

Sturgis & Brigham 46 March 

Jenney, Mundie & Jensen 19 January 

Welton, Wm. Leslie 196 September 

Vogt & Morrill 17 Januaiy 

Heins & LaFarge Ill May 

Brigham, Charles 58 March 

Streeton, George H 81 April 

Dagit, Henry D 82 April 

Baker & Dallett 135 June 

Ba.xter & O'Dell 154 Julv 

Dyer, J. Milton 157 July 

Hewitt & Brown 268 December 

McKim, Mead & White 154 July 

Rantoul, Wm. G 10 January 

Elzner & Anderson 220 October 

Griffin, Walter B 215 October 

Barber, Donn 142 July 

Patton & Miller 87 April 

McKim, Mead & White 106 May 

Sturgis & Barton 124, 125 June 

Holabird & Roche 219 October 

Price & McLanahan 181 September 



THE BRICKBUILDER — INDEX. 
ILLUSTRATIONS IN LETTER-PRESS— Cou^hmed. 



^36 



2.0 



Rochester, N. Y Ext. 

Garden City, L. I., N. Y Ext., PI. 

Evanston, 111 Ext., PI. 

Westwood, Ohio Ext. 

Duluth, Minn Ext. 

Milton, Mass Ext., PI. 

St. Louis, Mo Ext. 

St. Louis, Mo Ext. 

Detroit, Mich Ext. 

St. Louis, Mo Ext., Int., PI. 

St. Louis, Mo. Ext. 

St. Louis, Mo Ext., PI. 

River Forest, 111 Ext. , PI. 

We.stwood, Mass Ext., PI. 

Chestnut Hill, Mass Ext., PI. 

Fitchburg, Mass Ext., Int. 

Morgan Park, Chicago, 111 Ext., Int., PI. 

Oak Park, 111 . Ext., Int., PI. 

River Forest, 111 E.xt., Int., PI. 

Shelbyville, 111. Ext., PI. 

Chicago, 111 Ext., PI. 

Denver, Colo Ext., PI. 

Duluth, Minn. Ext. 

Chicago, 111. . . : Ext. 

Compton Wynyates, England Ext., Int., PI. 

Houses, Block of New, Boston, Mass Ext. 

Houses, Moylan, Ro.se Valley, Pa Ext., PI. 

Light House, White Shoal, Lake Michigan Ext. 

Office Building, People's Gas, Chicago, 111 Ext. 

Office Building, The Hampson, Waterbury, Conn Ext. 

Office Building, Woodward, Wa.shington, D. C Ext. 

Office Building, City Investing, New York Ext. 

Office Building, Pittsburgh Mercantile Ext. 

Office Building, Schweiter, Wichita, Kan Ext. 

Office Room, West Publishing Company Int. 

Opera House, Boston, Mass. Int. 

Park Building, Hoboken, N. J Ext. 

Pavilion Ext. 

Physical Laboratory, Urbana, 111 Ext., Int., PI. 

Police Headquarters Building, New York City. Ext. 

Police Station, Second Precinct, New York City Ext., Int., PI. 

Railway Station, Bellerose, L. I., N. Y Ext. 

Railway Station, Chicago & Northwestern, Chicago, 111 • Ext., Int. 

Railway Station, Waterbury, Conn Int. 

Restaurant, Churchill's, New York City Ex<". 

School, Soldan High, St. Louis, Mo Ext., Int., PI. 

School, Emerson, Gary, Ind Ext., Int., PI. 

School, Gary's Second, Gary, Ind Ext., PI. 

School, New High, Lafavette, Ind Ext., PI. 

School, High, Columbia, Mo Ext., PI. 

School, Maybury, Detroit, Mich Ext. 

School, Technical High, Newton, Ma.ss Ext. 

School, Trumbull, Chicago, 111 Ext. 

.School, Randall, Madison, Wis. Ext. 

School, St. Gabriel's, New York City Ext. 

School, Christ's Hospital, London, Eng Ext., Int., PI. 

Statuary, Lion of Lucerne, Switzerland Ext. 

Statuary, Chester Alan Arthur, New York City Ext. 

.Statuary, Nathan Hale, New York City Ext. 

Statuary, Marcus Aurelius, Rome Ext. 

Store Building, Detroit, Mich Ext. 

Store and Apartment, Wa.shington, D. C Ext. 

Store and Office Building, Cumberland, Md Ext. 

Telephone Building, Cincinnati, Ohio Ext. 

Temple, Masonic, Brooklyn, N. Y Ext. 

Temple, Berith Kodest, Rochester, N. Y Int. 

Theatre, San Francisco, Cal. — Details Ext. 

Washington Arch, New York Ext. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Teague Island, Philadelphia, Pa Ext. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Richmond, Va Ext., PI. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Syracuse, N. Y Ext., Int., PI. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Pittsfield, Mass Ext., PI. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Martinsburg, W. Va Ext., PI. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Camden, N. J Ext., PI. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Bedford Branch, Brooklyn, N. Y Ext., PI. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Ottawa, Ont., Can Ext., PI. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Plattsburg, N. Y Ext. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Railroad Branch, St. Louis, Mo • Ext., PI. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, El Paso, Texas Ext., PI. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, The New Central, Philadelphia, Pa Ext., Int., PI. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Railway, Richmond, Va Ext. 

Y. W. C. A. Building, Indianapolis, Ind Ext., PI. 

166995 



Architect. Page. Month. 

Reed & Stem 108 Mav 

Stevens, H. L. & Co 244 November 

Bragdon, Claude F 233 November 

Embury, Aymar 236 November 

Griffin, Walter B 214 October 

Hannaford, Samuel & Sons 200 September 

Hunt, W. A 113 May 

Ingraham, Geo. Hunt 227 November 

Lucas, Wm. A 114 May 

Lucas, Wm. A 222 October 

Malcomson & Higginsbotham 265 December 

Mariner & La Beaume 218 October 

Mauran & Ru-ssell 157 July 

Mauran, Russell & Garden 217 October 

Purcell, Wm. Gray, 213 . October 

Purdon, James 226 November 

Putnam & Cox 226 November 

Rantoul, Wm. G 6-9 January 

Spencer & Powers 210, 211 October 

Spencer & Powers 230 November 

Spencer & Powers 231 November 

Spencer & Powers 234-235 November 

Tallmadge & Watson 212 October 

Varian & Varian 216 October 

Wangenstein, J.J 89 April 

Zimmerman, W. C 135 June 

115-119 June 

Stratton, E. B 134 June 

Pi-ice & McLanahan 186-190 September 

Judson, Maj. W. V., U. S. Eng 176 Augu.st 

Burnham, D. H. & Co 156 July 

Griggs & Hunt 18 January 

Harding & Upman 112 May 

Kimball, F. H 112 May 

Rutan & Russell 267 December 

Richards, McCarty & Bulford 244 November 

199 September 

Wheelwright & Haven 130 June 

Ware, James E. & Son 266 December 

Van Pelt, John V 178 August 

Zimmerman, W. C 257-259 December 

Hoppin, Koen & Huntingdon 134 June 

Colt, S. B. and T. Chard 143, 144 July 

Fowler, J. C 89 April 

Frost & Granger 147, 148 July 

McKim, Mead & White 20 January 

Baer, Robert 14 January 

Ittner, Wm. B. ' 27-30 February 

Ittner, Wm. B 51-53 March 

Ittner, Wm. B 54 March 

Ittner, Wm. B 73-75 April 

Ittner, Wm. B 78 April 

Malcomson & Higginsbotham 135 June 

Newton, George F 124 June 

Perkms, Dwight H 41 February 

Porter, Lew 42 February 

Van Pelt, John V 21 January 

Webb & Bell 93-97 May 

253 December 

254 December 

254 December 

255 December 

Bancroft, F. C 222 October 

Heaton, A. B. . 63 March 

San.sbury, Geo. F 179 August 

Hake & Kuck 156 July 

Lord & Hewlett and Pell & Corbett- Sup. April 

Stern, Leon 42 February 

Bliss & Faville 5 January 

256 December 

Adams, A. M 87 April 

Davis & Davis 160 August 

Gaggin & Gaggin 167 August 

Harding & Seaver 166 August 

Harding & Upman 170 Augu.st 

Howes & Morse and Jefferis, J. C • . 165 August 

Jackson & Roscncrans 164 August 

Jack.son & Rosencrans 171 August 

Jackson & Rosencrans 179 August 

Link, Theo. C. & Son 162 August 

Trost & Trost 172 August 

Trumbauer, Horace 161 August 

Wil.son, Harris & Richards 243 November 

Bohlen, D. A. & Son 163 Augu.st 



THE BRICKBUILDER— INDEX. 



ARTICLES. 



Page. 

A. I. A., Forty-fourth Annual Convention 37 

A. ]. A., Forty-fifth Annual Convention 247 

Architects in Charge of Construction 

By Walter B. Chambers 191 

Architects in Charge of Construction. .Bv H. Kent Dav 203 
Architects, How They Work— I., By D.' Everett Waid 249 

Carrere, John M., Tributes to Life of 45 

Commemorative Monuments — I 

By H. Van Buren Magonigle 253 

Comparative Costs of a House of Moderate Size.- 59 

Comparative Cost of Houses, Three Tyj^es of Construc- 
tion By George Hunt Ingraham 

Decorative Treatment of Plaster Walls 

By William L. Price 181 

England — Christ's Hospital School, By Henry A. Frost 93 

England — Compton Wynyates By Arthur G. Byne 115 

Heating ^nd Ventilation of Churches — I 

By Charles L. Hubbard 31 

Heating and Ventilation of Churches — II.- 

By Charles L. Hubbard 55 

Heating and Ventilation of Halls _■ 

.By Charles L. Hubbard 103 

Heating and Ventilation of Theat res 

By Charles L. Hubbard 127 

Hotel, New St. Paul, Reed & Stem, Architects 109 

House at Fitchburg, Mass By Henry A. Frost 6 

House of Brick in Suburbs and Country, The Small —I. 

By Robert C. Silencer 209 

House of Brick in Suburbsand Country, The Small— II. 

By Robert C. Spencer 229 

House, Competition for Natco Hollow Tile — Report 

of Jury 149 

Houses at Moylan, Rose Valley, Pa., Price & Mc- 

Lanahan, Architects.. .._ 185 

Legal Hints for Architects — I., By William L. Bowman 139 
Legal Hints for Architects — II., By William L. Bowman 173 
Legal Hints for Architects — III 

By William L. Bowman 193 

Legal Hints for Architects — IV 

By Willi.-im L. Bowman 205 



Month. 

February 
December 

September 

October 

December 

March 

December 
March 

225 November 

September 
May 
June 

Februarj' 

March 

May 

June 

May 

January 

October 

November 

July 

September 

July 

August 

September 

October 



Page. 
237 



Legal Hints for Architects — v., By William L. Bowman 
Legal Hints for Architects — VI 

By William L. Bowman 

Manual Training High School — I 

By William B. Ittner 

Manual Training High School — II 

By William B. Ittner 

Manual Training High School — III 

By William B. Ittner 

Manual Training High School— IV 

By William B. Ittner 

Physical Laboratory, The Design By A. P. Carman 

Police Station, Second Precinct, New York City.^ 143 

Presentation of Preliminary Studies of Architectural 

Subjects— I.- By H. G. Ripley 

Presentation of Preliminary Studies of Architectural 

Subjects— II ....By H. G. Ripley 

Presentation of Preliminary Studies of Architectural 

Subjects — HI ByH. G. Ripley 

Presentation of Preliminary Studies of Architectural 

Subjects— IV. ByH. (5. Ripley 

Principles of Architecture — I William L. Mowil 

Principles of Architecture — II William L. MowU 

Principles of Architecture — III .William L. Mowll 

Railway Station, New Chicago & Northwestern. 148 

School Planning, The Elementary School 

By R. Clipston Sturgis 

School Planning, Secondary Schools 

ByR. Clipston Sturgis 

School Planning, Third Paper ..By R. Clipston Sturgis 
Terra Cotta, Ceramic Chemical Development 

By Herman A. Plusch 

Terra Cotta, An Early Example in America 46 

Terra Cotta, Polychrome in Exterior Architecture 

By J. Monroe Hewlett 71 

Terra Cotta, Polychrome in the Masonic Temple of 

Brooklyn 79 

V. M. C. a!, Working Plants for. By Walter Mabie Wood 159 



261 

11 

27 

51 

73 
257 



1 

23 

47 

67 

15 

35 

145 



99 

121 
137 

83 



Month. 

November 

December 

January 

February 

March 

April 

December 

July 

January 

February 

March 

April 

January 

February 

July 

July 

May 

June 
July 

April 
March 

April 

April 
August 



EDITORIALS AND MISCELLANY. 



Page. Month. 

Acoustics _ 153 July 

Amalgamation of Art in Rome 88 April 

Ancient Frescoes in Low and High Relief 64 March 

Ancient Rome 154 July 

Annual Convention of A. I. A.. 39 February 

Annual Exhibition of the Architectural League 220 October 

Archaeological Exhibition, Rome 88 April 

Art and the Nation.. 220 October 

Asiatic Brick 178 August 

British Museum Wing 242 November 

" Broadway Garden," New York City 241 November 

Building Construction in China 198 September 

Building Laws in Pennsylvania, Revision of 111 May 

Castle of Kerjean __ 88 April 

Cathedral in Marble 62 March 

City Planning Conference, Philadelphia 132 June 

City Planning, The Expansion of __. 154 July 

Competition Awards — A Hotel. 17 January 

Competition Awards — B. T. E. A 63 March 

Competition Awards — Government Offices 18 January 

Competition for Northwestern University 20 January 

Competition for Vocational High School 133 June 

Congress Hall, Philadelphia, Restoration of 112 May 

Congress of Technology, Boston 62 March 

Convention Hall, Philadelphia 220 October 

Convention of Brick Makers 42 February 

Crosby Hall, London 64 March 

Electric Railway in Rome 267 December 

Fifth Avenue, New York City 63 March 



Page. Month. 

Fires in Lofts and Factories 86 April 

Greek Temple in Corfu 155 July 

Home for Art, New York City 241 November 

Home for our Presidents in Summer 242 November 

Horace's Sabine Farm 199 September 

Hospital at Paris 241 November 

Japanese Gardens, Great Neck, L. I. 198 September 

Lebarre Prize, Paris .. 64 March 

Lincoln Memorial Site 87 April 

London Memorial to King Edward 198 September 

Madison Square (Jarden Sold 134 June 

Mission City at Panama — California Exposition 155 July 

National Theatre, Mexico 133 June 

N. Y. C. Railway Station, New York City 63 March 

Parnell Monument, Dublin 219 October 

Perry Memorial Competition _. 219 October 

School Buildings in London 267 December 

St. John the Divine, New York City 110 May 

Standard Documents of the A. I. A 266 December 

State Board of Architecture, Indiana 20 January 

Terra Cotta Hollow Blocks — Interlocking 111 May 

Terra Cotta Tile for Partition Walls 198 September 

Town of Corey, Alabama 199 September 

Town Planning in Germany 176 August 

Tuberculosis Association in Boston ... 62 March 

University Chair for French Architect, Harvard ._ 19 January 

University Chair for French Architect, W'ashington ... 155 July 

Woolworth Building, New York City 133 June 

Workingmen's Homes in Berlin 241 November 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XX JANUARY 1911 Number I 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, vni, by ROGERS * MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ........ Sj.oo per year 

Single numbers ..................... 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............... $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ................. $<>oo per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 

II 



Agencies — Clay Products . ..... 

Architectural Faience ........ II 

,, Terra Cotta 11 and III 

Brick Ill 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



PAGE 

Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ........ IV 

Fireproofing ......... 1 * 

Roofing Tile . . IV 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 
PEABODY & STEARNvS; WILLIAM G. RANTOUL; R. CLIPSTON STURGIS. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

DOME OF THE CHURCH OF SANTA ROSA DE VITERBO, QUERETARO, MEXICO. Frontispiece 

•THE PRESENTATION OF PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF ARCHITECTURAL SUBJECTS //. (>■ Riphy 1 

COLUMBIA THEATRE, SAN FRANCISCO, EXTERIOR DETAILS, BLISS & FAVILLE, ARCHITECTS 5 

HOUSE AT FITCHBURG, MASS., WILLIAM (1. RANTOUL, ARCHITECT l/..\./-rosl 6 

THE MANUAL TRAINING HIGH SCHOOL. -PART I If.H.am II. /Iln.r 11 

THE PRINCIPLES OF ARCHITECTURE. - PART I iniliam /.. Mowll 15 

HOUSE AT DOVER, MASS., P. B. HOWARD, ARCHITECT 1^ 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY ^^ 




DOME OF THE CHURCH IN THE COL- 
LEGIATE CONVENT OF SANTA ROSA 
DE VITERBO, QUERETARO, MEXICO. 



This dome is one of the best examples of the famous Mexican 
Architect, Eduardo Tresguerras. The dome was probably en- 
tirely covered with glazed tiles but only the panels of intricate 
patterns in various colors now remain. 




ARCHITECTURE, of all subjects, affords as fair a 
target as any for the budding writer. All that is 
necessar}' is an imposing array of adjectives joined to a 
few technical terms with now and 
then a metaphor or simile that 
baffles the intelligence ; add the 
proper amount of words and sen- 
tences and finish up with a glowing 
and scintillating peroration, and an- 
other "article" lies quivering on 
the editor's desk. 

Now the very title of this series 
is subject to criticism, in as much 
as it is liable to the impeachment 
of redundancy; but as it is only in- 
tended as a "filler" to the charm- 
ing illustrations that accompany it, 
we will let that pass and proceed at 
once to the serious consideration of 
the subject, only digressing occa- 
sionally when it is found necessary 
to fill out the quota of words that 
are essential to give page 23 a 
shipshape look. 

M. Vitruvius Pollio, one of the 
earliest writers on architecture, was 
not wholly happy in his home or 
office life, and devoted a great deal of time and labor in 
composing and writing several massy tomes in difficult 
and abstruse Latin. He pulled the subject apart to see 
what made the wheels go around, examined it carefully, 
labeled it, classified it, and finally announced the follow- 
ing discovery: 

"Architecture consists of Ordination, which 
the Greeks call taxis ; of Disposi- 
tion, which the Greeks call diathc- 
sin ; of Eurythmy, Symmetry, 
Decor, and Distribution, which the 
Greeks call oiconomia.'' 

This definition has never been equaled by 
any modern writer, even of the Rochester 
School. It stands to-day like the Parthenon, 
alone, unrivaled, supreme in its greatness, 
the despair of the ages. True, Mr. Newton 





says of it, " Its obscurity may very likely be owing in 

a great degree to our ignorance of many circumstances 

of those times, their use of the 

technical terms; or the different 

acceptation of words." This ad- 
mission on the part of so eminent 

a writer as William Newton (obit 

circa 1790) substantiates the as- 
sertion presented in our first 

paragraph. 

From time to time, when we 

are "up against it," we shall 

have occasion to quote liberally 

from Vitruvius, as we believe in 

always going to the fount and 

playing safe. Now then, as re- 
gards preliminary sketches. 
The Preliminary Sketch is the 

architect's introduction to the 

startled public. He bursts from 

the chrysalis of obscurity and 

flutters in the sun, clad in many 

colors, or monotone, or line, or 

pencil, or any other medium. As 

Lord Inverclyde, the celebrated 

architect once said, " Most men 

buy the Boston Transcript to 

wrap up- the American in" — meaning that the function 

of the perspective is to throw a halo around the mistakes 

and errors of the scale drawings. 

Take a typical case; perhaps the young architect's 

father decides that, after his son has graduated from a 

four years' course in architecture at the University of 

Skitomish, followed by six years' training in Paris and 
two months' experience in the office of 
W. C. Bowles, he will alter the old barn 
into attractive eight-room semi-detached 
suburban houses. Father wants to see 
right off how the alterations will look. So 
after the floor plans and an elevation are 
decided upon, two courses are open. Either 
the architect may get the Jaques Blanque 
of his city to show the barn in a fog or 
early sunrise effect for three or four hundred 




THE BRICKBUILDER 












,'««^k.-. 



L-..-r _..^ 



«? 



Showing the younj; architect's first presentation in pencil on tracing 
paper c[uickly made. A positive print is given the chent and additional 
prints struck off for purposes of obtaining estimates, etc. 

dollars; or take the plunge himself, "lay out" the 
perspective and render it with his own hands. 

If Blanque does the drawing, he makes it on the back 
of some substance that looks like Holland window shade 
cloth or firecracker paper mounted on trunk board. 
There is an advantage in making the drawing on window 
shade cloth because the window shades in the house may 
be left natural color and texture; also early morning 
effects are easily suggested by leaving the whole sky 
window shade color. 

The beginner will find a quick, simple and effective 
presentation by making the floor plans and perspective 
on thin white tracing paper, using a medium soft pen- 
cil, taking care not to smutch the drawing and having 
one or two Vandyke positive prints struck off by the 
X-ray Blue Print Company. The change that occurs in 
the appearance of the sketch is almost always greatly to 
the advantage of the print. The mere fact of the 
mechanical process that in- 
tervenes seems to lend an 
adventitious and sometimes 
a fictitious value to what 
may be a very ordinary 
effort. 

An attempt will be made 
to present examples of the 
various methods employed, 
as far as the limits of maga- 
zine illustration will allow, 
but the more delicate shades 
and nuances of pencil and 
wash are inevitably lost in 
reproduction. Some archi- 
tects go in quite extensively 
for photography in connec- 
tion with their preliminary 
sketches, and photographs of 
a set, each neatly mounted, 
showing the original draw- 
ings reduced to a uniform 
size, generally produce a 




'■i^s^. 




The first sketch for the seaside bungalow. Note that the gnarled 
old trees have been carefully preserved and the Pergola Arms shown 
in the upper right hand corner. The view is taken looking away 
from the sea, and the trees do not really exist, but they could be 
planted, and would grow, with careful training, in eighty or ninety 
years. 



FIG. II. 

Perspective view of tlie houses shown in Fig. 1, rendered simply in water 
colors with the pencil lines showing through, accentuating the outlines 
and shadows. The form and outlines of the old barn have completely dis- 
appeared, and the alterations could probably be built for only three or four 
times as much as a wholly new building would have cost. 

good impression on the client. Further on we shall take 
up the matter more in detail if the public demands it. 

In regard to the embellishment of the sketch, care 
must be taken with the drawing of the cartouch in the 
upper right hand corner, and it is well to search carefully 
the volumes of C;esar Daly, Pfnor, De la Fosse and 
others for good ones. There's nothing sets off a sketch 
so well and pleases the client more than a cartouch finely 
drawn, and many a sketch has "pulled it off," thanks to 
the allure of the upper right hand corner. It is an evi- 
dence of visible skill quite incomprehensible to the lay 
mind. It reassures the client to find that, while the 
architect has departed very far from their ideas of 
arrangement and sizes of rooms, expression of style, cost, 
etc., here is a spot on the drawing that shows the archi- 
tect knows his business and is beyond criticism, and no 
mistake has been made in the "selection" of their 

architect. 

A scrapbook of cartouches 
suitable for owners' names, 
and titles to drawings, is a 
handy thing to have, or 
better still, a card catalogue 
may be kept for ready refer- 
ence, so that the "Prelimi- 
nary Studies for John Smith, 
Esq. 2d " may be properly 
adorned. 

An advantage in making 
the sketches so that they 
may be either blue or brown 
printed is that slight altera- 
tions can be ea.sily made and 
a new print struck off at 
trifling expense and labor. 

Suppose the next client is 
a wealthy maiden lady with 
a mind of her own, who 
wishes to build a bungalow 
at the seashore. This time 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



the architect must take more pains in planning and ar- 
rangement, and it might seem advisable to vary the 
medium and show the building rendered in pen and ink. 
(The illustrations show several ways of rendering differ- 
ent subjects, from a simple outline sketch to one more 
in detail. It will depend i;pon circumstances which to 
choose.) If the plans have been carefully studied, and 
the importance of the commission warrant it, a carefully 
laid out and rendered perspective going into consider- 
able detail may be 
best to show; or if 
the sketch is to be a 
rough, hasty one, 
many of the unde- 
cided details may be 
barely suggested. 
The drawings and 
sketches of Henry P. 
Kirby show in a 
masterly manner 
to what an extent 
the presentation 
of preliminary 
studies may be car- 
ried in pen and ink, 
and should be care- 
fully studied by 
anyone who wishes 
to excel in this me- 
dium. They are 
pure architectural 
drawings of masses 
and bits of detail, 
and in their way 
have never been 
excelled. 

Vitruvius says, 
" Eurythmy consists 
in the beautiful form 
and handsome ap- 
pearance of the 
members of a com- 
position. This is 
effective when the 
heights of the mem- 
bers are adapted to 
their length, each 
being correspondent 
to the symmetry of 
the whole." To think 
that Vitruvius said 
this only two thou- 
sand years ago; 
dear me, how time 
flies. 

Be that as it may 



R,EVIJED J'kETCH OF BuNOALOW FOR. MlJJ LaTTICE PeECOLA 



kinds, and all the dope that goes to "tickle up" a 
drawing. 

If the exigencies of the drawing demand a row of 
columns, or a multiplicity of clipped larches, let them 
be so shown as not to appear monotonous, but each to 
take its place in a quiet, unobtrusive manner, where 
possible covering up defects and hiding indefinite or 
uastudied details with particularly well drawn foliage. 
The different mediums of expression in the presen- 
tation of preliminary 
studies are numer- 
ous and varied, and 
it would be impos- 
sible to enumerate 
them all, as every 
day new ones are 
being handed out. 
The range is wide; 
from thumb-nail 
.sketches with a piece 
of burnt match, such 
as Mr. Emerson used 
to charm us with 
some years ago, to, 
in some ca.ses, elab- 
orate and careful oil 
paintings. 

When the Boston 
Architectural Club 
was first formed, 
many happy even- 
ings around the keg 
were spent, listening 
to smoke talks by 
the master of those 
days. With burnt 
matches or crayon or 
pencil-dust some 
"cale type" (as our 
(ialHc friends would 
say), would make a 
thatched roof cot- 
tage, or a steamer 
come sailing up the 
harbor by moon- 
light, and the enthu- 
siasm with which 
these efforts were 
received by the 
younger fellows was 
not surpassed even 
when the .second keg 
was broached. 

Everyone is fa- 
miliar with the vig- 
orous and convincing 




FIG. IV. 

See how Miss Pergola's bungalow has grown. The first sketch was duly appreciated, 
thanks to the cartouch and the trees, but the building did not meet the client's ideas as 
to style arrangement, size of rooms, etc. These have now taken a more concrete form, 
and this sketch shows a well-balanced plan, homelike, cozy, and livable. The estimates, 
however, may necessitate cutting it down. 



— perhaps it would be well to take up for a few mo- 
ments the consideration of the "little things" that 
go to make up a sketch, such as windows, roofs, col- 
umns, caps, overhangs, doors, chimneys (many a 
punk facade has been saved by having a fine chimney 
copied out of Belcher & Macartney) porches, pergolas, 
pots, box hedges, clipped trees, and shrubs of various 



perspectives of Wilson Eyre done on brown butcher's 
paper or gray charcoal paper with pencil, wash, ink and 
charcoal, all beautifully blended, each sketch admirably 
suited to the subject. Indeed no catalogue of the 
T-Square Club was considered fit to be issued without 
several of these examples, and they stand to-day as 
odels, not only of ideal presentations of prelimmary 



m 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



sketches, but as 

creating; an int 

purely 

American 

domestic 

architecture. 

In this 
connection 
the work 
of such men 
as Harvey 
Ellis and 
Oscar Enders 
deserves the 
highest 
praise. There 
have been 
many of the 
school, of 
which Harvey 
Ellis was the 
recognized 
head, and 
several 
architects 
would have 
been unknown to 
tripped so gaily 



having assisted in building up and 
erest in a most charming type of 




kk; 



This sketch of Mr. Le Boutillier's shows how tlie client's first rou^h idea may be presented in such a 
manner as to give all the essentials in a simple, straightforward sketch readily grasped and understood. 



fame but for the perspectives which 
and lightheartedly from his facile 



pen. Detail masses, trees, clouds, sky, figures, all 
seemed to just pour out of the ink bottle and take 

their proper 
places on 
the paper, 
and yet 
each sketch 
showed mas- 
terly skill and 
subtle refine- 
ment. The 
earlier 
sketches were 
invariably in 
pen and ink 
and on these 
his fame 
chiefly rests, 
though in 
later days his 
color draw- 
ings were 
even more 
highly esti- 
mated. "Ah, 
them wuz the 
happy days." Sketches such as these were all that 
made life and the "American Architect" endurable. 



ADn»ON B-tXBOUTnUeit. AKjCHITKCT^bOSTaN. 




FIG. VI. 

Shows a house carefully worked out in all its details, restrained, studied and refined, and drawn with accuracy in all its parts. The foliage and 
window treatment are worthy of close study. This drawing needs no cartouch. (A. B. Le Boutillier, architect.) 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUI LDER. 



House at Fitchburg, Mass., William G. Rantoul, Architect. 



BV H. A. FKOST. 



THE house at Fitchburg is situated just oiit from 
the center of the town, on the side of a steep hill, 
where the sharp ascent is broken by a narrow strip of 
level ground, which affords a pleasant resting place in 
the climb. The grounds extend approximately 100 
yards along the street, and 50 yards back to the house, 
sloping slightly up from the main thoroughfare. On the 
opposite side of the house the lawn pitches away rapidly 
in a series of terraces and then forms a shallow bowl-like 
depression with a round pool at the far end. Along the 
rim, opposite the house, is a garden of bright old- 
fashioned flowers. 

Approaching the house from the street one is struck 
by its simplicity. The walls are of brick, with enough 
dark headers picked out to give it a texture, with- 
out appearing spotted. The roof is double slated, the 
slates being well selected, and having a wide range of 
color. A driveway entering one corner of the grounds 
curves towards the main entrance, broadening into a 
semicircular carriage turn which is surrounded by a 
high wrought iron fence, terminating in brick posts. 
Beyond the main entrance is a more sheltered entrance 
under a porte-cochere. From 
here the drive divides, one 
part turning to the left towards 
the service portion of the 
house and entering the stable 
yard, while the other part 
turns to the right, and passes 
out again on to the highway. 

On the eastern or street 
front the manner in which the 
vestibule breaks out recalls 
slightly some of the old Hing- 
ham houses, though of course 
the treatment is wholly differ- 
ent. Here the limestone col- 
umns carry a simple wooden 
hood. Overhead, there is a 
small balcony surrounded by 
a wrought iron railing, to 
which access is gained from 
the second floor by a long 
window with stone architrave 
and carved swags, the only 
bit of such decoration on the 
house. A living porch with 
Doric columns and brick piers 
stretches across the southern 

end of the house, where it receives the sun the entire 
day. 

A glance at the plans shows the interior arrangement 
one would expect; the living room with a southern and 
western exposure, the library with an exposure to the 
south, the den with eastern light, and the dining room 
which has windows facing south of west. The usual 
tendency, in domestic work, of giving the dining room 




DETAII, OF GARDEN FRONT. 



the morning sun seems hardly feasible here, as to do so 
would result in an outlook only on the street, and would 
sacrifice both the privacy and the present view on the 
rose garden. The hall occupies the center of the house 
and runs through two stories, having a gallery on three 
sides, and being lighted from the second floor by the 
large window over the door. The service wing is prop- 
erly toward the north, and acts as a screen to the garage 
and stables. 

The western elevation commands a view of the 
grounds, the pool, and the valley beyond with its clus- 
tered city roofs, spires, and stacks, while still farther 
are the distant hills. Although this side of the house is 
treated with restraint in the use of decoration, as is the 
front, still the general effect is lighter. The door, 
wholly glazed, has a wooden enframement projecting 
just far enough to carry a very shallow iron balcony. It 
gives access by some half dozen steps to the level of the 
small formal garden with its flanking pavilions. The 
dining and living rooms are marked by generous semi- 
circular bays with windows reaching quite to the floor. 
The central gable instead of carrying a straight pedi- 
ment line is broken in an 
interesting manner. Every- 
where is a pleasant play of 
light and shade, the effect ob- 
tained always by the simplest 
methods. A comparison with 
the street front is instructive. 
There we find a simplicity 
amounting almost to severity, 
while heie, where more pri- 
vacy may be expected, a 
more informal character is 
arrived at. 

To return to a study of the 
various rooms of the interior; 
one enters into the hall proper 
through a vestibule, the mar- 
ble floor of which has a pat- 
tern marked out by setting 
some of the joints in brass. 
Here the floor is of quartered 
oak. The walls are paneled 
and painted to the second floor 
level. The stair treads, rails, 
balusters, and posts, are ma- 
hogany, while the risers are 
of pine painted. The floor of 
the broad landing over the front door is of mahogan)', 
while that of the second floor above is of red birch with 
the finish in pine painted. The walls are plastered and 
painted, and the ceiling covered with tinted canvas. 
The treatment of the hall is quite Georgian, and very 
interesting, with its heavily moulded panels, turned 
balusters and the limited use of mahogany. 

On the first floor the library to the left of the hall, and 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 




eizK3c 


f 1 


JTCTE 


WWM^S^^^^^ 


\.OCD 


^■; y^;^ 


PL.'sjyru?- 


I?-;:-.,;-.-:-:::! 




1 1 




1 1 




1 1 




DET?\IL5 or LMNG ROOM 

HOU3E AT 

nrCHBURiS MA53 



'C 




i:x:tail eueswion cf 

'fteeplace overmantel &■wm^dg^t 

to dininc. room 




•W G RAN'IOUL. AECHT 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




MANTEL IN DINING ROOM. 



MANTEL IN LIVING ROOM. 




STAIR HALL. 



EN I RANCE. 



HOUSE AT KITCHBURG, MASS. 
William G. Rantoul, Architect. 



lO 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



the den to the right, have floors of American quartered 
oak. In the library the finish is of St. Jago mahogany. 
The paneled dado and bookcases are carried up to the 
height of 4 feet 8 inches, and above that the walls are 
covered with a dark paper. The ceiling beams are of 
mahogany finish, and the plaster of the ceiling is covered 
with canvas and tinted. The finish in the den on the 
other hand which is carried to the same height, 4 feet 
8 inches, is of quartered oak. The fireplace here has a 
limestone mantel, while that in the library is of mahog- 
any with a marble fire opening. 

The living room opens by wide sliding doors into the 
dining room, hall and library, and by French windows on 
to the living porch and to the lower garden level. The 
bay window, measuring 14 feet across, gives an outlook 
over the entire grounds. The floor similar to all the first 
floor rooms is of oak, in this case with a border pattern. 
The dado is of pine 2 feet 6 inches high with moulded 
cap and base, treated with applied papier-mache orna- 
ment, and painted. The wall covering is of a warm 



In the dining room the paneling from floor to cornice, 
is of dark quartered oak. The mantel is reminiscent of 
some of the mantels still found in a few of the older 
Boston houses in the neighborhood of Mount Vernon 
street. The mantel and fire opening are of black marble. 
The robust Ionic columns with their well turned capitals 
carry a simple entablature. Above the mantel is a 
beautiful oak panel, balanced by two vertical strips of 
black walnut. Strips of black walnut are introduced at 
various points throughout the paneling, giving it added 
interest. The cornice, of plaster, is very rich. The 
mouldings are less delicate than in the living room b;it 
in perfect accord with the character of the room's treat- 
ment. 

In the service portion of the first floor the floors are of 
(Georgia rift hard pine except in the kitchen where maple 
is used. The finish throughout this portion of the house 
is whitewood. 

On the .second floor the bedrooms and corridors have 
red birch floors with three course borders. The finish 




GARAGE AND STABLE. 



brown tone, with a cornice of plaster, instead of the 
wooden cornice, as in the hall. The ceiling is dropped 
to a lower level in the recesses at each side of the fire- 
place and in the bay window. 

Particular attention may be called to the treatment of 
the mantels in both dining and living rooms. The two 
rooms are entirely diff'erent in character and the mantels 
of both are well in keeping with their surroundings. In 
the living room the mantel and the hearth are of marble 
with the lining of soapstone. The design recalls the 
English (xeorgian and the treatment of mouldings and 
decoration with the delicate surface cutting is admirably 
adapted to the nature of the material. The carved and 
gilded mirror frame above, adds an interesting detail. 



of the base, cornice, and picture moulding is of pine. 
The ceilings are tinted. The bathrooms throughout have 
tile floors and 4 foot tile dados. Above that the walls are 
plastered and painted. 

On the third floor are servants' rooms, servants' bath, 
a trunk room, and a large children's play room where 
small dances may also be held. 

The stable and garage need little comment. The 
stable has accommodations for three horses, a carriage 
room, and coachman's quarters on the second floor. The 
garage is a one story wing with space for four machines. 
The foundations where they appear above grade are of 
seam faced granite. The walls above are of brick as in 
the house. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 1. PLATE L 





HOUSE AT FlTCHbL ASS. 

William G. Rantoul, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 1. PLATE 2. 



"'<:---^' .W» 




HOUSE AT FITCHBURG, MASS. 
William G. Ramtoul, Architect. 




/ 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 20, NO. 1. PLATE 3. 





PUBLIC LIBRARY, BROOKLINE, MASS. 

R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO 1. PLATE 4. 




izix 

T Coo 

uj q; o 

■O U. C^ 




THE B R I C K B IT I L D E R . 

VOL. 20, NO. 1. PLATE 5. 



(!?■,■! 



1! 



fl 



H— »■ - r 



PUBLIC LIBR.\RYOF BROOKLINE .M.^SS 



ELEVATION 




'r^ 



H- . 




1' 






'- 


1- . 












LAULALALAlh 



FULL SIZE OF BOOKCASE 



•^ inci; j/f s d 
book] room 



,4^^tfet|| 



u 



'■;%''yA<<' 



:^ 



ELEVATIO-^ CF SIDE OF ROCM 



.M LDG B 



V/////'/ 



m 



w 




SECTIO.S 
A-A 



f 






SECTION CC 



SECTION B-B 



\~S>/' /■■'/,■ ryi'ufy ' 



FULL51ZE5 OF LOBBY 












'^ci' 



SECTION ^■ 

i— T 



SCALE or 
PERIODICAL ROO.M 



P L A. N 



J_J^ 



y/ 



I 




m 



slctiom: 

S--5 






^ 



■>'<>^ F 5 PERIODICAL R^L® 



INTERIOR DETAILS, PUBLIC LIBRARY, BROOKLINE, MASS. 

R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 1. PLATE 6. 






< 

z 

o 
o 

K 

CQ 

>-' 

< 
cc 

CQ 

o 

J 

CQ 
D 



^ 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 20. NO. I. PLATE 7. 




w -a « 1 '1 




WINSOR SCHOOL, BROOKLINE, MASS. 

R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 1. PLATE 8. 



'->^^^ 





'^^^'i'^j^^:9j¥fii!!^-. 



WJNSOR SCHOOL, BROOKLINE, MASS. 
R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 



-^> 



THE B R I C K B U I L I) E R . 

VOL 20. NO. 1. PLATE 9. 




THE B R 1 C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 20. NO 1. 



PLATE 10. 




(/J 

< 

QQ ot 

J <^ 
O z 

p 

1 ^ 

U =i 
OT O 

cc ^ 
o 

OT 

z 



THE B R I C R B U I L D E R . 

VOL, 20. NO. 1. PLATE II. 




I 





CHELSEA CITY HALL, CHELSEA, MASS. 

Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 1. PLATE 12 




THE B R I C K B IM L D E R . 

VOL. 20, NO. 1. PLATE 13. 




INCH , ;,; liTAIL^ 

• Am mumcn 

CHEL.3CACITT HALL 



i^ t^ t 






CHELSEA CITY HALL, CHELSEA, MASS. 

Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL 20. NO. 1. PLATE 14. 




H- 



V) 

in 
< 

< . 

O < 



J 5 

H o 

— ' o 

o 5 

UJ 

< CL 

u 

U 

u 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



1 1 



The Manual Trainino: Hi^rh School. — I. 



BY WILLIAM B. ITTNER. 



HIGH SCHOOLS in which manual training is taught 
along with the ordinary high school studies are 
called Manual Training or Mechanic Arts High Schools. 
Schools of this character are of comparatively recent 
date, and when designed to meet a general need should 
not be confounded with special schools such as commer- 
cial high schools, technical high schools for boys, techni- 
cal high schools for girls, english high schools, classical 
high schools, and high schools of all sorts wherein all the 
courses are not offered. 

The high school course of study, which in the past has 
had for its chief function the preparation of its students 
to enter college, is rapidly giving way to a system de- 
signed to equip them for their future work. The growing 
demand of the industrial world for intelligence and skill 
can best be met by schools designed to train and educate 
the hand as well as the brain, and the schools best de- 
signed and equipped for this purpose will accomplish the 
greatest good for the people in any community. 

The Manual Training School of Washington University 
in St. Louis was the first institution of high school grade 
to make instruction in the mechanic arts an essential part 
of its curriculum. Through the efforts of Prof. Calvin 
M. Woodward and a number of public-spirited men it 
opened its doors in 1880 to a system of education which 
would fit young men for the actual duties of life in a 
direct and positive manner, while imparting a sound lit- 
erary and scientific training. 

To quote from a recent catalogue of the school: " The 
conspicuous result of thirty years of manual training is 
that the young men thus trained have brought to the 
ordinary duties and responsibilities of life an intellectual 
and mental grasp of actual conditions which has at once 
gained for them a clear advantage. They have shown 
that some mechanical skill and a great deal of mechanical 
comprehension and power of mechanical analysis have 
been valuable assets and not unfit accompaniments of 
refined tastes and good manners. The training has 
opened new avenues of usefulness to many a lad, and 
has enabled many others to choose their occupations more 
wisely, either in the direction of the industrial arts or in 
other fields. The success of the graduates has been re- 
markable; and inconsequence manual training schools, 
on public or private foundations, have been established 
in nearly every large city in the country." 

It is only within recent years that buildings wholly 
designed for instruction in manual training have been 
erected. This course of study has been introduced in 
many school systems by altering or enlarging existing 
buildings to meet the needs of modest or experimental 
beginnings. 

Among the first buildings of the country planned for 
instruction in manual training in connection with public 
instruction were the Wm. McKinley and James E. Yate- 
man Manual Training High Schools of St. Louis. These 
buildings were opened in 1904 and were planned to house 
all the manual training and domestic science branches in 
addition to those of the regular high school course of 



study. They also included instruction in woodworking, 
wood turning, and pattern making; moulding, forge, and 
machine work; free-hand and mechanical drawing; book- 
keeping and stenography ; cooking, sewing, and laundry 
work. 

The success of these pioneer buildings was such as to 
fix, for a time at least, the type for this class of school 
buildings. In these earlier buildings, however, the course 
of study was in its formative period, and it is only at the 
present time that educators have arrived at anything ap- 
proximating a general agreement on the course of study. 

In most cases the instruction in manual training and 
domestic science is optional with the students and there 
is very little definite data upon which to fix the proportion 
between class room, laboratory, and shop. The neces- 
sity therefore of a flexible plan, or one which will permit 
of easy adjustment to meet the crowding or abnormal 
growth of any of its departments and their future exten- 
sion, is of the utmost importance. This, together with 
the intricate equipment to be provided — proper heating 
and ventilating, and the introduction of a mechanical 
plant — combine to make the problem of planning far 
from the ordinary. 

Before considering the plans of individual buildings it 
will be proper to take up the general plan requirements of 
a manual training high school. 

One of three plans may be adopted. If the school is to 
have study halls or session rooms three stations must be 
provided for each pupil, one in the shop or laboratory, 
one in the study room, and one in the recitation room. 
It is therefore readily seen that a plan which attempts 
such accommodation is the most expensive one which 
can be adopted. Its advantages however lie in the fact 
that it will provide the most elastic plan, permit of the 
greatest possible liberty in the organization of the 
classes and furnish the maximum accommodation. 

A second plan and one which is growing in favor aban- 
dons the study hall or session rooms and provides class 
rooms of standard size. These rooms seat from thirty- 
five to fifty pupils, or two classes, and while one cla.ss 
is at study the other is reciting. A building on this plan 
therefore is reduced in cubic contents by the space occu- 
pied by the large study halls and is conseciuently less 
expensive. At the same time its elasticity is retained 
provided the proportion between class room, shop, and 
special room has been well considered along with the 
course of study. 

The third and most economical plan is one in wliich all 
special rooms are counted as class rooms in the organiza- 
tion of the school. All rooms are used throughout the 
school day either for the special work for which they arc 
designed or by a class at recitation or study. A building 
of this character has reached its limit of accommodation 
when each room has its quota of pupils and will admit of 
no over-crowding or enlargement of the course of study 
for which it has been arranged. 

Having determined on the general plan of our building, 
a consideration of its component parts will be in order. 



12 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Class Units. Schools are built with or without study 
halls or session rooms. If planned with study halls the 
class room is reduced to a recitation room accommoda- 
ting about thirty pupils. Each room is fitted with recita- 
tion or tablet armchairs, and such rooms are best small, 
18 to 21 by 24 feet being a good size. They should be 
unilaterally lighted upon the long axis of the room. 

Where class rooms are used both for study and recita- 
tions they should be of such area as will accommodate 
two classes, or from thirty-five to fifty pupils in single 
desks. An ideal size for such a room is 24 feet by 
3Z feet 6 inches and it should be lighted on one side only 
with windows having a glass area from one-fifth to one- 
fourth of the floor area. 

Study rooms are often found seating from two hundred 
to three hundred or more pupils. A better practice would 
be to reduce the number of pupils in such rooms to 
about one hundred and fifty. A room 30 by 62 feet will 
accommodate this number in single desks, enable proper 
lighting, give a better distribution of the pupils on the 
various floors of the building, aid the school manage- 
ment in supervision, and enable students' prompt ar- 
rival at recitations. Study rooms should be fitted with 
single desks, and provided with a platform for the 
teacher. 

Class rooms and study halls should be conveniently 
located with respect to stairways, laboratory, and 
shop. Much can be accomplished in their judicious 
placing to minimize horizontal travel distance and stair 
climbing. 

Laboratories. These may receive their light from 
two sides if desired as the pupil has opportunity to adjust 
his position to the light, a condition which is lacking in 
the class room. Oblong rooms with approximate dimen- 
sions of 21 to 30 feet in width and 45 to 60 feet in length 
are better than rooms of square dimensions. The equip- 
ment should be so arranged that the pupil faces the in- 
structor and receives the maximum amount of light from 
the left. 

Laboratories should open en suite with lecture rooms 
which should be arranged with raised tiers of seats fitted 
with tablet armchairs brought as close as may be to the 
instructor's table. In the absence of the lecture rooms 
sufficient floor space should be allowed at the instructor's 
table in the laboratory for the massing of the pupils dur- 
ing demonstrations. 

Each laboratory should have its instructor's work and 
storeroom. This should be well lighted, ample in size, 
and fitted with a workbench, sink and storage cases for 
the more delicate and valuable apparatus. For chemistry 
and physics a dark room will be found of value. 

The student tables in the chemistry laboratory should 
be provided with sinks, gas hoods, and reagent racks. 
A small conservatory for the botany laboratory and an 
aquarium for both botany and physiology laboratories 
will be found helpful to house and germinate the water 
plants and animal life used in the laboratory. 

The instructors' tables should be fitted with sinks hav- 
ing a wood cover ; there should be a sliding blackboard 
behind each table. Each laboratory and lecture room 
should be equipped with lantern for lecture use. 

Physics, chemistry, botany and physiology la1)oratories 
should be equipped with gas and hot and cold water. 



Physics and chemistry rooms should also have electric 
outlets at all tables. 

Each laboratory should be provided with a sufficient 
number of wall cases to house the apparatus. They 
should be designed for their particular uses and in stand- 
ard units if possible. Students' individual working 
tools are best stored in drawers in the workbench or 
table. A note-book case with writing top will be found 
a valuable addition to the physics and chemistry 
laboratories. 

Commercial Rooms. In a fully equipped school a 
business and typewriting room will be found necessary. 
The equivalent of three class units will be necessary for 
this purpose. The business room may be fitted with 
specially designed desks or in a more modest equipment 
the ordinary single pupil's desk will be found to answer 
the purpose. Space should be provided for the bank and 
business houses behind screens with pass windows and 
standing desk. A storage case should be provided to 
hold the blanks used by the students. 

The typewriting room should be fitted with the neces- 
sary number of typewriting desks and the space may be 
economized by grouping two or more students at a single 
table. 

Drawing. The free-hand drawing and art rooms 
should occupy the space of two or more class units. 
They should receive north light preferably through 
toothed skylight (studio light) with its base about 7 feet 
from the floor. They should be etjuipped with storage 
case for the pupils' drawing boards and materials, ad- 
justable drawing tables, small tables for still-life sub- 
jects, a model table for life posing, zinc lined storage 
case for modeling clay and work, and sinks. A cork 
panel on the wall opposite the skylight will be of aid to 
the instructor in arranging and criticizing class work and 
for exhibitions; the best grades of cork carpet answer 
the purpose admirably. 

Mechanical drawing is required of all the students in 
manual training and the equivalent of two class units 
will be recjuired. They should be well lighted and 
equipped with drawing tables, drawing boards and tools. 
An economical method of storing the same is efi^ected 
by a special designed drawing table holding the boards 
as well as the students' individual tools. There should 
also be a large table with drawing top and drawers and 
a blueprinting frame. 

Domestic Science. This department will require a 
room for cooking with storeroom, one or preferably two 
sewing rooms with fitting rooms and a laundry. These 
rooms are best if conveniently grouped with sunny ex- 
posure and good light. 

The cooking room should be ot ample proportion (about 
one and one-half class units will suffice) and should be 
equipped with a cooking table arranged to hold the in- 
dividual working kits, and provided with corner sinks. 
A gas burner and portable oven will be required for each 
student and a combination gas and coal range will com- 
plete the equipment. In the more elaborate rooms an 
electric oven will be recjuired for demonstrations by the 
teacher. 

A convenient, well lighted storeroom with small re- 
frigerator for perishable supplies is a necessity. A great 
deal will be added to the effectiveness of the instruction 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



13 



by providing a small model dining room where the girls 
may be instructed in table setting and serving. In fact 
the most complete equipments demand a housekeeping 
suite consisting of bedroom, dining room, pantry, and 
kitchen, all fully furnished for instruction in household 
duties. 

The laundry will require the space of a class unit and 
should be equipped with a nest of laundry tubs, a clothes 
drier and stationary ironing boards equipped with electric 
irons. 

One or more sewing rooms are necessary. These may 
be of class unit size and should have a fitting room. Each 
room should be equipped with sewing tables and ma- 
chines. The tables should be arranged to hold the stu- 
dents' caps, aprons and work, or storage cases should be 
provided for the purpose. The fitting room should have 
storage cases for materials and the hanging of unfinished 
garments, a fitting platform, skirt and bust forms, and a 
pier mirror. Both the fitting and sewing room should 
have a fixed ironing board with electric iron. 
\J Manual Training. The woodworking room should 
be of ample floor space (not less than 40 square feet per 
pupil) to accommodate classes of from twenty-four to 
thirty pupils. 

The benches should be substantial and rigidly secured 
to the floor and should be provided with drawers to hold 
the individual tools. The tools used in common should 
be conveniently arranged on the bench back. 

If floor space will permit an instructor's bench sur- 
rounded with a raised tier of seats will aid the instructor 
in his work. A grindstone, glue heater, and glue bench 
will complete the equipment of the shop. 

The wood turning room should be somewhat larger 
than the woodworking room as the benches must be en- 
larged to receive the lathes. These may be of the belt 
or individual motor driven type. The equipment will be 
complete with a tool room where the tools used in com- 
mon by the students are stored ; a storage room arranged 
with coils for the storage and drying of the lumber; a 
preparation room containing a cross-cut saw, circular 
saw, and motor where the lumber is cut to shape for 
class exercises, and a small room where the articles are 
varnished and finished. This room should have a fire- 
proof receptacle to hold the paint, oil, and varnish. 

A moulding room to accommodate twenty-four pupils 
should be 24 to 30 feet wide and about 40 feet in length. 
This will provide the necessary space for the moulding 
troughs, melting furnaces, and floor space for making 
up and pouring the flasks. A cupola furnace is not 
necessary as it is only in the more elaborate schools 
that iron moulding is attempted. A small furnace for 
the melting of soft metals is all that is required in a 
majority of cases. 

The forge room should be equipped for from twenty 
to twenty-four pupils and will require a floor area of 40 
square feet per pupil. It should be equipped with down 
draft forges and underground piping. A room to con- 
tain the fan, blower, and motor is a necessity. A drill 
press, punch and shears, a power hammer, a wet grinder 
and a filing bench for each two students will complete 
the equipment for this room. 

The machine shop should be about 24 by 60_feet. This 
will afford the necessary floor space for the machines and 



filing benches. Machine tools to accommodate sixteen 
students is all that is required as the number in the 
fourth year's work will rarely exceed this. The ma- 
chines should be of standard make and selected for sim- 
plicity rather than complication, while one or two of 
the more elaborate tools may be installed for the use of 
the more skilled pupils and the instructor. 

Gymnasia. If physical training is to be compulsory 
two gymnasia will be found a necessity. The minimum 
size of these rooms would be 25 to .30 by 7S feet, and 
the minimum story height would be 14 feet. The ideal 
size would be 50 by 80 feet with a story height of 18 
feet. Besides the necessary apparatus the rooms should 
be provided with steel storage cases for dumb-bells, 
Indian clubs, and wands. Dressing rooms equipped with 
lockers for sections of fifty pupils each with one or two 
showers for the girls and showers and plunge for the 
boys will add much to the completeness of the eciuipment. 

Opinions ditTer widely on the practicability of a run- 
ning track as they can only be installed in the larger 
rooms, are seldom used in class work, and are very ex- 
pensive. Unless the conditions are most favorable for 
their installation they had better be omitted. 

LiiiRARY. A manual training school is not complete 
without its library or reference reading room. This is 
the room in which the pupil will spend his unoccupied 
periods and it should be well lighted and equipped with 
reading tables and metal book stacks. 

If the school is of large dimension a separate book or 
stack room will be found a necessity and the equipment 
should be such as is found in public libraries. 

Rest Rooms. There should be rest rooms for both 
teachers and pupils. Large rooms are not necessary but 
they should be well located and equipped for the use of 
pupils and teachers who are indisposed and who need 
simple medical attention with an opportunity for rest 
and relaxation. 

Auditorium. The growing demand for the use of high 
school auditoriums for evening lectures and purposes 
other than strictly school use demands that they be located 
on the ground or first floor, and near the main entrance of 
the building. They should be capable of seating the 
entire school, should be well lighted with the windows 
arranged for darkening curtains, and should be provided 
with sufficient exits to enable their vacation within two 
minutes. It goes without saying that auditoriums are 
strictly speaking-halls and should be proportioned to 
obtain the best acoustic results. 

The stage should be of ample proportions with suffi- 
cient width to accommodate the stage setting for the 
class plays, large choruses, and other exercises. 

Offick. The administrative office of the building 
should consist of a general and private office, a small 
reception room, and a storage vault for records. The 
group should be located near the main entrance and con- 
veniently arranged to facilitate the work of the .school. 

LocKKRS. The practice of lining the corridors of a 
high school with lockers should not be encouraged. 
Lockers should be placed in large well lighted and venti- 
lated rooms where they can receive proper supervision 
and care. If for economical reasons they are placed in 
corridors they should be recessed and ventilated by a 
system of ducts exhausting the air from the corridors. 



14 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Lunch Room. The lunch room forms a very necessary 
part of a large high school. The short lunch period pre- 
vents all except those living in the immediate vicinity of 
the school from leaving the building at noon. The room 
should be ample in size and equipped with long serving 
counters and a kitchen with convenient service entrance. 

Storerooms. A modern high school requires two or 
more storerooms to hold the great quantity of supplies 
needed by the students. Such rooms should be ample in 
size, well lighted and arranged with convenient shelving 
and a work table. 

A janitor's room of good dimensions equipped with 
lockers and a storage room for the cleaning supplies is 
also a necessity and should be located on the ground 
floor. 

Corridors and Stairw.ws. As all students in a high 
school are compelled to change from room to room be- 
tween class periods, it follows that the corridors and stair- 
ways should be ample to hold the entire student body at 
one time in order that the change may be made promptly 
and without confusion. The corridors should be wide 
and well lighted having 15 feet as a minimum width for 
main corridors and 10 feet for secondary corridors. Class 
room doors opening into corridors of less width will ob- 
struct the corridor and cause congestion and consequent 
confusion. 

The stairways should be well separated with a view of 
serving groups or tiers of rooms more or less correlated 
in the courses of instruction. This will minimize the 
travel distance between rooms and enable prompt re- 
sponse at classes. As the time allowed for change in 
classes is rarely more than three or four minutes the 
importance of the judicious planning of the stairways 
must be apparent. Again stairways are best when ar- 
ranged in double Hights, that is when the same are 
planned so that the file of pupils ascending is independ- 
ent of the file descending. Four and one-half and 5 



feet will be found the best width for stairways. There 
should be a continiious hand rail on each side of all runs. 

Mechanical Eyu'iPMENX. The heating and ventilating 
system should be designed to supply 40 cubic feet of air 
per pupil in class rooms and laboratories, and 70 cubic 
feet of air per seating in the auditorium. The school 
should be equipped also with a complete telephone sys- 
tem, program clock, and bell system; vacuum cleaning 
system ; and in most cases a power plant for the genera- 
tion of the electrical energy to drive its motors and 
furnish light. 

All mechanical equipment should be developed with 
the plan, and should be both modern and efficient. A 
successful building demands the careful consideration of 
its complete equipment and mechanical plant. The draw- 
ings and specifications should make ample and complete 
provision for the same, in order to avoid costly alterations 
and inadequate equipment provisions, or the inevitable 
result will be a non-workable school building. 

Cost. There are many instances where school com- 
mittees unhampered by lack of funds have been able to 
erect fully equipped high schools of monumental char- 
acter costing one-half million dollars or more. This 
however is the exception rather than the rule and most 
school authorities are confronted with the problem of 
obtaining maximum accommodation with limited funds. 
The need then of proper planning, the judicious use of 
materials, and restraint in design are of greatest impor- 
tance. The completion of the building proper is by no 
means the end of expenditures for the cost of fixed and 
working equipment will in most cases amount to from 
fifteen per cent to twenty-five per cent of the cost of the 
building when complete and ready to receive it. 

Plan and equipment are so varied that no fixed standard 
of costs can be given but a reference to the cost of the 
completed buildings which will be described in following 
articles will serve for illustration. 




CHURCHILL S RESTAURANT, 49TH STREET AND BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY. 

Robert Baer, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

The Principles of Architecture. — L 



l;V WII.I.IAM I.. MOWl.L. 



The Bkginninc; ok the 

BY FAR the greater number of those who have aimed 
to interpret this art have proceeded by relating its 
history. Few of the adequate histories make an appeal 
to the general reader. In the shorter histories it has 
been necessary, on account of the periods of time to be 
covered and the space occupied in the mere naming of 
countries and of architects and buildings with their 
dates, to exclude the greater part of the discussion of 
the dependence of architecture upon construction and 
upon the character and general activities of the nations 
that produced it, that would naturally have been included 
except for that pressure. The very bulk of architectural 
history makes its general familiarity impracticable. 
Sensibility to fine architecture cannot to advantage be 
trained exclusively on the admiration of the work of 
other generations. The success and growth of the art of 
architecture depend on current appreciation; since there 
is not time in the individual existence to prepare for this 
by a long study of history from which shall be deduced 
principles of correct procedure, it becomes necessary to 
depend upon the results of the research of others, to base 
judgment on rules which are the summing up of past ex- 
perience. Even for the student of architecture, however, 
there are only meager presentations of those lawsof design 
which have emerged from all the study of the history of 
this art to which the profession has necessarily given itself. 

Architecture may be enjoyed without elaborate histori- 
cal knowledge if it is studied with the aid of the ideas 
of abstract design, observing the interrelations between 
the use, the construction and the arrangement of the 
parts of each composition. This method of approach 
has the advantage of proceeding to the study of a build- 
ing itself rather than its ance.stors. It may use as the 
material of its study contemporary art. It has the 
further advantage of preparing for some degree of enjoy- 
ment in any kind of architecture, whether in the manner 
of those periods in which the art rose to its highest 
levels and there was the most intimate relation between 
the construction and the appearance of the finished build- 
ing, or in the manner of those other periods commonly 
asserted to be less fortunate, when the decorative result 
was more independent of the construction. 

Architecture is the art of building in accordance with 
the laws of fitness, stability and expression; or, "archi- 
tecture is the art of building in accordance with the laws 
of expression," for all building necessarily involves fit- 
ness and stability. Expression alone is lacking to raise 
any construction into the realm of architecture. 

Besides achieving practical fitness it is the duty of the 
architect to so design that not only shall the dimensions 
and arrangement accommodate the physical activities for 
which the structure is intended, but that it shall also be 
suitable to the inherent character of its use. As distin- 
guished from practical fitness this may be described as a 
fitness to ideals or spiritual fitness. 

Architecture is replete with illustrations of the truth 
that any kind of order may be pleasing even when the 
forms which are arranged are indifferent or ugly. This 



Sti i)Y or Architecture. 

is certainly not to argue that the parts so disposed 
need not be cared for as appeared to be the case in 
Barocque architecture, but only that order is essential 
and contributes to beauty. Beyond the field of order as 
an element of satisfaction, the relation of the appear- 
ance to the actual constitution of the structure is an- 
other analyzable form of beauty, for which laws may 
be stated and the appreciation of which may be devel- 
oped by study. ( )rganic beauty is a source of esthetic 
pleasure, not, it is true, immediate in its appreciation as 
is intrinsic beauty but depending upon a more or less 
conscious analysis of the object and upon a perception of 
the harmony between its parts and their functions, such 
as occurs, for example, in the relation between the forms 
and arrangements of walls, piers and arches, their man- 
ner of enclosing or supporting, and in their mutual ad- 
justments. So far only do laws of beauty exist that 
may be stated and their application observed. Intrinsic 
beauty which lies beyond the kinds already mentioned is 
unanalyzable and the capacity for its appreciation is only 
to be cultivated by the developnient of such faculties as 
the individual may possess and in a suitable environ- 
ment. Beauty in architecture is, after all, — and it is to 
be suspected that this is true of other arts as well — a 
by-product of expression. 

This brief indication of the possibilities of expression 
applies equally well to stability which with fitness makes 
up the subject matter of the expression of architecture. 
The stability of a building depends upon comparatively 
simple laws. There is, however, no necessity for the 
layman to study mathematics and construction in order 
to appreciate architecture. The visible portions of the 
perfect work of architecture explain the parts of the 
construction of which they form a part or to which they 
are applied. This they may do by giving assurances as 
to the properties of the materials employed. In a rusti- 
cated block of stone, the shape is made conspicuous. The 
harder and tougher the stone the longer it may be in re- 
lation to its height. The emphasis upon its shape 
declares the qualities that directed its choice. This is 
the beginning of the function of expression in architec- 
ture,- to make clear at a glance the relative properties of 
the materials involved, such as their aliility to resist 
crushing or pulling apart, and to set in evidence their 
texture or color or, further, to bring out their qualities 
by the character of the carving or modeling. The fail- 
ure on the part of the factory and the railroad bridge to 
be more interesting than they already are lies in just this 
particular. Already, in many cases, having some or- 
ganic beauty, they fail because of incomplete expression. 
The enjoyable structure is such because it is intelligible. 
The base upon the ground, the mounting of the successive 
stages one upon another and the termination of the work 
above, with suitable emphases upon the junctions and the 
ties and thrusts of all the combinations of materials, may 
each be made to tell its story to the beholder who 
cares to stop and look. All this variety of detailed em- 
phasis and explanation is not however indispensable to 



i6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



every work of architecture. Architects have always felt 
at liberty to pass over facts with regard to materials, to 
cover up facts with regard to structural systems where 
the crowding forward of so many different interests 
would withdraw attention from the central, all important 
idea. In Byzantine architecture for instance the mate- 
rials which were available for the actual structural por- 
tions were not suited in quality to the sentiment of the 
builders. They desired a richer and more splendid effect 
than could be had in the brick of which their piers, walls 
and vaults are built. Their resources made available 
beside the brick splendid variegated marbles and glass 
mosaic, materials not at all adapted to structural pur- 
poses as they are too precious to use in masses As a 
result the construction was completely covered up. 
Falsehood however has the same practical effect in art 
as in life; always discovered, it weakens the force of any 
subsequent statement. Truth in art makes for interest, 
for credence and for beauty. The force of the appeal 
which the finished work makes depends on the arrange- 
ment of the elements ; and this frequently requires that 
many facts be passed over lightly in order that a few 
may make a strong impression. 

To establish the idea that an architectural composition 
may be expressive is to arouse an interest in reading 
that expression. Yet any composition as a whole is a 
complex affair, difficult to put together and, to one de- 
siring to understand it, presenting a baffling array of 
phases. To make the study simpler the forms of which 
a composition is made up may be separated into groups 
according to their purposes. To state again classifica- 
tions already suggested, the elements of an architectural 
composition are the forms of use, the forms of structure 
and the forms of expression. 

In the first place the whole structure is, so to speak, 
built around the idea of the edifice and forms a mould of 
it. The building forms which fit the contained ideas are 
conveniently called the forms of use for they satisfy 
either practical or ideal necessities. Of a house the 
forms of use are the living room, dining room, and so 
on ; and these are in detail such as are dictated by the 
habits of existence of those who are to live in them. 
Of a schoolhouse the class rooms, coat rooms, and assem- 
bly hall are the forms of use. In a church the audito- 
rium, the Sunday school rooms, the library and so on, 
together with the dome or the spire constitute the 
forms of use of its composition, part of them practical, 
part ideal. Since, in every instance, these forms are first 
to be considered in any movement to erect a building it 
might seem that they should be the starting point of the 
study of composition, but engineers study the arrange- 
ment for example, of factories, without trespassing upon 
the field of the architect, who must proceed beyond me- 
chanical satisfaction and give meaning and life to the 
forms of use and substance to the ideas that relate to 
them. His means are first, those common to expression 
in general as in language, that is, selection and arrange- 
ment. He cannot stop at the point where the plan is 
merely practically efficient but must produce a result 
which is clear and understandable or even striking. It 
is impossible however to consider these forms without 
involving notions of the structural forms in which they 
are realized. Limitations of greater or less extent are 



imposed upon the size and shape of rooms or halls by 
the means of building. 

The attention might then be turned first to forms of 
structure setting aside for the time the study of the forms 
of use which are produced with their aid. This would 
place foremost a study of walls and piers, beams and 
arches, flooring and ceiling systems and so on. The same 
general possibility of expression by selection and arrange- 
ment exists for the construction but with greater limita- 
tions. There is less freedom of arrangement because 
each kind of construction has its peculiar restrictions. 
The length of a stone lintel for instance fixes the maxi- 
mum distance between columns and when the arrangement 
is settled upon, whether from esthetic or constructive 
reasons, mere revelation or even more or less arbitrary 
modification in size does not constitute expression or 
enough differentiate the results from those of engineering. 

At this point recourse has been had from the very be- 
ginnings of the art to certain added forms which assist 
in the expression of the forms of structure. The capitals 
and bases of columns and their flutes, cornices and 
mouldings have in general no structural function what- 
ever but esthetic or expressive functions only. Not the 
mouldings or other decoration but the expression added 
to building makes it architecture, whether this be achieved 
by selection, or invention, and arrangement, or by the use 
of those explanatory and emphatic additions usually 
spoken of as decoration, which it seems suitable to call 
the " forms of expression." 

The detail of architecture which is worthy of examina- 
tion at all includes the simplest and most indivisible 
forms of any architectural composition. When each 
form added to the bare strxicture or each modification of 
the forms of the materials and structural systems is re- 
garded as not superficial or purely arbitrary but as sig- 
nificant, then these forms assume a very considerable 
importance. The study of the decoration is the avenue 
in the first place to a knowledge of materials. Besides 
this they furnish emphases and explanations of structure 
and still further often act as guides to the location, im- 
portance and sentiment either of the forms of use them- 
selves or of the whole structure. The forms of expression 
of all the " styles " are of the same general kinds. .Some 
such as reliefs and statues, mosaics and paintings are 
symbolic. By means of images of well known forms 
they arouse associated ideas and thus convey suggestions 
of the character of the edifice upon which they are 
placed. They may by their presence at an important 
part of the composition guide the attention or even the 
actual bodily movement of the beholder to an intended 
part. Beside being symbolic they are thus emphatic, 
calling attention for instance to a principal room or a 
main entrance. Another class of these forms may be 
distinguished which is emphatic only and which does not 
convey or suggest definite ideas. This latter group in- 
cludes all the isolated, added forms of expression which 
are not representative. Lowest of all in the class of 
simply emphatic forms of architecture are the mouldings 
and just because of the simplicity of the meaning of these 
forms and the gateway that their study affords to an un- 
derstanding of materials and structural systems and of 
the principles of design, with them the most favorable 
beginning may be made upon the study of architecture. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



17 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



THE COMPETITION FOR A HOTEL IN AN 
AMERICAN CITY OF MODERATE SIZE. 

Award of Prizes. 

THE Jury for the Hotel Competition, which was the 
problem for the last annual Terra Cotta Competi- 
tion conducted by The Brickbuilder, awarded First 
Prize ($500) to William La Zinsk and Dwight James 
Baum, associated, New York City; Second Prize ($2S0) 
to Henry Ihmsen Hellmuth and Charles H. Conrad, asso- 
ciated. New York City; Third Prize ($150) to C. H. Ditt- 
mer and C. D. Loomis, associated, New York City; 
Fourth Prize ($100) to Frederick J Larson, Boston; First 
Mention to J. Victor Vanderbilt, Minneapolis, Minn. ; 
Second Mention to Walter Watson Cook, Boston ; Third 
Mention to George F. 
Blount and John M. Gray, 
associated, Boston; Fourth 
Mention to Albert M. 
Kirschbaum and Joseph J. 
Gander, associated. New 
York City; Fifth Mention 
to William Adams and 
Charles Cleary, associated, 
Boston; Sixth Mention to 
William R. Schmitt, New 
York City. The competi- 
tion was judged in 
New York, January 
21st, by Messrs. 
Donn Barber, Ar- 
nold W. Brunner, 
Henry J. Harden- 
bergh, Benjamin 
Wistar Morris, and 
Philip Sawyer. 



PLATE ILLUS- 
TRATIONS- 
DESCRIPTION. 

Public Library, 
Brookline, Mass. 
Plates 3-6. The 
exterior treatment 
of this building is 
of buff Indiana 
limestone and dark 
red common sand 
struck Dutch brick. 
The flat roofs are 
covered and flashed 
up and under para- 
pets with plastic slate 




exterior and interior OI- cafe and RATHSKELLAK, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The interior is laid in rough cut " Persian " brick of deep brown and purple hues, furnislied 

by O. W. Kctchain. 
Vogt & Morrill, Architects. 



rooms are covered with plaster, while those in the rear 
" Book Room " are of oak paneled to the ceiling. The 
design of the rear " Book Room" is arranged with al- 
coves similar to an English College library. The exhi- 
bition room on the second floor has "Monk's Cloth" 
stretched over wood sheathing on terra cotta and brick 
backing. All partitions are of brick and terra cotta with 
considerable wire lath. The heating and ventilating 
systems consist of hot water and direct heat, supple- 
mented by fresh air, exhaust fans and gravity vents. 
The exhaust fan system is used only for the children's 
rooms. The cost of building, including grading, walks, 
drives, etc., was $224,400.00 and the cost per cubic foot, 
M cents. In cubing the dimensions were taken from 
1 foot below the basement levels up to mean roof level — 

not counting parapets. 

WiNsoR School, Brook- 
i.iNK, ^L\ss. Plates 7 10. 
The exterior of this build- 
ing is treated with Indiana 
limestone and sand struck 
brick with copper roofing. 
The floors upon the interior 
are generally of linoleum ; 
those of the swimming pool 
room are terrazzo, while 
certain offices, the gym- 
nasium and the play 
rooms are wood on 
screeds. Burlap 
dadoes with tinted 
plaster above deco- 
rate the wall sur- 
faces. The roof 
frame is exposed in 
the play rooms on 
the third floor. All 
partitions are brick 
or terra cotta. The 
heating and venti- 
lating systems con- 
sist of direct steam 
supplemented by 
plenum fans. The 
school accommo- 
dates two hundred 
and fifty pupils. 
The cost per cubic 
foot was 2.i'/2 cents 
not including furni- 
ture and commis- 
sions. The cubage 
was taken from 



Upon the interior the floors of the 1 foot below basement floor to halfway up the pitched 

main entrance halls and vestibules are laid in Tennessee roof, 

marble and black slate, while the service corridors and Chelsea City Hall, Chelsea, Mass. 1 lates 11-14. 

toilets are in terrazzo All library floors are laid in cork This building is an example of the early Colonial style 

carpet except in the librarian's room and trustees' and follows in grouping the plan of the Independence 

room where wood block is used. The wall surfaces Hall, Philadelphia. The exterior is designed m brick 

above the wooden bookcases in the general reading with joints ruled deeply and trimmings of gray terra 



i8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



cotta. The roof is of slate with dormers, balustrades, 
etc., of copper. The main entrances have iron balus- 
trades with balconies of the same material above. The 
entrance vestibule and corridor are finished in marble and 
plaster, the corri- 
dor having a flat 
vault in the second 
story while the ves- 
tibule walls above 
the marble are 
treated in panels. 
The stair hall is 
decorated with 
plast er-panele d 
mouldings and 
vaulted ceiling. 
The staircase is of 
marble and iron. 
The two main 
rooms at the ends 
of the second story 
corridor are de- 
signed in wood and 
plaster with large 
panels and rich 
mouldings. The 
total cost of the 
building was $211,- 
000.00 exclusive of 
the furnishings, 
while the contents 
approximated 
750,000 cubic feet, 
the cubage being 
taken from the 
basement floor to 
the middle point of 
the roof. 



S U C C E S S F U L 
COMPETITORS 
FOR GOVERN- 
MENT OFFICES. 




H.AMPSO.^J BUII.DINC;, WATERHLKN, CO.NN. 

Trim of polychrome terra cotta made by Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

Griggs & Hunt, Architects. 



THE following 
announcement has been made with respect to the 
three new department buildings which are to be erected 
on Pennsylvania avenue facing the White House grounds, 
Washington. Arnold W. Brunner, a former member of 



the Art Commission of New York City, won the award 
for the State Department Building, to cost $2,200,000; 
Donn Barber was chosen for the Department of Justice 
Building, costing $1,900,000, and the firm of York & 

Sawyer secured the 
C om m e re e and 
Labor Building, 
which is estimated 
to cost $3,650,000. 
The successful 
architects will re- 
vise their designs, 
wherever practical, 
so that the group 
of three buildings 
will form a harmo- 
nious whole. The 
Department of 
Commerce Build- 
ing, the largest of 
the three, will oc- 
cupy the center, 
flanked on one side 
by the State De- 
partment and on 
the other by the 
Department of Jus- 
tice Building. 

These structures, 
designed in a sim- 
ple classic style, 
will be built of 
white marble, thus 
harmonizing with 
the House and 
Senate office build- 
ings, the new mu- 
nicipal building and 
the wings of the 
Capitol. Of the 
fifty-nine compe- 
ting architects, 
twenty-eight were 
from New York, the 
others included the 
leading architects of Boston, Philadelphia, St. Louis, 
Chicago, Washington, Cleveland, Detroit and one from 
San Francisco. Those who received honorable mention 
were James Ciamble Rogers, Warren & Wetmore and 




l)t,l All.. 

E.xecuted in faience by the Rookvvood Pottery Company for the 

Palm Room in the Hotel La Salle, Chicago. 

Holabird & Roche, Architects. 



DF.TAII.. 

E.xecuted by New York Architectural Tena Cotta Company. 

Schwartz & Gross, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



19 



Harold Magonigle, all of New York, in the .State Build- 
ing contest ; Cass Gilbert and Percy Griffin of New York, 
and Parker, Thomas & Rice of Boston for the Depart- 
ment of Justice; and for the Department 
of Commerce Building, Tracy, Swart- 
wout & Litchfield, Max Friedlander and 
George B. Post & Sons, all of New York. 
The committees of award for the three 
Government buildings were : Department 
of State Building— E. V. Seeler of Phila- 
delphia, John V. Van Pelt, J. R. Pope, 
and Raymond F. Almirall, New York 
City, and Herbert Langford Warren of 
Boston. Department of Justice Building 
— John M. Carrere of Carrere & Hast- 
ings, J. Milton Dyer of Cleveland, Russell 
Clipston Sturgis of Boston, N. C. Ricker, 
head of the vSchool of Architecture in the 
University of Illinois, and Alexander B. 
Trowbridge, head of the Architectural 
School in Cornell University. Depart- 
ment of Commerce Building — Pierce Anderson of Chi- 
cago, Glenn Brown, Secretary of the American Institute 
of Architects, Henry Bacon, John B. Pine and D. Everett 

Waid of New York 
City. The commit- 
tee worked in co- 
operation with the 
Washington Park 
Commission, of 
which Daniel H. 
Burnham is chair- 



won the grand prix do Rome of the Insliiut de France. 
For four years he held this prize and traveled through- 
out Europe. During Mr. Duquesne's professional career 





OLD HEIDELBERG APARTMENT, PITTSBURG, PA. 
Roofed with combination shingle tile made by the Ludowici-Celadon Company. 



he served as auditor to the conseil general des batiments 
civile; was inspector of works for emergency hospitals; 
and opened an independent atelier for students of archi- 
tecture. In July, 1908, he was appointed government 
architect in charge of the restoration and repairs of the 
palace and gardens of Versailles and the Trianon. It is 
understood that when Mr. Du(iuesne takes up his resi- 
dence in this country he will continue, in addition to his 
teaching at Harvard, the practice of his profession. 



E 



HARVARD 
CHAIR FOR 

FRENCH 
ARCHITECT. 

U G E N E 
JOSEPH 
ARMAND DTT- 
yUESNE, archi- 
tect of the French 
government and 
holder from 1897 to 
1901 of the grand 
prix de Rome, has 
been appointed pro- 
fessor of architec- 
tural design at 
Harvard. Mr. Duquesne, born in Paris in 1868, began 
his professional studies in the Ecole Nationale des Arts 
Decoratifs, where he won the prix du ministre, the grand 
prix d'architecture and the prix Jay. He entered the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts and received the grand medaillede 
construction. He also received Hrst mention in the in- 
ternational competition for a palace at Bukarest, the grand 
medal of the Societe Centrale des Architects Francais, 
the prix Lusson, the prix Pigny of the Institut de France, 
the prix Abel Blouet of the Ecole des Beaux Arts and 
"first-second place" in the competition for the grand 
prix de Rome. In 1897 Mr. Duquesne received the 
diploma of architect from the French government, and 



DETAIL. 

Executed by New Jersey Terra Cotta 

Company. 

Charles B. Meyers, Architect. 




ArTOMOHII.E SUPPLY STATION, CI1I( Ai.O. 

Enameled terra cotta, in two colors, from xrade to .sky-line, made by 

Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. 

Jenney, Mundie & Jensen, Architects. 



20 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



UNIVERSITY COMPETITION. 

'"T^HE Northwestern University competition, just an- 
J. nounced, affords the most recent example of the 
acceptance by a building committee of the principles set 
forth in the institute's circular of advice on competitions. 
The circular of information regarding the competition is 
as follows: 

The trustees of Northwestern University have ap- 
pointed a committee with power to procure a general 
plan for its campus at Evanston and to appoint an archi- 
tect for buildings now projected at a cost of three 
hundred fifty thousand dollars ($350,000.00). This the 

committee will do 
through a competi- 
tion which has been 
approved by the 
American Institute 
of Architects 
through its Illinois 
Chapter, and will be 
conducted by Prof. 
Warren P. Laird. It 
will be restricted to 
twelve architects, of 
whom four have been 
especially invited, 
while eight will be 
selected from the 
open field. To the 
former, and those 
three among the 
latter rated by the 
jury as best, will be 
paid each a fee of 
five hundred dollars 
(§500.00) and travel- 
ing expenses in- 
curred in an inspec- 
tion of the site ; such 
fee, in the case of 
the appointed archi- 
tect, to apply on ac- 
count of his fee as 
architect of the 
work. The jury will 
consist of the adviser 
and two other archi- 
tects chosen by the 
competitors from 
among five or more 
nominees selected by 
the adviser. The 
appointed architect will receive one thousand dollars 
($1,000.00) for the use of his general plan in addition to 
the fee of six per cent (6%) on the work. The competi- 
tion will close April 15, 1911; the official program was 
issued about Jan. 20, 1911. 





DETAIL KOK MUNICIPAI. BUILDING, 

SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 

E.xecuted in terra cotta by the Conkling- 

Annstrong Terra Cutta Company. 

Pell & Corbett, Architects. 



STATE BOARD OF ARCHITECTURE. 

A BILL for an act to provide for the appointment of 
a State Board of Architecture for the licensing 
of architects and the regulation of the practice of archi- 
tecture is being considered by the general assembly of 
the state of Indiana. Provision is made for a State 
Board of Architecture to consist of five members. The 
board shall have full authority in the consideration of 
applicants for license to practice architecture and shall 
arrange for at least two examinations each year. Every 
licensed architect shall possess a seal which will be used 
on all drawings and specifications. Punishment by fines 




WAITlNt; ROO.M, RAILWAY STATION, WATERRURV, CONN. 

Showing Guastavino ceiling construction. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

and imprisonment will be the penalty for any infringe- 
ment of this law. The bill aims to raise the standard 
of the practice of architecture to the highest level of 




DETAIL OF CORNICE. 

Work of the American Terra Cotta Company. 

Kees & Colburn, Architects. 



excellence, bring- 
ing credit to the 
profession as well 
as infinitely better 
service to the gen- 
eral public. A sim- 
ilar law exists 
already in the states 
of Illinois, New 
Jersey, California, 
Colorado and 
Louisiana. 




INTERIOR OF 
RAILWAY STA- 
TION AT WA- 
TERBURY. 

AN interesting 
example of 
the increasing in- 
terest shown by the 
railway companies 
in erecting build- 
ings of architec- 
tural beauty as well 
as of utility and 
permanence, is the 
waiting room of 
the new N. Y., 
N. H. & H. Ry. at 

Waterbury, Conn., McKim, Mead & White, architects, 
illustrated in this issue. The walls are laid in ornamental 
pressed brick, the mouldings and cornices in terra cotta, 
and the vaulted ceiling in the Ouastavino system, in 
repressed, buff colored tile, laid herringbone pattern, 
spanning over the entire 
room. The arch is an ellip- 
tical vault intersected by 
penetrations giving a groin 
effect to the vaulting. 



ST. GABRIELS SCHOOL, NEW YORK CITV. 

Body of the building of "Tapestry" brick. Faience frieze and panels between windows 

executed in color by The Hartford Faience Company. 

John V. Van Pelt, Architect. 



THE PRINCIPLES OF 
ARCHITECTURE. 

CONSIDERABLE 
benefit may be de- 
rived, especially by the 

architectural student and draftsman, from a careful read- 
ing of Mr. Mowll's series of short articles on " The 
Principles of Architecture," the first of which will be 
found in this issue. In the development of the archi- 
tect it is at least desirable, if not essential, that some 
consideration be given the underlying principles of good 
architecture as deduced from the history of the past as 
well as a keen appreciation for the best examples of 
present work. Mr. Mowll's treatise will be found valu- 
able as his ideas are a careful expression of the results 
obtained from a very thorough study of this subject. 




21 

prove to be very 
interesting to those 
who would keep in 
touch with modern 
methods of con- 
struction. It isan- 
n o u n c e d as a 
monthly publica- 
tion, and the sub- 
scription price is 
§1.00 per year. 
The work is edited 
by Sherman Ford 
and published by 
the National Fire 
Proofing Company 
of Tittsburgh. 

In June, 1908, 
there was applied 
to a section of the 
North German 
Lloyd Piers at Ho- 
boken, N. J., two 
coats of Cabot's 
Waterproof Brick 
Stain and Preserva- 
tive. Ever since 
the completion of 
the piers the walls 
have been washed 
down twice a year to remove the salts which disfigured 
them with the exception of the section treated with the 
waterproof brick stain in 1908, which has not shown a 
trace of salts since the preservative was applied. As a 
result in July, 1910, this material was put on all the walls 

of the piers, which are illus- 
trated in this issue, and 
there has been no sign of 
salts, a conclusive evidence 
that the bricks are water- 
proof and permanent. 



BUILDINGS OF THE NORTH GERMAN LLOVI) STEAMSHIP 
COMPANY, HOliOKEN, N. J. 



The "Tapestry" brick 
furnished for St. Gabriels 
School, New York City, 
illustrated in this issue, 



IN GENERAL. 
"Building Progress" is the title of a new publication 
which has just made its appearance. Judging by the 
character of the contents of the initial number it should 



was furnished by Fiske & Co., Inc. 

Wm. Leslie Welton, architect, has moved to his new 
offices 1209 11 Empire Building, Birmingham, Ala. 
Manufacturers' samples and catalogues solicited. 

DRAFTSMAN WANTED Good all round draftsman cap- 
able of designing is wanted by Shand (Sfti, Lafaye, Architects, 
Columbia, S. C. 

\A/ANTED — Architects' superintendent wishes position. 
Experienced in writing specifications for, and superintending 
the construction of, all classes of buildings. Address Penn, 
care of The Brickbuilder. 

"SPECIFICATION BLANKS." by T. Robert Wieger. 
architect (formerly with F. E. Kidder). Forms for all classes 
of buildings, each trade separate. Complete set, 44 pages, 
25 cents. Reduction on quantities. Sample page upon 
request. 628- 1 4th street, Denver. Colo. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



TREASURY DEPARTMENT. Office of the Supervising 
Architect, Washington, D. C, Dec. 22, 1910. 

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 3 o'clock 
P.M. on the 23d day of February, 191 I, and then opened, for the con- 
struction (including plumbing, gas piping, heating apparatus, electric 
conduits and wiring) of the U. S. Post Office and Court House at 
ROSWELL, NEW MEXICO, in accordance with drawings and specifica- 
tions, copies of which may be had from the Custodian of site at Roswell, 
New Mexico, or at this office, at the discretion of the Supervising 
Architect. 

JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, Supervising Architect. 



TREASURY DEPARTMENT. Office of the Supervising 
Architect, Washington. D. C, Dec. 23. 1910. 

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 3 o'clock 
P.M. on the 3d day of February, 191 I, and then opened, for the con- 
struction, complete (including plumbing, gas piping, heating apparatus, 
electric conduits and wiring), of the United States Post Office at HILLS- 
DALE, MICH., in accordance with drawings and specifications, copies of 
which may be obtained from the Custodian of site at Hillsdale, Mich., 
or at this office, at the discretion of the Supervising Architect. 

JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, Supervising Architect. 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT Office of the Supervising 
Architect. Washington, D. C. Dec. 28. 1910. 

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 3 o'clock 
P.M. on the 7th day of February, 1911, and then opened, for the con- 
struction, complete (including plumbing, gas piping, heating apparatus, 
electric conduits and wiring), of the U. S. Post Office at WATERTOWN, 
WIS., in accordance with drawings and specifications, copies of which 
may be obtained from the Custodian of the site at Watertown, Wis., or at 
this office, at the discretion of the Supervising Architect. 

JAMES KNOX TAYLOR. Supervising Architect. 

ARCHITECTS AND DRAFTSMEN— i register as- 
sistants FOR THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION EXCLUSIVELY 
IN AND FOR ANY PART OF THE UNITED STATES. HAVE CALLS 
FOR HELP CONTINUALLY FROM THE BEST OF OFFICES IN ALL 
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. MY LIST CONSISTS OF THE HIGH- 
EST GRADE TECHNICAL MEN. NO REGISTRATION FEE AND 
REASONABLE TERMS. IF YOU ARE NEEDING HELP OR SEEK- 
ING A GOOD POSITION, WRITE ME. LEO A. PEREIRA, 

218 La Salle St., Chicago. Long Distance tcI, FrankUn 1328. 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 

TRADE MARK REG. U.S. PATENT OFFICE 

BULLETIN 



RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

St. Gabriels School, New York City Page 21 

John V. Van Pelt, Architect 



tz?iske 6- company inc 
Iace bricks/ establish 

llRE BRICKSl ED IN 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Flatiron Building, New York 



TREASURY DEPARTMENT. Office of the Supervising 
Architect, Washington, D. C, Jan. 3. 1911. 

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 3 o'clock 
P.M. on the 14th day of February, 1911, and then opened, for the con- 
struction, complete (including plumbing, gas piping, heating apparatus, 
electric conduits and wiring), of the U. S. Post Office at BARRE, VT., in 
accordance with the drawings and specifications, copies of which may be 
obtained from the Custodian of site at Barre, Vt., or at this office, at the 
discretion of the Supervising Architect. 

JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, Supervising Architect. 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT. Office of the Supervising 
Architect, Washington, D. C. Jan. 7, 1911. 

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 3 o'clock 
P.M. on the 18th day of February, 191 1, and then opened, for the con- 
struction (complete) except elevator, but including plumbing, gas piping, 
heating apparatus, electric conduits and wiring, of the United States Post 
Office at NORTH-YAKIMA, WASH., in accordance with drawings and 
specifications, copies of which may be obtained from the Custodian of 
site at North-Yakima, Wash., or at this office, at the discretion of the 
Supervising Architect. 

JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, Supervising Architect. 

A BOOK OF HOUSE DESIGNS — THE TITLE OF 
A 64 PACtE booklet WHICH CONTAINS THE 
DESIGNS SUBMITTED IN COMPETITION FOR 
A HOUSE BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW 
TILE. ILLUSTRATIONS OF HOUSES BUILT OF 
THIS MATERIAL, TOGETHER WITH ARTICLES 
DESCRIBING CONSTRUCTION, ETC. PRICE 
50 CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 

A HOUSE OF BRICK OF MODERATE COST- 

THE TITLE OF A 96 PAGE B(K)KLET WHICH 
CONTAINS 71 DESIGNS FOR A BRICK HOUSE 
OF MODERATE COST. THESE DESIGNS WERE 
SUBMITTED BY WELL-KNOWN ARCHITEC- 
TURAL DRAFTSMEN IN COMPETITION. IN- 
TERESTING ARTICLES. ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
HISTORICAL BRICK HOUSES. PRICE, FIFTY 
CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 



LINOLEUM 

SECURED BY CEMENT 
TO EITH E R WOODEN 
OR CEMENT FLOORS 

Ideal Floor Coverings for Public Buildings. Elastic, Noiseless, 
and practically indestructible. It is in use on Battleships, 
cemented to steel decks in the United States, English and 
German Navies ; should be placed on floors under pressure, and 
best results can only be obtained by employing skilled workmen. 
The quality of our work has passed the inspection of the United 
States Government and numerous Architects and Builders. 

The following are e.xamples of our work: 

Franklin Union Building, 

R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 

Extensions of the Suffolk County Court House, 

George \. Clough, Architect. 
Marshall Office Building, Suffolk Real Estate Trust, 

C. H. Blackall, Anhitect. 

We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS COMPANY 

646-658 WASHINGTON STREET, Opp. BoyUton Street 

BOSTON ::::::::: MASS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XX FEBRUARY 1911 Number 2 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, I'll, by ROGERS * MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ......-• $;(/m per year 

Single numbers 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............... $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ............••.■• 9b.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



Agencies — Clay Products 



PAGE 

II 

Architectural Faience ........ JI 

,, Terra Cotta II and III 

Brick HI 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



PAOE 

Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ........ " 

Fireproofing ......... '* 

Roofing Tile IV 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

G. HOWARD CHAMBERLIN; CRAM, GOODHUE & FERGUSON; PARKER MORSE HOOPER; 

JANSSEN & ABBOTT; LORD & HEWLETT; PARISH & SCHROEDER. 

LETTERPRESS 



PAGB 



CHURCH OF SAN JO.SE, PUEBLA, MEXICO Frontispiece 

THE PRESENTATION OF PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF ARCHITECTURAL SUBJECTS. -PART II. 

//. r;. A'ifi/ry 23 

THE MANUAL TRAINING HICH SCHOOL. -PART II Ii;//„n„ /i. //I>,r, 27 

THE HEATING AND VENTILATION OF CHURCHES.- PART I Charles I.. II uhhard .M 

THE PRINCIPLES OF ARCHITECTURE. -PART II Wilham I.. MouU .« 

THE FORTY-FOURTH ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS.... 37 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS -DESCRIPTION -'^ 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 




elf 

•p o tf 

.i o — 
■p. y: « 

o ■" 



n 



^' ® bo 



~ Z !t 

ill 



•5 -S B. 



-TnjjlftT'fiimtinif**''-'^'*^'' •'■'-- 



'^ 




•^ 


ii^Z 


X 


HI 




lych 
, do 
the 


P 


RE 1 


K 
U 


The 
lant« 
used 




Thk PEjE^entation of 

reli Hiiriary Studies' 



u 



m 




II. 



P.V HUIiERT G. RIPI.EY. 



Freedom for art's sake is siinplicily." 




.hidroniciis Cyrrhestes. 



THE position of a writer on architecture is, in a way, 
analogous to that of the teacher, although it is far 
from the intention of this series to assume, like Hermes 
Trismegistus (one of tlie earlier architects), the attri- 
butes of euphuistic pragmatism. 

A rising young teacher in one of the architectural 
schools, when asked how he conducted his classes, said, 
"I make the very first lecture as confusing as possible, 
so that the minds of my pupils are wander- 
ing in the crepuscular umbrage of incerti- 
tude, and very soon two-thirds of the class 
stay away or take some other course. 
Those who remain, and have stood the first 
lectures, will stand for anything." 

It is not supposed that anyone 
who reads these articles (assuming 
that anyone does read articles pub- 
lished in an architectural magazine) 
will find anything new in them. All 
that is worth .saying has already 
been said, and the whole subject 
from batter boards to hardware, 
from reinforced concrete to period 
furniture, from sill-cocks and 
tapestries to asbestos shingles and 

book-plates, has been threshed out, gleaned, garnered, 
distilled and inflated, and the withered husks left to 
fester on the compost heap. All that remains is to 
collect in a few thousand choice words, crisp and spark- 
ling, some of the methods and machinations employed 
by our well known contemporaries in separating tliem- 
selves from the creatures of their fancy; in displaying 
to a cultured and critical audience the congealed music 







of Parnassus, before it takes its concrete form in some- 
times, alas, a too indestructible material. 

Lest it may be supposed that we are floundering about 
in a peripatetic manner without relation, harmony or due 
sequence being observed, let us turn for a moment to 
M. V. Pollio, our friend in need. Note the headings of 
his chapters — how he skips deftly from music to sand — 
now considering the construction of Palestra-, now the 
signs of the Zodiac ; each subject treated 
naively and exhaustively without one super- 
fluous word. 

No article on a subject related to archi- 
tecture is complete, aldermanic, and well 
rounded, without some subtle reference to 
"the 'twin arts of architecture and music." 
While this may not be the best place to drag 
this in, it might be well to get it 
over with before it is forgotten. 
Man}' a drawing has been rendered 
until it sings, and our Gallic friends 
frequently allude to harmonies 
produced by the " chic chic " in 
some ex(juisite bit of drafting. 
Color may be imitated in black 
and white, and who has not 
imagined sym[)honies in the "soft, dull tones " of cram- 
osi, ustium, bistre and dun -amber, as, in the hands of a 
master like (Juerin, they are weaved, blended, fused and 
mated until our very heartstrings are wrung. 

It will not be possible to mention all those whose illus- 
trations have made the coming of the magazines and 
various club catalogues a pleasure and delight in the past. 
Nowadays photographs of executed work form a great 



24 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




FIG. VII. 

Study of a (.'ountry house, J. Lovell Little, Jr., architect. The original perspective was laid out on brown paper and its drawing involved a great deal 
of labor and study. The final drawing was carefully rendered in pencil on white tracing paper and tlien mounted on cardboard and slightly tinted. 
Architects are coming more and more this spring to see the value of having their buildings studied from elevated view-points, particularly when, as in 

this case, the groimds form an integral part of the whole design. 



percentage of the illustrations, but there is in a good 
drawing or sketch, a charm that even the finest carbon 
print or photogravure does not possess. It would be in- 
vidious, however, not to mention the "doyen" of the 
guild, to whom, more than anyone else, the budding 
draftsman turns for sustenance and support. We refer 
to Mr. I). A. Gregg, who has set the pace for many 
years, and keeps pushing the mark further and further 
ahead, with a wide range of drawings and sketches in 
many mediums. He developed and showed the possi- 
bilities of pencil rendering on tracing paper touched up 
with color, in a manner 
not before realized or 
attempted, and these 
sketches possess a re- 
dundant resiliency pecu- 
liarly their own. 

To come right down to 
brass tacks, the method is 
as follows: 

Make the drawing, 
either plan, elevation, 
section or perspective, on 
any old piece of paper. 
Rub it, scratch it, get it 
all mussed up, do any- 
thing you want to with it, 
even burn it a little with 
cigarette stubs, only leave 
enough so that some sort 
of outline remains that 
will show through the tracing. If you go too far with 
the study, it may be necessary to start all over again. 
Then gum or tack down over this mess, a fresh, smooth 
piece of thin white tracing paper. After all is said and 




FIG. VIII. 

In this little drawing Mr. Kidd has frankly unfurled his gonfalon in 
favor of the thatchless thatched roof. Now let the thatchless thatched 
roof experts look to their laurels, as we predict a brilliant future for 
this talented young architect. 



done, there is no use getting away from the fact that 
there is one kind of tracing paper better than all the 
others for this purpose, and were it not that we might 
be suspected of an alliance with the octopus, we would 
speak right out and name it. 

Use moderate care in making the final drawing, to keep 
a crisp fresh line, and when all the pencil work is done, 
blow lightly and evenly with fixatif all over the tracing. 
Now lay the drawing face down on a fresh piece of paper 
and soak it thoroughly with clean water. Next, spread a 
thin coat of paste all over the back, smoothing out the 

wrinkles and leaving the 
drawing perfectly flat. 
Lay a sheet of cardboard 
over this, reverse the 
cardboard, and, with an- 
other sheet of clean trac- 
ing paper and a celluloid 
triangle or a scale, rub 
the tracing flat on the 
cardboard. When a sheet 
of paper is mounted on 
one side of a card a similar 
sheet should be mounted 
on its back to prevent 
curling. 

After the paste is dry, 
the sketch may be colored 
or washed to suit the 
fancy, mixing a little ox 
gall with the colors so 
that they will run well and spread evenly over the fixatif. 
This does not take a wash quite as smoothly as What- 
man's paper, and it will be found that generally the best 
results are obtained where very little color is used. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



^5 



Merely to tint, ever so slightly, the various materials 
in the ghosts of their natural colors will usually be suffi- 
cient, as the effect of the pencil lines is lost if a labored 
or heavy wash covers them. A sure, quick, deft touch 
is essential, and a feeling for tint. As an architect once 
told a client when asked what color scheme he would 
recommend for a certain room, "You can't say what 
color to employ. Words cannot express the thought. 
Now I can feel just the color for that room, I should like 
to see it the color of an Alderney cow, for example." 

Many strange and weird receipts for washes have their 
vogue and from each "hot one "as it is handed over, some- 
thing may be learned. Here is a jim dandy, warranted not 
to show shakes, knots or sap, and that will not dry back on 



preparation of preliminary sketches and has been used 
many times even by people who know nothing of 
the French language. The explanation of the process 
is as foUow-s, and does away with a French dictionary. 
Work over your tracing or caique until you begin to 
think you have got something pretty slick, and can 
almost hear the faint music of the spheres. Now re- 
verse the tracing and make on a fresh sheet of thin 
paper a final study carefully drawn, and carried as 
far as you like as to detail and rendering. When this 
is ready, lay it face down on a smooth cardboard or 
stretched Whatman's paper (or equal of approved 
make). Pin or weight this smoothly in place and lay 
over it a small piece of tracing cloth shiny side up. With 




^\J.' 



.c 



y 



fsss 



fk;. IX. 

A preliminary study for a church, Matthew Sullivan, architect. The original of this drawing 
was made on a soft warm gray paper with a slightly pebbly surface, which forms the color and 
texture of the cement walls of the church. There is almost no rendering on the church itself 
except the pencil outline and the roof, which is i deep rich ustium. The hyetal sky is well con- 
trasted with the lycopodiales and the Pantechnicon on the left. The girandoles on either side 
(adapted from Delafosse) have nothing to do with the drawing. They are merely placed there 
not alone for their intrinsic value, but also to fill out the space. 



^^n:^ 



d : 



you while you chat with :\Iadeline, the raven-haired sylph- 
ide in the office across the corridor. Ivory black, French 
blue, Indian yellow, burnt Sienna, and lots and lots of 
Chinese white. Sounds like an international alliance. 
Mix a tumbler full of this, varying the proportions so as to 
have most any desired shade, giving the drawing a pre- 
liminary wash or staining with an infusion of tobacco or 
coffee. 

Another good preliminary stain for a drawing is equal 
quantities of green crcme de menthe and chartreuse 
diluted a little with French vichy. This is good both 
for external and internal use. 

So far we have used great restraint as regards words 
and phrases in a foreign language. They will crop out 
occasionally, however, and now it becomes absolutely 
necessary in speaking of "frottying," "caique a pounc^," 
"lavying," etc. 

A " caique a pounce " plays a very important part in the 



the left hand hold the tracing cloth firmly over a section 
of the drawing and " frotte " it. This means rub it 
swiftly and evenly with some hard, smooth metal or 
ivory substance. The back of a knife blade is a good 
thing to use ; likewise a key, or large coin (if you have 
one), or an ivory paper cutter. If you prefer you can 
buy especially fashioned " f rottiors " in various shapes 
for this purpose. Be sure to rub only with the grain on 
the tracing cloth, otherwise wrinkles will appear ; and if 
too long a stroke or too hard is used, this will also wrinkle 
it. A little practice and the spoiling of a few choice 
"caiques" will soon show the method. You must rub 
and rub and then " frotty " for a while, changing the 
direction, rubbing both ways, and going over the entire 
drawing with an equal pressure. Do not be afraid of 
denting or marring the finished drawing as these marks 
will all come out when the washes are applied or the 
drawing is cleaned with art gum. 



26 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



Parenthetically it should be said that it is not necessary mously if this part of the curriculum were omitted) that 

to make the "caique a pounce " complete in all its de- it is almost impossible sometimes, for one who is not in 

tails if the drawing is to be entirely inked in. One half the secret, to understand or comprehend how in Sam Hill 

may be drawn and, if the other side is similar, this half a drawing is rendered; and furthermore the method is 

may be rubbed off twice ; or, if the building consists of just as applicable to perspectives and rough sketches as 



a number of bays each like the other, a drawing of one 
bay may be rubbed off repeatedly if great care is exer- 
cised and fine alignment observed. Likewise parts or 
portions of the drawing may be made separately and 
transferred as soon as these sections are determined. 

If the drawing is to be a large one it is sometimes well 
to lay out the general dimensions and axial lines with a 
fine-pointed pencil over which the different pieces of the 
"caique" may be laid for rubbing. All these various 
precautions are taken with the view of preserving the 



it is to carefully laid out " concours " or even working 
drawings. In another chapter we shall have occasion to 
enlarge on the possibilities of the " caique " as it is the 
seed from which is engendered the noble forms which are 
the basis of our Art. Surely here is an example of the 
Art which conceals Art, by some of our most eminent 
writers and critics regarded as the ultimate expression of 
the dual equation, whatever that may mean, and we feel 
that the value of this series (and incidentally the need to 
furnish the requisite number of words to fill up this 



parthenogenesis of the final sheet of white paper, which is page, because the illustration at the end came out smaller 
handled as tenderly as a mother would her sleeping babe. 

The drawing is now ready to be inked in, or, if skill 
and care have been used, it may be rendered directly 
over the transferred pencil outline. Many soft, misty, 
mysterious effects are obtained by washing directly over 
the pencil drawing without inking it in, or inking it in 
only in part, leaving the background or some distant 
portion of the building in pencil. 

This method for the presentation of sketches has 
many advantages readily perceived, and the secret, jeal- 
ously guarded for many years, is now be- 
coming generally known; the method above 
outlined having been received direct from 
the Castalian fount. Iii&/^\1 

It will be found by use of this system, TlErf/^ 

which is largely employed 



by scholiasts of the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts, (in fact the 
Paris training, and the su- 
periority of the returned 
diplome would shrink enor- 



than anticipated) depends on the insistence of the super- 
subtle and the esoteric, not to put too fine a point on it. 
To illustrate how numerous and varied are the methods 
by which drawings are evolved, we know of a case in 
which a small sketch hastily done on note paper in pencil 
was enlarged by sun-printing, touched up with wash and 
crayon, enlarged again, and again touched up until the 
final result was a stunning big drawing with all the haze 
and dreamy mystery of a big city "still in it." 

Contrariwise many successful sketches have been pro- 
duced by photographing down big, uninterest- 
ing and ungainly large drawings that covered 
appalling areas of white paper, by making a salt 
print and going over it skilfully with pen and 
ink and bleaching out the photograph. Crisp, 
sharp, interesting sketches re- 
sulted, at a scale, which if 
originally attempted, would 
have unduly contracted the 
zygomatic muscles of the 
delineator. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

The Manual Trainincx Hicrh School. — II. 



27 



BV WILLIAM B. ITTNER. 



THE FRANK LOUIS SOLDAN MANUAL TRAIXIN(J lIKiH SCHOCJL. 



THE Frank Louis Soldan Manual Training High 
School was built to accommodate sixteen hundred 
pupils in class rooms exclusive of laboratories, demon- 
strating rooms, shop, etc. It has forty-one class rooms, 
twenty-three of which are each 24 feet by 30 feet 6 
inches, accommodating forty-eight pupils; and eighteen 
are 21 by 25 feet each accommodating thirty-five pupils. 
All rooms are unilaterally lighted and fitted with single 
pressed steel pedestal desks with sliding top. 



feet, the forge room 30 by 60 feet, the moulding room, 
25 by 38 feet, the generating room 33 feet 6 inches by 
30 feet 6 inches, the tool room, the instructor's room, 
and the wash and locker room. 

Domestic Scienxe. Located in the south part of the 
ground floor of the main building are the cooking room, 
25 by 32 feet with storeroom and model dining room, 
three sewing rooms each 24 by 28 feet with two fitting 
rooms all opening en suite, and a laundry 21 by 33 feet. 



Science Rooms. For the study of botany there are two These rooms make up the domestic science group. 



laboratories one of which is 29 by 40 feet and the other 
24 by 44 feet, also two demonstration rooms one 23 by 21 
feet and the other 23 by 29 
feet. In addition to these 
there is a conservatory, an in- 
structor's room, and a store- 
room, all on the south side of 
the building. 

Physiology. There are two 
laboratories, one 24 by 44 feet 
and the other 23 feet by 56 
feet 2 inches, two demonstra- 
tion rooms, an instructor's 
room, and a storeroom. 

Physics. This department 
has two laboratories one 29 
feet by 40 feet 6 inches and 
the other 24 by 44 feet, two 
demonstration rooms, and in- 
structor's room, and a dark 
room. 

Chemistry. There are two 
laboratories, one 24 by 44 feet 
and the other 24 by 56 feet, 
two demonstration rooms, an 
instructor's room, and a store- 
room. 

Physiography and Commer- 
cial Geography have one lab- 
oratory which is 30 by 40 feet, 
one demonstration room, and 
one apparatus and instructor's 
room. 

The laboratories and demon- 
stration rooms are all arranged 

to open en suite. Each demonstration room has thirty- 
two to forty-five seats with arm tablets, while all rooms 
are arranged for the use of the stereopticon. 

Shops. There is a woodworking room, 30 by 68 feet, 
a wood turning room, 30 by 80 feet, an instructor's room, 
a storage room, a finishing room, a tool room, a prepara- 
tion and motor room, and a wash and locker room. All 
of these rooms are in the south half of the one-story 
wing on the rear of the building. 

Grouped together in the corresponding portion of the 
rear wing to the north are the machine shop 30 by 68 




MAIN ENTRANCE, SOLDAN III(;H SCHOOL. 



Drawinc; Rooms. There are four art rooms two of 
which are 30 by 32 feet and two 22 by 36 feet. Each 

room is provided with north 
light through studio sky-lights 
and is equipped with a store- 
room. The rooms open en 
suite and are on the third floor. 
There are three mechanical 
drawing rooms on the third 
floor, two 30 by 32 feet and 
the other 24 by 32 feet, each 
arranged with top-light and 
storeroom. 

Commercial Rooms. There 
are two commercial rooms on 
the second floor each 30 by 32 
feet, with banking oflfice, in- 
structor's roo.m, and supply 
room. 

Offices. On the first floor 
just .south of the main entrance 
are the principal's office 13 by 
21 feet, the reception room 21 
by 36 feet, and the business 
office 21 by 40 feet. A vault 
for school records opens from 
the business office. 

A retiring room, 21 by 26 
feet, with toilet is on the first 
floor north of the main 
entrance. 

Auditorium. The auditor- 
ium is entered from the first 
floor and the balcony from the 
second floor corridors It has 
a total seating capacity of nineteen hundred and sevenly. 
The stage is 20 by 36 feet, and has convenient dressing 
rooms. There are six exits on each floor, four at the 
west and two near the stage. These twelve exits enal)le 
the room to be vacated in less than two minutes. 

Library. The library which is located over the main 
entrance is 36 by 35 feet and has a separate stack room, 
21 by 26 feet equipped with metal book stacks. 

Music and Lecture Room. The music and lecture 
room, 36 by 54 feet, is located on the third floor, and 
seats two hundred and fifty. As its name implies this 



28 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




P.THt BANK C 



O/^/^eRClMl- TDtPT 





Exterior and Four Interior Views. 

SOLDAN HKIH SCHOOL, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Williatn B. Ittner, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



"PHYSICS L.'ABaRATORV- 




C»H?.°f^ 





»,T9"E.STIC SCJ^NCt C=?KIN 






Six Interior Views. 
SOI.DAN HI(;H SCHOOL, CHICAGO, ILL. 

William B. Ittner, Architect. 



30 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



room is used for lectures, singing, faculty meetings, 
and is a valuable adjunct to the auditorium. 

Gymnasia. The boys' gymnasium, 30 by 76 feet is 
equipped with lockers, a toilet, four showers, and a plunge 
bath 14 by 20 feet. The girls' gymnasium 30 by 76 feet 
has lockers, a toilet, and two shower baths. 

Lunch Rooms. There are two lunch rooms, each 40 
by 80 feet, located under the central courts with a seat- 
ing capacity for eight hundred pupils at a single lunch 
period. Lunches are served from a common serving 
room and kitchen located between the two lunch rooms. 

Book Rooms. Storage rooms for books are provided 
on the second and third floors, each 12 feet 6 inches by 
21 feet. A motor driven book lift is arranged in one 



Stairways. There are four well lighted stairways ar- 
ranged at the angles of the building for rapid circulation. 

Corridors. The main corridor is 18 feet wide while 
the north, south, and east corridors are 10 feet wide, all 
well lighted. On the third floor the art class rooms and 
east corridor are carried over the auditorium stage 
where the additional width gives opportunity for a sculp- 
ture gallery which is top-lighted. 

Lockers. There are two locker rooms for girls, each 
21 by 83 feet, and one for boys, 24 by 101 feet. 

Heatinc; anu Vemtilation. There is a mechanical 
system of heating and ventilation with direct indirect 
system of heating for the boys' shops. The boiler and 
coal rooms are to the rear of the auditorium on the alley, 




n 



^CO/Wf-L OOeFlAyV 



HI? ' " ' I ' I ' f ' " ' 



f-OZGt. 

— iiss^i^f^ , , , 



3/15tMC/^r/-'y{yV 



C B. ■ CLASS HOON 




iyv/c2^ aouLtmzD 







g 

HE 

li 





r/f/j^nnoaeFU/V 




ffJS5r/-L00£ FLA/V 

soLn/i/y/iiGJi3cmoL 



tier of rooms accessible from one of the ground floor 
entrances. 

Janitors' Rooms. There is one on ground floor, 21 
by 24 feet, and one on the second and third floors, each 
12 feet 6 inches by 21 feet. 

Entrances. The main entrance fronts on Union 
boulevard. There are entrances on the right and left 
leading to girls' locker room on ground floor. There are 
four entrances to ground floor, two for boys from Fair- 
mont avenue on the north and two for girls from Ken- 
sington avenue on the south. Service entrances for the 
shops, lunch rooms, etc., are provided in the rear of the 
building to the public alley. 



and the air washer and tempering coils are in a room over 
the boilers. The fans and engines are located under the 
auditorium and are isolated in a manner to prevent trans- 
mission of noise and vibration. .Special ventilation is 
provided for serving rooms and kitchen. 

Cost. The school building which is of fireproof con- 
struction throughout, except the roof which is of mill 
construction, cost complete ready for its equipment 
$630,000. This gives a cost of 18.6 cents per cubic foot 
or $395 per pupil, estimating the per capita cost on the 
basis of the actual number of fixed desks in class rooms 
only. The equipment cost upon the same basis was 
$63 per capita. 



THEBRICKBUILDER. 31 

The Heating and Ventilation of Churches. — I. 



BV CHARLES I.. Hri'.HAKI). 



THE present article, with those which are to follow, will supply, under average conditions, heat and ventila- 

relating to the heating and ventilation of different tion for approximately one hundred people. From this, 

types of buildings, has been prepared with special ref- one can decide in any given case, the number of furnaces 

erence to the needs of the architect rather than of the they wish to employ, and so be governed in their choice 

heating engineer or contractor. between furnaces and steam heat. 

Details relating to furnace and boiler design, piping. In general, four furnaces is about the greatest number 

etc., have been omitted, and matters which concern more it is convenient to care for, and in modern buildings 

properly the arrangement of the building itself have steam is more commonly employed where more than two 

been considered instead. In some of the larger offices or three furnaces are required. 

it is becoming common to employ one or more heating The first step in designing a system of ventilation is 

engineers to attend to this part of the work, while others to determine the air supply to be provided. This, in 

call in outside assistance as needed to carry along the auditoriums, which are occupied for only an hour or 

heating plans in connection with those of the architect, two at a time, and where the cul)ic contents is large as 

In the majority of offices, however, the general floor compared with the number of occupants, need not be as 

plans are pretty well completed before the heating engi- great as in theaters or even in schools, 

neer is called in, and often practically no provision has With furnace heating very good results will be realized 

been made for the space required for different parts of if a continuous air supply of 20 cubic feet per minute per 

the heating apparatus. Again, if space has been re- occupant is provided for. 

served, it is not always located where it can be used to The capacity of a furnace, of standard make and de- 

the best advantage. The idea of the present series of sign, is commonly measured by its grate area. With 



articles is to give simple 
rules and directions, so that 
the architect may select his 
heating and ventilating 
system at the outset, and 
have in mind a general 
scheme to be incorporated 
in his plans as they are 
carried to completion. 

It is not necessary that 
he be familiar with the de- 
tails of heating design, but 
he should have a sufficient 
knowledge of the different 




those of the best type there 
should be about 5 square 
feet of grate area for each 
one hundred occupants. If 
the building is especially 
exposed, or has an unusu- 
ally large window surface, 
increase the grate area from 
five to ten per cent, depend- 
ing upon local conditions. 
This relation between grate 
area and occupants is based 
on 15 stjuare feet of floor 
space per occupant for the 



kinds of apparatus used to approximate their size, and entire floor, and a height of 20 feet in the clear. 

to locate them with some degree of exactness. This is practically the same as allowing 5 square feet 

In treating of church ventilation, the subject will be of grate surface for each 30,000 cubic feet of space to be 

divided into two parts, the first covering small and me- warmed and ventilated. 

dium sized buildings, in which furnaces are commonly In order to adapt the usual type of house furnace to 

used, and the second, treating of auditoriums of larger this class of work it is generally necessary to enlarge 

size, employing steam heat, fans, air purifiers, and other the air passages between the furnace and the outer cas- 

devices not commonly found in the church of average ing in order to provide for the increased air volume, 

size. The velocity of flow through these passages should not be 

There is no distinctive line in the conditions govern- over 400 feet per minute, which, with the air supply 

ing the use of "hot-air" heating, so called. already assumed, will fix the minimum area as .S scpiare 

Furnaces are comparatively inexpensive to install, feet, the same as the grate surface. In practice it is 

simple in construction, and easily repaired on account of a good idea to increase this about thirty per cent, if the 

the accessibility of the different parts. They are espe- passages are of such form as to break up the currents 

cially adapted to cnurches of smaller size, where the and bring all parts of the entering air in contact with 

fires are allowed to go out during the week, as there is the heating surfaces of the furnace, 

nothing to freeze, as in the case of steam or hot water. The location of the furnace will depend upon the posi- 

They are more affected by conditions of wind pressure tion of the warm air flues witli which it is to connect, 
than a system of steam heating, but are more relial:)]e as and should be so placed as to make the horizontal runs 
applied to church heating than to dwelling hou.ses, be- of piping as short as possil^le. When the furnace sup- 
cause the connections between the furnaces and the plies a single flue, horizontal piping should be done 
registers are shorter and more direct. From a sanitary away with entirely, and the furnace placed directly 
standpoint they are, as generally installed, not up to a beneath the uptake. 

system of steam heating, supplying as a rule, less air at The chimney is an important detail in connection with 

a higher temperature. A standard furnace of large size any system of heating, for without a good draft it is im- 



3^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



possible to secure the desired results, regardless of how 
well the remaining parts of the plant may have been 
designed. With a chimney from 40 to 50 feet in height, 
the flue area should be made about 70 square inches for 
each 5 s([uare feet of grate area, for round flues, and 90 
square inches for rectangular flues. 

The number of warm-air inlets is limited, in general, 
to twice the number of furnaces, as it is not advisable to 
supply more than two registers from a single furnace, 
for reasons already given. 

If furnace heating is limited to 
churches seating four hundred 
people, a very good arrangement 
is to provide four warm-air inlets 
located as shown in Fig. 1, the 
same scheme being carried out 
in smaller buildings down to 
those of a capacity of two hun- 
dred occupants. For churches 
seating from one hundred to one 
hundred and fifty people, the 
arrangement shown in Fig. 2 
will give very good results. In 



ffA 



-flA 



NA. 



^ 



-/iA 



FIG. II. 



In general, however, it indicates what takes place to a 
greater or lesser degree, and shows the reason for adopt- 
ing this particular arrangement of flues. In Fig. 2, the 
greater part of the warm-air supply for ventilation is 
furnished through the wall registers at each side of the 
pulpit, the vent registers being placed in front of the 
platform as before. This system is simply one-half 
that shown in Fig. 1, being made possible by the smaller 
size of the room. The small furnace, at the entrance 
end of the building, is for warm- 
ing the main vestibule, and also 
for furnishing a certain amount 
of additional warm air at that 
end of the room. The general 
movement of the air currents in 
this case is shown in Fig. 5. 
The inlet registers, in the ex- 
amples given, have been placed 
in the wall, some 7 or 8 feet 
above the floor, while the vent 
registers are in the floor. 

Those at the pulpit end of the 
church may often be worked into 



y AoniTomoM 

5 



t^ 



Fig. 1, a separate furnace should be placed at the base of the front of the platform, grilles of wood or bronze, or 



each warm-air flue in buildings seating from three to four 
hundred people, while in smaller buildings, seating two 
hundred or less, two furnaces may be employed, each 
supplying two flues. If the rooms are especially long 
and narrow, in case of the larger buildings, it may be 



even painted cast-iron, replacing a certain number of 
panels without producing an unsightly efl'ect. 

Another detail, frecjuently overlooked, is a ceiling vent 
of generous proportions, to be used in warm weather and 
at such other times as it may be desirable to change the 



necessary to place an intermediate furnace at the center air of the room quickly or reduce its temperature. This 




H ^ H 1=^ H ^,—1^ N N^ H t=j M 



J1.A. 



HA. 



up r H t=H H l=H H 



T 



of the church as in Fig. 3, in which case one furnace may 
often be made to supply two flues at the south or least 
exposed end of the room, thus keeping within the limit 
of four furnaces. There are usually small anterooms 
and a small entrance at the side or rear of the pulpit 
which may be connected with the adjacent furnaces, as 
shown. The main vestibule is heated from the furnaces 
at the other end of the church, additional grate surface 
being provided for this pur- 
pose in each case. The warm 
air from a furnace register 
takes a pretty straight course 
to the upper part of the 
room, where it spreads out, 
and becoming mixed with 
the cooler air below, by 
diffusion, gradually settles 
to the lower part of the 
room. The occupants are warmed, therefore, by a 
gradual downward movement of tempered air (about 
70 degrees) from above, rather than by direct contact 
with comparatively hot currents from the inlet registers. 
This is why as good results may be obtairied from two 
to four inlets, delivering the air through wall registers, 
as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, as by the use of a greater 
number of floor registers from which it rises almost 
directly to the ceiling, and warming but a comparatively 
small zone in its transit. With the arrangement of in- 
lets and outlets in Fig. 1, the movement of the air is 
approximately as shown in Fig. 4. This will be afi^ected 
to some extent by local conditions, such as the opening 
and closing of doors, exposed glass area and leakage 
around windows, direction and force of the wind, etc. 



{A 



HA.-* 



-HZ. 



UiA. 






• /=•; 



ZBK. 



FIG. III. 



vent should be controlled by means of a damper, oper- 
ated by a chain from some convenient point outside the 
auditorium. It should only be used at such times as 
have been mentioned, on account of the resulting waste 
of heat. The general ventilation should at all times be 
through openings at, or near, the floor level. In order 
to produce sufficient draft in the vent flues in mild or 
damp weather, and to start a circulation in cold weather, 

"stack heaters," so called, 
should be provided. These 
are simply small cylindrical 
stoves with an extended 
mouthpiece, so that coal can 
be supplied from outside of 
the flue. The amount of 
heat required for warming 
the flues will depend upon 
various conditions, such as 
height and size of flue, outside and inside temperatures, 
etc. For average conditions, satisfactory results are 
usually obtained by making the total grate area in the 
flue heaters about one-seventh that of the total grate 
area of the furnaces. The location of the flue heater, 
for the best results, is shown later. The size and con- 
struction of the flues are matters of especial importance 
to the architect. The sectional area is based on the 
velocity of air flow, which, in general, with the arrange- 
ments shown, may be taken as about 300 feet per 
minute in both supply and vent flues. In the former, 
the temperature will be greater, and the height of the 
flue less, so that the air velocity, which depends on these 
two conditions, will be approximately the same in each. 
If an air supply of 20 cubic feet per minute per occupant 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 2. PLATE 15. 










^..^- >^ 






bil - tir'^^'"^^ '/I rp-^^l 






C/) 






C/5 






< 






S 






z 






^ 






o 






H 






Crt 






2 






< 




.J 






J 


J 


yi 


< 


J 


1- 


I 


^ 


T 


III 




U 


o 


UJ 


cr 
< 


< 


o 


zf 

o 


cc 


UJ 


o 


J 


in 

3 




J 


(•) 


u. 


o 


(T 


u 


u 


U. 


w 


If) 


<« 


> 


2 


D 
I 

n 


H 


< 


u 


, 1 


o 


UJ 


J 


o 


CO 


^ 


5 
< 


u 


C/)' 


o 


u. 


UJ 

2 
o 

h 

S 
K 
O 
Q 

Q 
Z 

<: 





THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 2. PLATE 16. 







PERSPECTIVE OF GRACE HALL AND DORMITORIES, WILLIAMS COLLEGE, WILLIAMSTOWN, MASS. 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, architects. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 2. PLATE 17. 











^f^F 



n n 






t:t jw v:i ii{TTTfrZTr:ii;"C^ 

"~J ' il • ■- ± ■-- r-s ii 






I,! ii! !ir !•/ ;i 



r 



J 



: ■ -.1- ■ \y^ -h -.'...-v. I . 










-■ '- >»s)»iKjf)a>4w«^ 



PERSPECTIVE OF QUADRANGLE, 
GRACE HALL AND DORMITORIES, WILLIAMS COLLEGE, W] LLJAMSTOWN. MASS. 

Cram, Goodhue &. Ferguson, Architects. 




HALF CF NOPTH ELEVATION HALF OF SOUTH ELEyATION ' '^' **- 

DETAILS OF STAGE, 
GRACE HALL 



EAST ELENATION 



y 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 2. PLATE 18. 




^^-..J^ ..^ ^.^ 



5cale of Fcf 



EXTERIOR DETAILS OF SOUTH ELEVATION, GRACE HALL, WILLIAMS COLLEGE, WILLI AMSTOWN, MASS. 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 2. PLATE 19. 




THE BRICKBITILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 2. PLATE 20. 




GYMNASIUM, MT. HERMON SCHOOL FOR BOYS, MT. HERMON, MASS. 

Parish & Schroeoer, Architects. 



! rr 



.-^UVvS^V/'/^yi^V 



^ 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 2. PLATE 2\. 






et^.^ BOON 

I i I I I •; ! I 



etlMl/^ BOOM 



irrmiti « : t. 






H-lrtrtiiT in ri~ri 







ri::5T noon pla/^ 



■KALt UJ T f I- . I ■ r «»r 



LIBRARY, SMITH COLLEGE, NORTHAMPTON. MASS. 
Lord &. Hewlett, architects. 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL 20. NO. 2. PLATE 22. 




THE H R I C K BU I L n KR. 

VOL. 20. NO. 2. PL,A>TE .?.V 




- a-o' 70 c£/i. Of- m/woi^- 



VIZX-<Hl't\-l2yp* — i^'/i T — i. 



^A/n or TtlE: hUlLDlMG. c5£CTfON AND LLEiVATION Or A1AIM dNTRAmE:. 

jj^TAiLa or ri^oAJT lllvation 



JCALt. I I 



111 111 = 



n^T 



LIBRARY, SMITH COLLEGE, NORTHAMPTON. MASS. 
LORD & Hewlett, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 2. PLATE 24. 




< 

Ul UJ 
>^ 

< 

-J oT 

< o 
I 



2§ 

z ^ 



z 

Ul 

2 

O 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 2. PLATE 25. 




Milllllllf 



^n :-._ .«. 



EAST ENTRANCE. 



MAIN ENTRANCE. 




WOMEN'S UNION, 

FALL RIVER. 

MASS. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




Parker morse hooper, 
architect. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 2. PLATE 26. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 2. PLATE 21. 




\ 



THE BRIC K BU I LDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 2. PLATE 29. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



33 



is assumed, there should be a total flue area of 
20 X 100 , ^ 

— ^^ — = 6.6 square feet for each one hundred occu- 
pants, which applies to both supply and vent. This, in 
practice, is commonly taken as 7 or 8 square feet, usually 
the latter, to allow for the low velocity which it is possible 
to obtain in mild weather, and the comparatively low tem- 
perature of the air passing into the room under these 
conditions. The flue construction will depend somewhat 
upon the general character of the 
building. When of fireproof con- 
struction, they are commonly 
made of tile or brick, or of wire 
lath and plaster, care being taken 
in either case to make them 
tight against air leakage, and of 
smooth interior finish. With 
wooden construction, the flues 
are commonly of galvanized iron, 
furred in with a lath and plaster finish. 
The vent flues are sometimes of brick, 
even in wooden buildings, and it is a 
good idea to use this material for the 
lower part of the flue to a point some- 
what above the heater, as a protection 
against fire. Both brick and galvanized 
iron vent flues should be carried well 
above the roof and provided with a 
suitable hood, which must of course harmonize with 
other architectural features of the building. Sometimes 
these flues can be made to discharge into an open tower 
with good results, thus concealing them from view. A 
suitable arrangement for an adequate cold air supply is 
an important detail not always given the consideration 
which it should receive on the part of the architect. 

Each furnace should have a connection with the out- 
side air of at least 6 square feet for each 5 square feet of 
grate surface, and it is usually best to make it the full 
size of the warm-air flue (7 or 8 square feet) when con- 
ditions will allow. The cold-air duct should, if possible. 



rl — * 


W: 




■^1 



FIG. IV 




FIG. V 



The inlet windows should be provided with means for 
adjusting, to meet the requirements of dififerent condi- 
tions of wind pressure and direction. 

Temperature regulation, to a certain extent, can be se- 
cured by properly controlling the fire, but every furnace 
layout should also be provided with mixing dampers for 
close regulation and when it is desired to secure results 
more (juickly than can be done by changes in the fire. 
The form and details of construction will depend on 
local conditions, but the general 
principle to be followed is shown 
in diagram in Fig. H. They 
should be made to close tightly 
against angle iron flanges, and be 
under the control of the janitor 
from some point outside the audi- 
torium. In designing the mixing 
dampers, care should be taken to 
have the cool air pass up the back 
of the flue and enter the room at the 
top of the register above the warm-air 
current, else it will fall after entering 
the room, and cause uncomfortable 
drafts upon those sitting below. When 
introduced at the top of the register, 
the warm air from below mixes with it 
and tends to carry it upward as shown 
in Fig. 9. 
It will be noticed that only the auditorium has been 
provided for in the above. This has been done pur- 
posely because the location of chapel, Sunday school 
rooms, etc., vary so widely in diff^erent cases. These 
may be treated as a separate proposition, bearing in 
mind that the full ventilating power of the system is not 
recjuired in the main auditorium during the hour follow- 
ing the service, and at least one-half the capacity of the 
main furnaces may be diverted to the warming of other 
parts of the building. When the arrangement allows, it is 
often possible to do the whole of the heating from the 
auditorium furnaces by the use of suitable switch dampers. 



open toward the north or west, in order to get the Another detail to be cared for by the architect is pro- 



uLriLay/^G jwrmz 



o 



IZI 



fVf^ACE. f-u/^mcE 



o 



r-umAcii roi^AiAcr: 



O:- 



I 



n: 



0;:- 



I 



0: 



[ 



I 



[ 



c 



-I 



0: 






c 







U 












5 



f Mcr-LLCT/AiG jmncn 



FIG. VI. 



FIG. VII. 



benefit of the wind pressure. A better plan is to pro- 
vide cold-air rooms as shown in Fig. 6, and arrange for 
inlet windows on three sides. This gives an oppor- 
tunity to take advantage of the wind from three points 
of the compass instead of one, and the eff'ectiveness can 
be still further increased by providing outside shutters 
which can be used for deflectors, as shown in Fig. 7. 



vision for air rotation when warming only is cared for, 
without ventilation. This applies to the time retpiired 
for heating up the building on Sunday morning, and at 
any time during the week when it is desired to warm 
the church for cleaning, or forotlier purposes, when only 
a few people are present. 

Rotation consists in taking inside air from the room 



34 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



and passing it through the heating chambers of the fur- 
nace instead of drawing in cold fresh air from out of 
doors. Under these conditions the air is used over and 
over again, and is simply a medium for carrying the 
heat from the furnace to the room, the same as the cir- 
culating water in a system of hot- water heating. When 
the basement is finished, or has a cemented floor and is 
kept reasonably clean, rotation 
can usually be secured by open- 
ing, or partially opening, the 
various doors between the aud- 
itorium and the cold-air rooms 
connecting with the furnaces, 
the cold-air inlet windows of 
course being closed. Often all 
that is necessary is to open the 
doors between the cold-air 
rooms and the basement, de- 
pending on leakage to furnish 
a sufficient amount of air to 
carry the heat from the furnace 
to the room above. 

When conditions are such 




t 



riG. VIII. 



ten per cent, or even more, all other dimensions re- 
maining the same as in Table I. 

It should be stated that the diagrams accompany- 
ing this article are for illustrating principles rather 
than details of construction, and are for the purpose 
of suggesting schemes which may be carried out, 
in part at least, in actual design. 

Various modifications will, 
of course be necessary to 
adapt them to special cases. 
For example, a different ar- 
rangement of doors from the 
vestibiile into the main audi- 
torium in Fig. 1, or other 
structural details, may make it 
impossible to carry up the 
vent flues where shown, but it 
may be perfectly feasible to 
obtain the same result by 
changing the uptakes to some 
other point, not too far dis- 
tant, and connect them with 
the vent registers by means 



I 

I 



FIG. IX. 



:.?^ 



^, 



that it is necessary to provide special ducts for this pur- of horizontal ducts in the basement. In cases of this 

pose it can often be done by placing dampers in the kind the added resistance should be provided for by 

vent flues above the stack heaters and connecting the making the horizontal portion from twenty-five to thirty 

lower part of the flues with the cold-air chambers, thus per cent larger than the vertical, as computed by the 

making the vent registers serve two purposes. Fig. 10 methods already given. It may also be well in cases 

shows a common arrangement of vent register, stack of this kind to increase the size of stack heater slightly, 

heater, and outboard flue; while Fig. 11 shows the same Again, conditions may be such that the warm-air flues 

provided with a switch damper for sending the air cannot be brought up at the sides of the platform as 

from the vent register either outboard or to the cold-air shown, and it may be necessary to approximate this 



HtG' 



room. 

In planning for a heating 
and ventilating system for a 
church auditorium, a con- 
venient method is to assume 
one hundred occupants as a 
basis, or ' ' unit, " and propor- 
tion the different parts of 
the apparatus according to 
the data given in Table I. 
In this way the size is easily 
approximated for the condi- 
tions in any particular case, 
and space may be reserved 

in laying out the plans; while the location of flues and 
registers may be determined, in a general way, by 
reference to Figs. 1, 2 and 3. 

TABLE I. 

Proportions ov Furnace Heating Apparatus for One 
Hundred Occupants, Outside Temperature 0. 

Air supply per minute, 2,000 cubic feet. 

Grate area of furnace, 5 square feet (30 inches diameter). 

Air pa.ssage.s throujj:h furnace, 6 to 7 square feel. 

Grate area of stack heater, 0.78 square feet (12 inches diameter). 

Chimney flue, 40 to 50 feet high, 70 square inches for round flue 

(10 inches diameter), 90 square inches for rectangular flue 

(8 inches by 12 inches). 
Supply and vent flues, 8 square feet. 
Cold air duct, 7 to 8 square feet. 




arrangement by locating 
them somewhat further 
back, and connect with the 
registers by horizontal ducts 
at the ceilings of the small 
rooms in the rear. When 
this is done, the horizontal 
portions should be enlarged, 
as already described, and the 
change in direction from 
vertical to horizontal should 
be well rounded to minimize 
the resistance. 

When it is not possible to 
utilize the full width of the basement for a cold-air room, 
as shown in Fig. 7, practically the same results may be 
obtained by using a small room in each corner and con- 
necting them by an overhead duct of galvanized iron. 

In some cases it will be found impossible to provide 
more than a single inlet for certain stacks, that is, the 
air must always be taken from the same point of com- 
pass. When this is necessary the opening should be 
made about 50 per cent larger than called for by the 
methods previously given. If inlets of this kind occur 
upon the south side of the building it will improve 
matters somewhat if a swinging deflector is provided, 
which may be set to catch winds coming either from the 
east or west. 



These illustrations are cited to show how the sugges- 
This data is for average conditions; for especially ex- tions given may be altered to adapt them to the special 
posed locations, increase furnace grate area from five to conditions of actual practice. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

The Principles of Architecture. 



35 



II 



by william i.. mowi.l. 
The Becunnincs ok Life. 

THE simplest of the minor forms of architecture are manner of building. The plain rectangular piers have 
the mouldings. A good common example of the given way to columns with numerous flat sides. Instead 
.use of these forms is the cornice, usually made up of a of being of the same shape from the bottom to the 
group of mouldings. Even a slight examination of the underside of the cross beam, these have square blocks 
tops of the walls of the buildings in any city will include placed at their upper ends just below the architrave, 
a great variety of cornices above walls of all sorts of What was the object of making these piers with a 

materials. Because of a desire to state freshly the mo- larger number of flat sides than four and of placing the 
fives which prompt designers to produce so many differ- square block at the top ? The pier at Amada was (luite 
ent answers to what appears to be always pretty much as effective as a practical means of support. The answer 

begins to be evident if a 
number of columns are ar- 
ranged as in the diagram 
(Fig. III). The eye naturally 
follows this succession of 
forms in one direction rather 
than the other. This happens 
on account of the greater 
degree of contrast, caused by 
the block at one end of each 
unit, unbalanced by any at- 
traction at the other end. The vision is directed inces- 
santly about, up and down, right and left. The attention 
is held by symmetry. The eye moves freely where not 
so held. In this unbalanced arrangement it moves more 



the same problem, it is pro 
posed to look back at the be- 
ginnings of architecture to 
see how this art became dis- 
tinguishable from building 
and what part cornices and 
mouldings in general had in 
that genesis. Inspired from 
Egypt, the Greeks created 
architecture of a nobility and 
power to equal which their 

successors have expended their best efforts in vain. The 
union of structural design with that branch of design 
which deals with the pleasant relations of spots, lines, 
areas and colors, without taking into account any more 




difficult questions, marked its origin as it has each of its readily in the direction of the superior interest, assisted 

revivals. It seems possible with the aid of this pure or by the parallel lines of the shaft. In the building, the 

inorganic design to find out why the great variety of arrangement has the effect of producing a suggestion of 

forms used in past architectures were used and to get impulse upward. 



the answer to this question in such form as to be a con 
stant guide to the designer. 

By common agreement the older and simpler of Egyp 
tian structures are not architecture but building, merely 
An example of this sort is the 
temple at Amada (Fig. I). It 
has walls and piers of regular 
rectangular blocks supporting 
the fiat rectangular slabs 
which form the roof. The 
actual necessities of putting 
the building together have ap- 
parently, with but slight ex- 
ceptions, caused every form 
to take its shape and position. 
The reasons for the features 
not strictly structural are not 
apparent. The builders were 
evidently so fully taken up 
with the construction itself as 
to prevent their adding details 
that were not absolutely necessary 
clearly apparent. 




kk;. II 



The mouldings upon the portion above the vertical sup- 
ports, here, as at Amada, where a beam spans from post 
to post, help this suggested movement. There is more 
going on at the top edge of the architrave and along the 

upper part of the cornice, pro- 
ducing together more interest 
in the upper part of the whole 
entablature, than at the bot- 
tom. The result is an unbal- 
ance. Its effect on the eye 
may be shown in a diagram as 
in the case of the column (I'^ig. 
I\'). The eye is impelled 
through the arrangement to 
the left. This demonstrates 
that inequality of contrasts 
is productive of a feeling 
of unbalance, u n r e st or 
movement, in whatever di- 
rection it occurs. This move- 
ment may be along lines or 



^L.%^ 



Design was not yet across them as the designer pleases. 

If the Parthenon, (Fig. V), is compared witli the 

Examples of this degree of simplicity are rare. Nearly Egyptian temples, the system of construction is seen to 

every ancient building in Egypt has that something be the same, the forms of the details very different. 

which makes it architecture. For instance, in the tem- The columns are less ponderous and more graceful, 

pie at Deir-el-Bahari (Fig. II), a change from the earlier The contrasts of form of the capitals are so arranged 

type has taken place without any modification in the as to be more striking than the simple ones already 



^6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



shown. The movement toward them is helped by two 
means used in Egypt, that is, parallel lines and a dimi- 
nution in size from bottom to top. Beside this, the upper 
portion of the whole arrangement contains a larger 
number and variety of contrasts of 
forms than in the Egyptian temple. 
The entablature is increased in rela- 
tive height by the addition between Ij 
the architrave and the cornice of the 
frieze, the surface of which is sub- || 
divided and variously carved and dec- 
orated. The top level line of the 
cornice is unbroken as in the previous 
example. There is less abruptness 
and severity in the Parthenon and 
more or better, style. The motive 
remains the same, a liveliness given 
by the use of unbalanced parts but it 
has received expression with greater 
clearness, ease and force. The differ- 
ence is one of manner of expression only. The reasons 
for the increase in interest are to be found in the form 
and arrangement of the detail from a general examina- 
tion of which the underlying principle again appears. 

At the level of the colonnade the eye moves with 
difficulty across the vertical 
lines of the columns but 
moves freely upward. The 
shapes of the columns and of 
the spaces between them, 
balanced about vertical axes, 
interfere with a horizontal 
movement of the eye by pre- 
senting symmetrical, upright 
shapes. The eye falls naturally 
on the middle of the row of 
symmetrical objects which are 
presented at this level. Then, 
as the columns are more inter- 
esting at the top, the eye moves up along the columns 
into the region of the entablature. 

Impelled by the columns and attracted by the frieze, 
the eye moves, without anything to arrest it, across the 



KIG. III. 



FIG. IV. 




KIG. V. 



unbalance of the lines and parts of the whole is shown 
by the balanced and unbalanced lines in the diagram 
(Fig. VI), which reveals the inorganic design which has 
been added to the bare construction. 

In the temple at Deir-el-Bahari 
movement is present clearly, in the 
Parthenon it is not only present but 
is guided and governed. The coinci- 
dence between the movement and 
the actual structural conditions is 
complete. The vertical continuity of 
the columns and the unbroken hori- 
zontal continuity of the architrave are 
not only suited to the post and beam 
but are so arranged as to show what 
they are doing. The upper edge of 
the architrave is marked as in Egypt 
by a horizontal line. Its extent from 
one post to the next, and its rigidity 
for carrying the load which it supports 
are thus emphasized as much as they could be without sud- 
denlyinterruptingthevertical movement suggested bythe 
column. The two variations of this scheme of upward 
unbalance or movement may be represented by the lines 
at (a) in the figures. The Egyptian was abrupt in " stop- 
ping " the unbalance, the Greek 
gradual. The frieze was intro- 
duced for no structural reason 
but to form a step between the 
vertical unbalance of the col- 
umn and the complete hori- 
zontal of the cornice. 

This scheme of movement 
which has been shown in its 
origin and its later use in 
Greece is only one o\it of the 
past. The common elements are 
the life and the pure design idea. 
The former resides in the con- 
struction itself. The old adage " The arch never sleeps " 
is no less true of the lintel. The law of gravitati(m keeps 
all the forces of any building in constant operation. Their 
action and the resistance to them was felt by the ancien 
builders to make a theme for their frozen music. The 



plain band of the architrave into the region of the frieze. 

Taken together with the triglyphs the metopes form a expression of the action of the parts by means of parts 

band along which the eye finds it possible to move hori- added to bring out continuity, balance and unbalance, 

zontally with much less balance to hold it than below, gives the appearance of movement and life to that which 

A horizontal movement is more or less arrested by the before acted but without witness. In te>tifying to the 



vertical lines of the triglyphs which 
give an upward impulse. This is 
not powerful however, because 
their vertical extent is slight. The 
effect of symmetry, holding the eye 
at the center of the whole and re- 
tarding its freedom of movement 
is no longer felt because the num- 
ber of parts in the arrangement has been increased be 
yond seven, which is the greatest number that is recog 
nized as a symmetry. 



ToTo T°T°T°ToToTOToToToToToT oT 



FIG. VI 



forces and reactions of their struc- 
^' tures and of the purposes which 
caused their erection, arose oppor- 
tunities for the unconscious record 
of the temper of the builders, 
through whom flowed into the 
stones their strength and weakness, 
aspirations and successes. This is 
the life of building; it thus becomes architecture. 

The life of modern architecture depends similarly on 
the structure and its expression. Success in expression 
depends on an orderly use of balance and unbalance; 



Above this band, the upward movement is termi- 
nated. There is a further transition however, from the never forgetting that another of the differences between 
frieze to the cornice line, a set of flat brackets placed Egypt and Greece was that the Cxreeks were possessed of 
upon the under side of the cornice. The balance or a superior sense of beauty. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

FORTY-FOURTH ANNUAL CONVENTION 
THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF 
ARCHITECTS. 



37 



OF 



SAN FRANCISCO, the "Paris of America, "extended a 
most cordial welcome to the A. I. A. Convention held 
in that city January 17, 18 and 19. This was the first 
meeting of the Institute to be held on the Pacific Coast 
and will ever be a memorable one because of the hospi- 
table treatment its members received from their Western 
confreres, the citizens at large and the public press. 
The breadth and scope of work undertaken by the Insti- 
tute was never more fully realized. A vital grasp of our 
present needs together with the furtherance of such acts 
as will bring the profession added respect and dignity 
seemed to permeate each address, each report and each 
discussion. The large attendance suggests a growing 
interest that speaks well for future achievements. 

The first session of the convention was auspiciously 
opened at the Fairmont Hotel on the morning of January 
17th with addresses of welcome by acting Mayor John A. 
Kelly and M. H. Robbins, Jr., president of Merchants- 
Association. Irving K. Pond, president of the A. I. A., 
in responding, touched on certain of the Institute's re- 
lations to the building public as represented by the 
client ; the Institute's attitude as affecting the profession ; 
and the family relations within the Institute. After 
speaking of the ever-widening circle of influence exerted 
by the Institute Mr. Pond said: " I touch firstly upon 
that phase which embraces the Institute's relation to the 
client. It is the province of the Institute to deal 
broadly and in detail with the principles underlying the 
science of building and the ideals underlying the art of 
design. 

"The first great principle upon which the Institute 
stands is that of justness and fairness in so far as it is 
given to man to realize these seeming abstractions. In 
the Code of Ethics, in the Competition Code, in the cog- 
nizance it takes of all professional activities, the Institute 
stands for fair play as between man and man, absolute 
frankness and fairness of dealing between architects in 
their professional relations, absolute integrity and fair- 
ness in the dealings between architect and client and 
between client and architect." 

After citing the two codes mentioned above, Mr. Pond 
discussed the matter of accepting the Institute's schedule 
of charges. He showed how a discrimination should be 
made between buildings which are merely of structural 
import and those which call into play all of the material 
and icsthetic capabilities of the architect. 

Referring to the Institute's attitude as affecting the 
profession Mr. Pond quoted the Board of Directors 
as reaffirming the belief that the American Institute 
of Architects is and should continue to be the foremost 
professional body in the United States. To accomplish 
this the Board unanimously decided to consider outside 
of the honorary class no membership which was not 
purely architectural; while the honorary class should 
include non-professional men who have with distinction 
ministered to the art of architecture and such practition- 
ers of sculpture and painting as have demonstrated their 
fitness to enjoy the privilege. He closed this thought 
by saying, " I feel that in passing these amendments 



virtually as recommended by the Board the Institute will 
strengthen itself within itself and before the public." 

In closing Mr. Pond spoke of the paramount ideal 
of architecture, the ideal of beauty : " It must sway in 
the relations between architect and client, it must color 
the fraternal intercourse between architects, it must 
govern in the realm of education." 

Reports were read from the Board of Directors and 
various committees. The directors' report showed a 
membership of one thousand and eighty-four, as follows: 
Fellows, three hundred and eleven; associates, six hun- 
dred and fifteen; honorary, seventy-two; corresponding 
members, eighty-six. 

The Committee on Education reported through Ralph 
Adams Cram their plan of a consistent scheme for archi- 
tectural education. Its aim is "to round out the fine work 
now being done in drawing and design by such organ- 
izations as the Beaux-Arts Society, the Philadelphia 
T-Square Club and the Boston Architectural Club by 
equally authoritative training in history, mathematics 
and construction which has been the object of the com- 
mittee of this year." 

Mr. Cram spoke of the enthusiasm with which the 
scheme has been accepted at Columbia University ; of the 
extension courses established at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, which work is carried on in consultation with 
the local Chapter and the T-Square Club; of its success 
in Boston, and the cordial sympathy of institutions like 
Harvard, Technology and others. 

Mr. Cram condemned the idea of the membership being 
limited to the eminent architects of mature years. He 
believes in catching the young student whose close con- 
tact with the Institute will make his membership therein 
inevitable when he comes to the practice of architecture. 

In conclusion Mr. Cram emphasized the keynote of the 
report: " The solidarity of the architectural profession, 
architects, draftsmen and students; and the raising of 
the Institute itself to a point where it will command, 
where now it only deserves, imiversal recognition as the 
authoritative and definitive expression of the architec- 
tural profession in the United States." 

The report of the Committee on the Conservation of Na- 
tional Resources showed the wide and increasingly active 
interest in this sul)ject and explained how the continued 
prosperity of the building interests is dependent upon 
the wise use of the constructional materials. 

The report of the Committee on Competitions by 
Frank Miles Day caused considerable discussion through- 
out the remaining sessions. He said: " The Institute in 
its canons of ethics declares that it is unprofessional con- 
duct for any member to take part in any competition, the 
terms of which are not in harmony with the principles 
approved by the Institute. In consonance with the canon 
and as a means of applying it in practice, the Institute 
at its Forty-third Annual Convention resolved that it 
should be held unprofessional for any member to take 
part in any competition, the program of which had not 
received the formal approval of the Institute. It, there- 
fore, became necessary for the Board of Directors accu- 
rately to state the Institute's principles. The statement of 
them took the form of a circular of advice relative to the 
conduct of competitions and a code stating the provisions 
regarded by the Institute as essential to every program." 



38 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



The code provides that members of the Institute may 
not enter their plans in competition unless certain rules 
are observed, such as the employment of an expert ad- 
viser to set forth the type of plans desired, the acceptance 
of a minimum rate, etc. 

Mr. Day in answering the many objections as to the 
mandatory features of the code said: "The committee 
is of the opinion that the action of the last conven- 
tion has been of the highest value to the profession; 
that the circular of advice has greatly diffused a knowl- 
edge of the proper way of holding competitions and 
that the mandatory character of the code has in a 
few months brought about such an improvement in the 
conduct of its members as no academic discussion or 
statement of principles could have brought about in 
years. The committee is unanimous that the Institute's 
attitude and the code itself were sound and right and that 
the only changes needed were of procedure and detail." 

Other committees reported as follows: "House Com- 
mittee," Leon E. Dessez; " Bureau of Fine Arts," 
S. B. P. Trowbridge; "Institute Seal," H. Van B. Ma- 
gonigle; "Electrical Code and P^ire Protection," C. H. 
Blackall. 

During the afternoon the delegates enjoyed the bound- 
less hospitality of the members of the vSan Francisco 
Chapter. After a profitable sightseeing tour of the city 
luncheon was served at the Cliff House. In the evening 
a reception was given in the Fairmont Hotel by the local 
Chapter. Amid the expressions of praise for the cordial- 
ity shown to the visiting members a telegram was re- 
ceived and read from President Taft. In his message to 
the architects in convention President Taft extended his 
felicitations and congratulations for the great work the 
Institute has done. 

The second day's session was called to order by Presi- 
dent Pond. Considerable time was spent in the discus- 
sion of the report on competitions as well as on the 
proposed amendments to the by-laws and constitution. 
The code of competitions as recommended, opposing com- 
petition and favoring direct employment, was adopted. 

Under the reports of committees, H. B. Wheelock, on 
the Committee of Credentials reported fifty-seven dele- 
gates present in person and thirty-five by proxy, making 
a voting power of ninety-two. C. Grant La Farge, 
chairman of the Committee on the President's Address, 
reported a general concurrence in the president's views 
and proposed amendments. C. A. Ziegler, vice-chairman 
of the Committee on Chapters, reported unusual activity 
among the majority of the Chapters. After showing how 
the Chapters in various cities had done much good in 
acting as experts in municipal and other work, he offered 
in behalf of the committee the recommendation that all 
Chapters of the Institute be urged to appoint committees 
for the " Preservation of Historic Buildings." D. Everett 
Waid, of the Committee on Resolutions, made a report 
indorsing a resolution by the San Francisco Chapter 
which recommends the appointment of a municipal com- 
mission for the developing of plans for public improve- 
ments on generally harmonious lines. Robert D. Kohn, 
of the Committee on Reports of Special Committees, 
recommended the continuation of the Committee on Con- 
servation, and the establishment of a Committee on Fire 
Protection, to work with the National Fire Association. 



Following the business meeting of the morning the 
architects became the guests of the Oakland Chamber of 
Commerce. The representatives of the Oakland organi- 
zation met the delegates at Key Route Inn where 
luncheon was served. A. A. Denison, secretary of the 
Chamber of Commerce, welcomed the architects in the 
name of the city of Oakland. Following the luncheon 
the delegates were taken in automobiles about Oakland, 
after which the Institute assembled in the Greek Theater 
of the University of California. A hearty welcome was 
extended to the visiting architects by the president of 
the State University. 

The third day's session was called to order by Presi- 
dent Pond at 10 a.m. Wednesday, January 19th. 

After considerable discussion the following amend- 
ment was adopted together with many others: " No per- 
son shall be eligible to membership in the Institute 
unless he be at the time a member of a Chapter, provided 
that a Chapter exists in the territory in which he resides. 
No member of the Institute shall be an Institute mem- 
ber of more than one Chapter." A resolution was passed 
to devise means for the preservation and restoration of 
the ancient Franciscan buildings of California. A motion 
was carried to establish a Committee on Civic Design. 

At the afternoon session J. Pickering Putnam of 
Boston presented a paper on "Plumbing." After the 
reading of this paper the report of the tellers announced 
the following elections: Irving K. Pond, president; 
Walter Cook, first vice-president; E. M. Wheelwright, 
second vice-president; Glenn Brown, secretary and treas- 
urer; Thomas R. Kimball, Milton B. Medary, Jr., and 
A. F. Rosenheim, directors for three years. Sixteen 
architects were elected Fellows of the Institute. Follow- 
ing the announcement of the tellers Arthur B. Benton 
read a paper on " The Missions of Old California." 

In the closing moments of the convention resolutions 
were adopted giving thanks to the Illinois, Colorado, 
vSan Francisco and Southern California Chapters, who 
have and who will entertain the Institute in its present 
excursion and convention. The recommendation of the 
Board of Directors that a gold medal of the American 
Institute of Architects be conferred upon George B. Post 
was passed. After a few remarks by the various mem- 
bers the convention adjourned with three rousing cheers 
for the San Francisco Chapter. 

The banquet tendered at the Fairmont Hotel Thurs- 
day evening by the San Francisco Chapter to the visiting 
delegates concluded the entertainment extended by their 
California hosts. William Mooser, president of the San 
Francisco Chapter, extended a most cordial greeting to 
the delegates. 

In response to a toast C. (irant La Farge of New York 
said: "There is something of singular inspiration to a 
man of our older and, perhaps, more limited eastern 
communities, in coming thus across the vast distance of 
our great country — miles which separate us geograph- 
ically and yet are but a long and splendid link in our 
essential brotherhood." Other speakers of the evening, 
who paid a tribute to the genius of the modern American 
architect, were Right Rev. William Ford Nichols, D.D. ; 
Irving K. Pond, president of the Institute; Ralph Adams 
Cram; Frank D. Hudson; Prof. C. B. Wing; Charles W. 
Hornick, and Frank T. Shea. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Plate Illustrations — Descri ption. 



39 



Grace Hall and Dormitories, Williamstown, Mass. 
Plates 15-19. This group of buildings will consist of 
a large hall and two dormitories. Grace Hall, which is 
given as a memorial by Mr. Alfred C. Chapin, will have 
an approach from the south by an avenue 100 feet wide 
with tall elms growing on either side. The exterior 
design calls for a colonnade of six monolithic columns 
crowned by a pediment whose tympanum will accom- 
modate a future work of statuary. The building will 
have a granite base, walls of dark red sand struck brick, 
and cornice and balustrade of stone. All entrances will 
have carved stone doorways, three of which constitu- 
ting the main entrance will be richly carved and have 
ornamented wood doors. The windows on the sides and 
front will have moulded and carved stone treatment. 
Upon the interior the walls of the lobby will be treated 
in quarter sawed oak and the ceiling in ornamented plas- 
ter. The stair halls will have paneled walls and orna- 
mented ceilings in plaster. The auditorium will be 
designed in quarter sawed oak to the top of the gallery 
balustrades, above which will be ornamented and paneled 
plaster. The benches at the sides of the auditorium 
will also be of quarter sawed oak, having a parapet of 
the same material in front of them with panels orna- 
mented and pierced. The floor will have wide teak 
wood strips alternating with narrow ones of rosewood. 
The soffit of the gallery will be of paneled wood and the 
wainscot of wood painted white. The ceiling of the 
auditorium will be painted in two tones of gray. Two 
trap doors are planned for the removal of the seats 
to a basement storage room. The stage will have 
quarter sawed oak on the walls to the top of the cor- 
nice; teak wood floors in fancy pattern, and an oriental 
tapestry filling a large panel. The president's room 
will have a wood wainscot, wood mantel with marble 
facing, plaster paneled walls and ornamented ceiling. 
The organ will be directly over the north end of the stage 
and installed so that the music will come partly from 
an opening back of the stage and partly from pierced 
grilles over the proscenium lintel. There will be a 
large club room in the basement directly under the stage 



which will have a wainscot of paneled wood and a plaster 
treatment above. 

(ivMNAsiUM, MoiNT IIermon, Mass. I'i.ate 20. Thls 
building is built of Harvard brick with dressed basement 
walls and Vermont marble trimmings. The main cor- 
nice is of wood, the roof of slate and the cupola of copper. 
Upon the interior the walls are faced with light colored 
brick. The main gymnasium is .SO feet by 120 feet with 
the running track suspended from roof trusses. The 
total cost of the building with the electric fixtures, but 
exclusive of gymnasium apparatus, lockers and other 
furnishings, was approximately §79,000. The cubage of 
the building taken from finished cellar floor to surfaces 
of roofs, is ,350,000 cubic feet, making the cost per cubic 
foot about 22 '2 cents. 

Central Y. W. C. A. Builoinc;, Pittsburg, Pa. Plates 
26, 27. This building has an exterior finish of light colored 
brick with terracotta trimmings. The main feature on the 
interior is the lobby which opens to the top of the second 
floor, has a mosaic tile floor, and a balcony running around 
the sides. The woodwork in the lobby is of fumed oak, as 
it is throughout the building. The basement plan provides 
for a swimming pool, dressing rooms, baths, laundry and 
an emergency room ; while a sub-basement takes care of 
the heating, ventilating and electrical apparatus, a pump- 
ing station, a refrigerating plant and filter. The second 
floor accommodates a library, an extension department, 
offices, class rooms, and a designing room ; while the third 
floor is occupied by the domestic art and domestic science 
departments. Over the sixth floor are located single rooms 
for the help. A roof terrace is placed above the dining 
room, and connected with the kitchen by elevators in order 
to furnish meals there in the summer. In addition to the 
regular fire escape there is a fire tower, separate from the 
main building but accessible from every floor. The total 
cost of the building, including architect's commission was 
$310,000. The general contract amounted to $176,000 ; the 
mechanical equipment including plumbing, heating, light- 
ing and power plant, $72,000; the balance being used tor 
wrecking, structural steel, kitchen and laundry ecpiip- 
ment, refrigerators, light fixtures and miscellaneous items. 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



THE CONVENTION. 

THE convention of the Institute held in San Fran- 
cisco in January, 1911, differentiates itself from all 
other recent conventions in that, by the very nature of 
the case, it was primarily an affair of good-fellowship. 
This element has never been lacking in the past, but 
hitherto, for one reason and another, legislation has 
been to the fore and the conventions, particularly those 
in Washington, have been marked more by consistent 
hard work than by social considerations. The San Fran- 
cisco Convention inevitably took on a different color, 
and it was well for the Institute that it did so. Im- 



portant as are legislation and the listening to scholarly 
papers, the fusing of the whole profession into one 
through the meeting on a common ground of representa- 
tives from far separated and widely different communi- 
ties is of cpiite ecjual importance- as has always been 
realized by those who in Cleveland, Chicago and Wash- 
ington, have annually come into touch with their fellows 
from the South, the Middle West and the Coast Every 
man from every Chapter brings to each convention some- 
thing that every other member needs, and no .section of 
the country — considering its geographical distance — has 
been more faithful in its attendance, and at great per- 
sonal inconvenience and expense, or more generous in 



40 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



its contribution of valuable personality, than has the its serpentine trip through the Rockies. This trip through 

Pacific Coast. the Grand Caiion of the Arkansas was a revelation of im- 

It was only justice, therefore, that at last the moun- possible painted mountains followed by wide snow-fields 

tain should go to Mahomet, and that the Coast should for that faded away and gave place to the gray deserts and 



once be host 
at its own 
hearthstone, 
rather than 
guest at the 
far-away 
board of the 
East. 

If there are 
any regrets 
they must be 
sought in Cali- 
fornia, the 
East has none 
to entertain. 
Elaborate, 
carefully con- 
sidered ar- 
ran gements 
had been made 
for the trans- 




UKTAII.S OF FACTOkV UUILUING, NKW VOKK CITY, 

Executed by the South ."Vmboy Terra Cotta Company. 

Shire & Kaufman, Architects. 



the lavender 
and white 
ranges that lie 
around vSalt 
Lake City. 
Here admira- 
tion was di- 
vided between 
a city really 
beautiful in 
itself, the 
great organ in 
the T a b e r - 
nacle(whereon 
much popular 
music "ar- 
ranged " for 
this instru- 
ment was ex- 
c e 1 1 e n t 1 y 
played) and 



portation of the delegates across the continent, and these the astonishing ability of the ignorant and untrained old 

were carried out without a break and in a most astonish- builders of the Tabernacle, to create an edifice that was 

ingly satisfactory manner. A comfortable and even lux- a model of acoustics and construction, 

urious special train was provided by the Chicago and Beyond Salt Lake lay the long climb into the fastnesses 



Northwestern R. R. ; the agent 
who "personallyconducted" the 
pilgrimage was a model of in- 
conspicuous but efficient solici- 
tude, the conductors were patient 
and cheerful, the porters devoid 
of the occasional arrogance of 
their kind, the food (etc.) excel- 
lent, varied and ample, though it 
was rumored that had the train 
been delayed a day in the snows 
of the Sierras, the " etc." would 
have been diminished to a point 
where it would have been neces- 
sary to put the passengers on 
half rations. 

From Chicago across the 
Plains to Denver the trip was 
uneventful, except for the in- 
cessant labors of many commit- 
tees and the furtive preparation 
of notes for extemporaneous 
and unexpected speeches by 
various private individuals. At 
Denver came the first experi- 
ence with the near- West. Daz- 
zling, snow-covered mountains 
rose like a rampart along a vig- 
orous and enthusiastic city that 
produced an astonishing se- 
quence of "seeing Denver" 




ENTRANCE TO CHELSEA CITY HALL, 

CHELSEA, MASS. 

E.xecuted in terra cotta by the New Jersey Terra Cotta 

Company. 

Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



of the Sierras. A cooling and 
salutary snow lay deep at 
Reno and there was word there 
that the pas.ses were blocked 
with 12 feet thereof. At the 
moment, however, trains de- 
layed forty-eight hours began 
to come in and the "Architects 
Special " advanced intrepidly 
into the white wilderness. 
Twelve feet of snow there was 
indeed ; the mountain villages 
were practically extinguished, 
as were some of the delegates 
who ventured out with their 
kodaks at the not infrequent 
stops; sections of the forty 
miles of snowsheds had been 
carried away by avalanches and 
the train crept cautiously around 
the wild curves of the road in 
the midst of whirling snow. It 
was a world entirely white, 
mountains, trees, sky. Past the 
summit there came a long 
swinging coast down through a 
violet valley, around "Cape 
Horn," and then, at sunset, the 
level plain. At 3 o'clock we 
were in 12 feet of snow; at 6 
girls with no hats and wearing 



motors in which the delegates did it. In the evening the shirtwaists were visible, with green grass under their 
Denver Chapter was host at a fine banquet and at 2 a.m. feet; and at 10 p.m. two palm trees waved a welcome 
the train — with a still intact quota — started south for at Berkeley. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



41 



The anticipated hospitality of the Coast made its as though the earthciuake and fire had never been and 
appearance with the shirtwaist girls, for at a way station the impression was simply that vSan Francisco was merely 
(was it Poker Flat?) an outbound train transferred to the a little better off in point of commercial architecture 




I •■lllllll<ilgllliillllliillllllllf I, ,llllilll,,,llUitul|iiiiiiiiiiiiiii ■■■■■■■■*. 




DETAIL OF THE GEORGE M. COHANS THEATRE, BROADWAY AND 43I) STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

Terra cotta executed by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

George Keister, Arcliitect. 



special one carload of roses, violets, daffodils, smilax, 
and branches of orange, lemon and palm. The dining 
car was transferred into a genuine palm-garden and the 
ladies of the party were overwhelmed with the scented 
greetings of Cali- 
fornia. 

At first sight 
San Fran ci sco 
looked surpris- 
ingly familiar; 
here was the well 
remembered 
" Ferry Building " 
and there in the 
distance the Call 
Building, with its 
lofty dome. All 
between and 
around was a solid 
and mature mass 
of business blocks, 
with no gaps, no 
vacant lots scored 
by crags of fire- 
scarred masonry. 
Down town it was 




TRUMBUIX SCHOOL, CHICAGO. 
Brick by The f)hio Mining and Manufacturing Co., furnished by Thoma.s Moulding 

Company. 
Dwight H. Perkins, Architect. 



than one remembered to have been the case. All was 
changed, however, as soon as one began the ascent of 
Nob Hill by one of the Alpine gradients that surely 
prove the city to be the most insanely planned of any in 

Christendom. Here 
were ruins enough 
and to spare, some of 
them vine-clad and 
startlingly pictur- 
esque, others gaunt 
and ominous in their 
forelorn abandon- 
ment. Along Cali- 
fornia street on the 
heights where the 
Fairmont Hotel lifts 
its enormous bulk, 
there is for several 
blocks, almost no re- 
building whatever, so 
far as tlic south side 
is concerned, and one 
is tempted to hope 
this always may re- 
main the case, the 
view across the city 



42 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



far below is so fine. To the north is one of the shocks 
of the rebuilding — miles, it seems, of cheap, three-story 
tenements, crowded close 
together, and all of wood. 
They told us the fireproof 
limits had been greatly 
widened, but as the eye 
swept the rolling miles 
of flimsy and inflammable 
tenements one wondered 
if the next great disaster 
in San Francisco would be 
as great as the last, or 
only second to it in its 
magnitude. This, and the 
failure to take any steps 
whatever to remedy the 
scandal of the preposter- 
ous plan — let alone the 
question of working out 
some minor part of the 
splendid scheme of civic 

improvements for which the fire seemed to make Provi- 
dential provision, was the only real disappointment one 
could feel in the Phitnix City, and even 
this was forgotten for the moment in the 
light of the miraculous rehabilitation in 
four years of a great metropolis wiped out 
of existence and again restored. 

vSome Chapters were not represented at 
all and others but slenderly. New York 
came nobly to the fore with a big delega- 
tion. Boston could muster but three out 
of its quota of eleven, and two of these 
were directors. Philadelphia did better, 
but on the whole there was anything but 
a just numerical representation of the 
whole country. Naturally, therefore, busi- 
ness took the form of carefully digested 
committee reports, approval in principle 
of the several propositions, and a referring 
back to the Board for further consider- 
ation or final action. 

The formal functions came to an end with much good 
food and more good 
language on Thursday 
night when the San Fran- 
cisco Chapter gave its 
great banquet for the 
members and guests of 
the convention; the 
speeches of the Bishop of 
California, Ur. Benjamin 
Ide Wheeler, and the 
Hon. James I. Phelan 
were particularly notable; 
unfortunately, Mr. La 
Farge was prevented from 
reading the speech he had 
prepared, but it has been 
printed in full and there- 
fore is not lost. Its deep 
thought and clear vision 




RANDALL SCHOOL, MADISON, WIS. 

Roofed with tile made by the Ludowici-Celadon Company. 

Lew Porter, Architect. 



serve to show those who were present at the banquet 
how much they lost — though fortunately only for the 

moment. 

It was a great conven- 
tion, and great because it 
revealed the West to the 
East, and the East to the 
West; because it made 
each man realize that the 
other had something of 
personality and impulse 
that he could not get along 
without. There are scores 
of men happier to-day for 
the friendships revived or 
created, than a short 
month ago; the West re- 
tains and the East brings 
back a new inspiration in 
architecture, and the 
nation is better off be- 
cause a few himdred of 
its citizens have foimd out how large it is, how com- 
pounded of different elements, and how indispensable 
each one of these is to the other. 




CONVENTION OF BRICK MAKERS. 
'HE annual meeting of the Building 



T' 



DETAIL liV THE WINKLE 
TERRA COTTA COMPANY. 




held in the Hotel Seelbach, Louisville, Ky., 
February 7th, 8th and 9ih. The meeting 
was largely attended by leading clay work- 
ers, who planned a campaign in behalf 
of brick as a building material which is 
likely to be felt throughout the country. 
The work of the association has been di- 
rected largely to an investigation to de- 
termine the comparative cost of brick 
construction with other materials, and the 
creation of a wholesome literature setting 
forth the value of brick, considered jes- 
thetically or con.structively. 
The following officers were elected for the ensuing 

year: President, R. L. 
Oueisser, Cleveland ; vice- 
president, Ralph Simp- 
kins, St. Louis; secretary- 
treasurer, Parker Fiske, 
New York. There are 
twenty-seven directors of 
the association, the major- 
ity of whom are the lead- 
ing manufacturers of 
building brick in this 
countrv. 



INTERIOR OK BERITH KODESH TE.Ml'LE, ROCHESTER, N. V. 

Interior walls faced with Roman brick made by the Ironday Brick 

Company. 

Leon Stern, Architect. 



IN GENERAL. 

The American Academy 
in Rome announces com- 
petitions for the Prizes of 
Rome in Architecture, 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



43 




DETAIL OVF.R ENTRANCE OK HOTEL. 

Executed by The Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. 

Marshall & Fox, Architects. 

Sculpture and Painting. Persons wishing to take part 
in the competitions must make written application to the 
secretary of the Academy, Francis D. Millet, 6 East ZM 
street, New York City, not later than March 15, 1911. 

The National Brick and Clay Products Exhibition will 
be held in Chicago during January, 1912. The various 
branches of the clay industry of this country will be fit- 
tingly represented at this exhibition. Further announce- 
ment will be made in these columns when the whole 
program has been developed. 

E. Roy Sholes & Co., architects, have opened offices at 
171 Washington 
street, Chicago. 

Louis Bouch- 
erle, and son 
Paul, have 
formed a part- 
nership for the 
practice of arch- 
itecture, with 
offices in the 
Stambaugh 
Building, 
Youngstown, 
Ohio. 

T h e o . C . 
Kistner, archi- 
tect, has opened 
an office at 1047 
Fifth street, 
San Diego, Cal. Manufacturers' samples and catalogues 
desired. 

Mauran & Russell would be pleased to receive manu- 
facturers' catalogues and samples at their Houston, 
Texas, office, 930 Chronicle Building. 

William D. Hewitt, Alfred H. Granger and Phineas E. 
Paist have formed a partnership for the practice of 




DETAIL OK PIHI.IC SCHOOL NO. I9, 

liROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Executed by Brick, Terra Cotta & Tile Company 

C. B. J. .Snyder, Architect. 



architecture under the name of Hewitt, Granger & Paist, 
with offices at 671 Bullitt Building, Philadelphia. 

Vonnegut and Bohn, architects, 610 Trust Building, 
Indianapolis, announce that Kurt Vonnegut and Otto N. 
Mueller have become members of the above mentioned 

firm. 

Arthur R. Koch and Charles C. Wagner have formed a 
co-partnership for the practice of architecture under the 
firm name of Koch iV Wagner, with offices at 26 Court 
street, Brooklyn. 

Charles S. Frost and Alfred H. Granger, architects, 
announce the 
dissolution of 
their partner- 
ship. Mr. 
Frost will con- 
t i n u e the 
practice of 
arch i tecture 
at the present 
address, 181 
La Salle street, 
Chicago. 



Thomas W. 
Lamb, archi- 
t e c t , a n - 
nounces the 
removal of his 
offices to 501 
Fifth avenue. 
New York 
City. 







J^ 


1 


L. 


1^ 


'ii 


^^^^~ 


^^^ 


1 




^f t B,^^tS^9 




1 






- i_Z- "'*■" 


1 




EMm 


1 


Kfi^-Ji^ 


SB-J i It j^^H 


IEbgsbs 





APARTMENT HOISE, NEW YORK CLIY. 
Terra cotta furnished by the New York .Archi- 
tectural Terra Cotta Company. 
Waid <!t Willaner, Architects. 



Verus T. 
Ritter, archi- 
t e c t , has 
opened an 

office in the Ritter Building, Huntington, West \'a. 
Mr. Ritter is also a member of the firm of Ritter & 
Stetler, architects, 17 West Third street, Williamsport, 
Pa. 

A. Raymond Ellis has been chosen architect for the 
new Heiiblein Hotel to be erected at Hartford, Conn., 
at a cost of si, 000,000. Mr. Ellis was a competitor in 
the competition for a hotel recently conducted by The 
Brickhuilder. 

Eli Benedict, architect, will continue to conduct for 
the coming season classes in architectural drawing, plan 
reading and estimating, at the night school of the 
Y. M. C. A., West 2.kl street, New York City. Mr. Ben- 
edict also gives individual atelier instruction at his offices 
1947 Broadway. 

The Atlantic Terra Cotta Company will furnish archi- 
tectural terra cotta for the following new buildings: 
East River Bank, New York City, Clinton Russell, ar- 
chitects; Knickerbocker Trust Building, New York City, 



44 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



McKim, Mead & White, architects; State Educational 
Ruilding, Albany, Palmer & Hornbostel, architects; 
Southern Building, Washington, D. C, D. H. Burnham 
& Co., architects; Athletic Club, Pittsburg, exterior of 
building and swimming pool, Janssen & Abbott, archi- 
tects; Psycopathic Hospital, Boston, Kendall, Taylor 

& Co., arch- 
i t e c t s ; 
Bevier Me- 
m o r i a 1 , 
Roches- 
ter, N. Y. 
Claude 
Bragd on, 
architect. 

i ^ ^K^ -^ ■• -'V liiMT Linoleum 

V wKPit'*! ^ . <■ ''. fJiWK^ and cork 

carpet, 
which is se- 
cured by 
waterproof 
glue to 
cement and 
other kinds 
of floors, is 
being sup- 
pi i e d by 
John H . 
Pray & Sons 

Co., Boston, not only to many of the new government 
buildings, hotels, theaters, churches, hospitals, clubs and 
other types of public and semi-public buildings, but to 
older buildings of the classes mentioned as well. 

Stephen B. Goossen and Norman H. Feldmann, archi- 
tects, have formed a co-partnership and taken ofitices in 
the Chamber of Commerce, Detroit. Manufacturers' 
samples and catalogues desired. 




DETAIL OF HANK, UNION, N. J. 

Executed by the Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cutta 

Company. 

Crow, Lewis & Wickenhoefer, Architects. 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 

TRADE MARK - REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 

BULLETIN 



RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 



Sherman Memorial Dispensary, Yonkers, N. Y. . Plate 28 

G. HowAKD Chamberi.in, Architect 



'CISKE 6- COMPANY INC 

lACE bricks; establish 

llRE BRICKSl ED IN 1864 



■WANTED — Position in architect's office by a graduate of 
one of the best architectural schools. Twelve years' experi- 
ence in the execution of important work. Middle 'West pre- 
ferred. For particulars address " H. E. C, " care of The 
Brickbuilder. 

PARTNERSHIP W^ANTED — Would you like for a 
partner an industrious young man of good habits, a licensed 
architect of ability and experience capable of designing and 
executing the best class of work ? References given and 
required. Address F. D., care of The Brickbuilder. 

"SPECIFICATION BLANKS," by T. Robert Wieger. 
architect (formerly with F. E. Kidder). Forms for all classes 
of buildings, each trade separate. Complete set, 44 pages, 
25 cents. Reduction on quantities. Sample page upon 
request. 628- 14th street, Denver, Colo. 

ARCHITECTS AND DRAFTSMEN— i register as- 
sistants FOR THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION EXCLUSIVELY 
IN AND FOR ANY PART OF THE UNITED STATES. HAVE CALLS 
FOR HELP CONTINUALLY FROM THE BEST OF OFFICES IN ALL 
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. MY LIST CONSISTS OF THE HIGH- 
EST GRADE TECHNICAL MEN. NO REGISTRATION FEE AND 
REASONABLE TERMS. IF YOU ARE NEEDING HELP OR SEEK- 
ING A GOOD POSITION, WRITE ME. LEO A. PEREIRA, 
218 La SaI.LE St., Chicago. Long Distance Tel., FrankUn uas. 

A BOOK OF HOUSE DESIGNS— THE TITLE OF 
A 64 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS THE 
DESIGNS SUBMITTED IN COMPETITION FOR 
A HOUSE BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW 
TILE. ILLUSTRATIONS OF HOUSES BUILT OF 
THIS MATERIAL, TOGETHER WITH ARTICLES 
DESCRIBING CONSTRUCTION, ETC. PRICE 
50 CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 

A HOUSE OF BRICK OF MODERATE COST- 

THE TITLE OF A 96 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH 
CONTAINS 71 DESIGNS FOR A BRICK HOUSE 
OF MODERATE COST. THESE DESIGNS WERE 
SUBMITTED BY WELL-KNOWN ARCHITEC- 
TURAL DRAFTSMEN IN COMPETITION. IN- 
TERESTING ARTICLES. ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
HISTORICAL BRICK HOUSES. PRICE, FIFTY 
CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Flatiron Building, New York 



LINOLEUM 

SECURED BY CEMENT 
TO EITHER WOODEN 
OR CEMENT FLOORS 

Ideal Floor Coverings for Public Buildings. Elastic, Noiseless, 
and practically indestructible. It is in use on Battleships, 
cemented to steel decks in the United States, English and 
German Navies ; should be placed on floors under pressure, and 
best results can only be obtained by employing skilled workmen. 
The quality of our work has passed the inspection of the United 
States Government and numerous Architects and Builders. 

The following buildings have been supplied with our Linoleum ; 

Hotel Touraine, Boston. 

Hotel Lenox, Boston. 

Hotel Bellevue, Boston. 

Hotel Buckminster, Boston. 

Hotel Vendome, Boston. 

Parker Hou.se, Boston. 

Adams House, Boston. 
(See new list each month) 
We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS COMPANY 

646-658 WASHINGTON STREET. Opp. BoyUton Street 

BOSTON ::::::::: MASS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XX MARCH 1911 Number 3 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, in, by ROGERS & MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba $; mi per year 

Single numbers ..................... 5o cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............■•• $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ............■■.•• $6 00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 



Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



Agencies — Clay Products 



PAGE 

II 

Architectural Faience ........ 1' 

,, Terra Cotta II and III 

Brick ■" 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



PAGE 

Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing .....••• 'V 

Fireproofing ...... • ■ IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

CRAM, GOODHUE & FERGUSON; DAVIS, McGRATH & KIESSLING; GARBER & WOODWARD; 

WILLIAM B. ITTNER; JANSSEN & ABBOTT; PARKER, THOMAS & RICE; 

MARCUS T. REYNOLDS. 

LETTERPRESS 



PACK 



JOHN M. CARRERE Frontispiece 

AN EARLY EXAMPLE OF THE U.SE OF TERRA COTTA IN AMERICA •♦^ 

THE PRESENTATION OF PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF ARCHITECTURAL SUBJECTS. -PART III. 

H <;. Kif>ln 47 



THE MANUAL TRAINING HIGH SCHOOL.-PART III WtUiam H. Illnn 

THE HEATING AND VENTILATION OF CHURCHES. - PART II Charles L. Hubbard 

THE COMPARATIVE COSTS OF A HOUSE OF MODERATE SIZE 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS -DESCRIPTION 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 



S\ 

.s,s 

59 
hi 
62 




JOHN MERVEN CARRERE 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. XX. NO. 3. 



MARCH, 1911, 



John Merven Carrere 



TT IS only when such a commanding figure as John M. 
-L Carrere has passed out of his profession that its mem- 
bers are brought to a realization of what he stood for and 
what a position he had achieved. When we consider what 
was still before him in the natural course of his career, our 
regret at his untimely end is intensified. 

I first knew Carrere when he and his future partner 
Hastings came into the office of McKim, Mead & White on 
their return from the Beaux Arts in October, 1883. He 
remained with us for two years as one of a group of young 
draftsmen, many of whom have since achieved distinc- 
tion. Carrere, with his Gallic nature, was full of enthu- 
siasm and ambition — not the ambition to remain a 
draftsman, but to get out into the world as the master 
of his own work. The opportunity came early in the com- 
mission from Mr. Flagler for the Ponce de Leon Hotel at 
St. Augustine, and the consequent formation of the firm of 
Carrere & Hastings. The opportunity seemed to me a dan- 
gerous one for men just starting in their profession; but 
the result stands to-day as a justification of the confidence 
reposed in them. 

I need not say anything of his career since that time — 
it is an open book, known to all. I had always kept up 
intimate personal relations with him and watched with in- 
terest his gradual development, not only as an architect. 



but as a man of influence. H, apart from his architectural 
work I should single out one trait of his character which 
more than any other impressed itself upon me, it would be 
the valuable services which he has rendered to his profes- 
sion by his work and untiring energy in anything and 
everything which would advance its standing. He showed 
his public spirit by the large part which he took in prob- 
lems of civic improvement, both in his home city and else- 
where throughout the country. As a member and officer 
of the American Institute of Architects and of the New 
York Chapter of the A. I. A., as a founder and important 
factor in the Beaux Arts Society and as a Trustee of the 
American Academy in Rome, he was ever ready to work for 
these institutions and always found time to devote to them. 
His work was always full of enthusiasm and his judgment 
was invaluable. My last interview with Carrere was only 
two days before the accident, when in the midst of all his 
arrangements for getting away, he found time to call upon 
me to discuss his visit to Rome and what he might be able 
to do for the American Academy while there — showing 
once more his devotion to everything which tended to the 
advancement of art education. 

In the death of Carrere the profession of architecture has 
lost a member whose place cannot be filled. 

WlI.I.lAM RUTHKRFOKI) MkaD. 



IT IS now nearly thirty-five years since I first met John 
Carrere. It was on one of the steamers crossing the At- 
lantic to New York; I was returning from the Ivcole des 
Beaux-Arts where I had been for several years, and he was 
on the point of going abroad to study architecture. This 
almost casual acquaintance was destined to ripen into along 
and firm friendship. We had naturally much to say to each 
other; he was undecided where he should go to pursue his 
studies, and I naturally advised Paris — and to Paris he 
went; and that is why, as I am fond of remembering, he 
used smilingly to speak of me as his architectural godfather. 

When he came back from Paris six or seven years later, 
we renewed our acquaintance; and it is a great pleasure for 
me to think that during all the years that followed we be- 
came ever closer friends, and that we learned mutually to 
turn to each other for counsel, for advice and for sympathy 
in all our architectural career. I recall many visits when 
Carrere & Hastings, the youngest of the profession, were 
designing the hotel in St. Augustine, and the impression of 
individuality and personality that I had then of the work 
that the enthusiastic pair were doing. And this individual 
force was always one of the characteristics of Carrere ; how- 
ever large was the army of draftsmen that he com- 
manded, you were always conscious of his personality in 
whatever was done, directing, restraining and guiding. He 
was always first and foremost the architect; and never a 
mere solicitor of work, or a social light who incidentally 
built houses for his friends. 

This is no place to attempt any description or criticism 



of the many notable achievements with which he was so 
closely identified, and which all of us architects know so 
well. We note in them from time to time those changes in 
the point of view which come from increasing years and 
added experience, and which are common to nearly every 
one of us. But through it all is still to be found the same 
personal note, however varied in its expression; so that 
when a number of competitive drawings were exhibited it 
was generally (juite possible to make a shrewd guess as to 
which one was by Carrere & Hastings. And in whatever 
Carrere had a hand, there was nearly always a great im- 
pression of completeness in the idea; if it were a country 
house, the setting and the surroundings were studied as 
carefully as the house itself, and the same was true of more 
monumental structures. 

Carrere never forgot that he was a member of a great 
profession, and of his time and his thought he contributed 
much for its good and its advancement. The American 
Institute of Architects is deeply indebted to him for his 
active initiative and his sound advice in many emergencies; 
and he will be missed in many other bodies where he was a 
strength and a dependence. But above all he will be 
mis.sed by his many friends, in and out of the profession, 
who looked to him for aid and for sympathy whenever the 
need arose. It is a great sadness to think that he can never 
drop in on us again, with that buoyant manner, that enthu- 
siasm and that sincere and friendly smile that we knew so 
well. 

Walter Cook. 



46 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



An Early Example of the Use of Terra Cotta in America. 



THE old Art Museum, Copley Square, Boston, which 
has been torn down to be replaced by a large 
modern hotel was in many respects an interesting build- 
ing — and marked a new departure in the use of mate- 
rials in America. 

Mr. John H. Sturgis, of the firm of Sturgis & Brigham, 
the architects for the 
building had received 
much of his architec- 
tural education in Eng- 
lish offices, amongst 
others that of J. K. 
Colling, who had pub- 
lished the work known 
as CoUings Art Foliage. 
That work was an at- 
tempt, more or less 
successful, to adopt 
naturalistic leafage — 
flowers, etc., and mod- 
ern detailin the manner 
of English Gothic, such 
as is to be found in 
Lincoln Cathedral. It 
was rather the after- 
math of the early Vic- 
torian Gothic revival, 
and the designs had the 
rather geometric char- 
acteristics of certain 
types of F^nglish stone 
carving, which was 
broad but effective. 
These designs as used 
by Mr. Colling were 
employed not only for 
the interstices of struc- 
ture, such as spandrels, 
tympana, roundels and 
foils, but also some- 
what indiscriminately 
for the surfaces of walls 
and of columns. The 
result was an effect of 
richness and texture 
obtained with economy 
of labor. 

But even this amount 
of labor was prohibitory 
with the funds at hand 
for the museum and the 
experiment was made 
(a brave experiment in 
our climate) to obtain 
the effect in a less ex- 
pensive material than carved stone, i.e., terra cotta. 
The result was that the details while made for terra cotta 
partook of the character of stone carving, and had less 
of the plastic quality of modeling than appears in the 
terra cotta of Northern Italy. The details for the terra 




MUSEl.M, COPI 
(Recently 



cotta, while designed in the office of Sturgis & Brigham, 
were redrawn to a scale of 13 inches to the foot to allow 
for the shrinkage in the material, which was made in 
Stoke-on-Trent, England, as the terra cotta industry was 
at that time in its infancy in this country. Before the 
final work, that of the porch, could be completed, the 

English Company met 
with reverses, and the 
terra cotta of the porch 
was made in New Jer- 
sey, and was amongst 
the first of American 
ornamental terra cotta. 
While the best Eng- 
lish made terra cotta has 
never been allowed to 
be as good as that now 
being made in the 
United States it is 
nevertheless true that 
the decorative panels — 
one of which is shown 
in the illustration — 
have successfully with- 
stood the test of time 
and a rigorousNew Eng- 
land climate and are to 
be given a permanent 
abiding place in the 
Boston Art Museum. 

The f a <; a d e while 
picturesque from the 
characteristics of the 
style in which gables, 
pinnacles and finials 
were employed, was 
simple and symmetrical 
in its masses and well 
proportioned, and, fac- 
ing the north so that it 
obtained little direct 
sunlight, was all the 
more effective because 
of its contrasts of color 
— both yellow and red 
terra cotta being used. 
The large panels upon 
the front were by Bar- 
tholdi, the sculptor of 
the Lion of Belfort, and 
of the Liberty in New 
York harbor. 

The museum always 
suffered from its prox- 
imity to the Public Li- 
brary and Trinity Church — both of which were larger in 
scale. It was of the class of design which gains by a cer- 
tain amount of isolation with terraces or parked grounds 
about it. It is to be regretted that the changes in civic 
growth should have necessitated its demolition. 



-EV SgUAKE, 
demolished.) 



BOSTON. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 



47 




The PrefeBtatnoini ©f 




©f Arclhiitectoiral Swlbieeitf 



»;^ 



f^Xl 



¥^ 



ti^ 



fe- 



\Py 



^ 



III. 

BY IIUI'.ERT (;. KIl'I.EY. 

" A sense of humor as intelligently applied to the eccentricities of 
architecture is one of tlie last products of high civilization." — " /,. 
P.," Boston Transcript. 

THE most satisfactory preliminary drawings are 
those that are made after the building is all 
done. In a sketch of this kind it is possible to take 
advantage of natural bits of scenery, composition and 
lighting, at the same time suppressing unflattering 
details, adding foliage, planting, and accessories, and 
presenting the whole subject in its most favorable 
aspect. 

It is frequently claimed that the ideal surroundings 
in the preliminary sketch give an exaggerated and 
false impression of the finished work, but in making 
the preliminary sketch after the building is all done, 
there is an opportunity to suggest not only ideal set- 
tings, but actual possibilities which might often be 
realized at trifling expense and labor. 

vSuppose your client has insisted on retaining some 
objectionable feature that mars the harmony of the 
composition, or that an otherwise" perfect interior is 
spoiled by an ugly and glaring piece of amorphous 
furniture, or spot of color way off the key; here is a 
chance to show by illustration and comparison how 
the improvements and changes would look ; and should 
the client remain insensible to their charm, you have 
at least an ideal presentation of your work that is 
invaluable for future use. 







48 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




What preliminary sketch, for instance, could equal 
Bougerel's charming drawing of the temple of Andronicus 
Cyrrhestes, and, had his series of wonderful drawings 
of classical subjects appeared in a more appreciative age, 
would not the council of the Amphictyons have honored 
him as they honored Polygnotus, or Alexander honored 
Lysippus for his Apoxyomenos ? 

A better handling of his subject, or a more refined and 
restrained mastery of his medium than Bougerel displays, 
cannot be imagined ; and yet all these drawings were made 
long after the buildings they illustrate were completed. 

The architectural exhibitions, which form the chief 
winter indoor sport of the architects and draftsmen in 
our larger cities, usually 
contain several examples of 
the preliminary sketch made 
after the building is done; 
and in recent years, this 
form of amusement seems 
to be increasing. Some of 
the best things shown in 
these exhibitions are pro- 
duced by glazing over en- 
largements of photographs 
taken from a carefully 
chosen point of view. These 
sun-prints may be made on 
good paper suitable for 
water color, and with a ju- 
dicious use of body color 
for the foreground, taking 
advantage of accidental 
effects where intricate detail 
shows through a light glaze, 
an appearance of almost 
abnormal ability in drafts- 
manship is obtained. The 
aim should be to produce a 
drawing that bears little or 
no resemblance to a colored 
photograph, and this result 
is not hard to obtain if a 
little skill and "chic chic" 
is bestowed on some part 
that has no special relation 
to the building, such as the 
introduction of overhanging 
foliage, clipped ilexes, or 
Phylakian amphoric. A 
well composed group of 
figures and a large touring car 
street complete the illusion. 

It might be well to pause for a moment and sum- 
marize some of the better known methods for the presen- 
tation of sketches. This summary does not comprise all 
the inloidean secrets of the guild as the limits of these 
articles forbid an exhaustive treatment of the subject. 
The following list, however, will be found sufficient for 
ordinary purposes: 

I. Pencil drawings on tracing paper from which prints 
may be made and rendered. 

II. Pencil tracings rendered and mounted on card- 
board and slightly tinted. 



III. Pen and ink drawings, sometimes made on bristol- 
board or Whatman's paper, and sometimes made on 
tracing paper over rough sketches and printed in a black 
or brown line. 

IV. Water color drawings, fifty-seven varieties, from 
those made with a few strokes of the brush to the 
elaborately studied "rendu." 

V. "Caiques" transferred to heavier paper or card- 
board and rendered in a thousand and one different ways. 

VI. Monotones including semi-monotones and demi- 
monotones. 

VII. Rendered solar prints and salt prints and all 
sketches which use photography as a base. 

As there have never been 



FPAC.MLMTS 
D'ARCHITECTUREe^DE SCULPTURE 
DESSINfS D'APRES NATURfc 
."-' AUTOGRAPHIES 
"AP,C!5«JRCfREL 




FIG. X. 

A group of Bougerel's sketches redrawn to show how ap|iropriate 
for architectural illustration is this little-used style of rendering. A 
close study of Mr. B's book will amply repay old and young in its 
revelation of the value and purity of line, e.xtending through an ex- 
haustive series of drawings without one cacophonous note. 



racing madly up the 



but the seven original (ireek 
jokes and all subseciuent 
jokes are merely variations 
of some well known theme, 
so there are only seven 
different ways of rendering 
drawings. There are, how- 
ever, innumerable combina- 
tions resulting from the 
amalgamation, either in 
whole or part, of one or 
more of the above methods; 
but it is well to always bear 
in mind that the artless way 
is apt to be the best, and 
that the most forcible result 
is obtained by the drawing 
that, at least, looks un- 
labored, clean, and fresh; 
though a great deal of 
thought and time may have 
gone into its making. 

A sketch may be studied 
and re-studied, fussed over 
and cussed at, rubbed out 
and re-drawn until its author 
has mental cirrhosis; then 
when reason begins to totter 
on her throne, spread the 
healing poultice of a fresh 
sheet of white tracing 
paper over this chyme, and 
new life will be injected 
into the exhausted brain 
muscles by its revelation of 
unsuspected possibilities, 
and the easy, natural result that nature intended will 
arrive. 

The more elaboration there is in a sketch or drawing, 
the more rendering detail and finesse that is attempted, 
the more knowledge and skill its author must possess; 
for it is never safe to try to cover up defects by intricate 
and bedizened embellishments. The defects only ap- 
pear the more glaring. Let the budding young Horn- 
bostel tread the straight and narrow path for a while, 
following the footsteps of the early masters before he 
tries to scale the heights of Parnassus. 

After even a small experience in drawing, say a year 
or two of study, the neophite is familiar with the well 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



49 



known "forms of use, struc- 
ture, and expression," as one 
might say, and he should be 
able to draw these forms from 
various points of view. The 
most natural and graphic por- 
trayal is in perspective, and 
every draftsman should prac- 
tice at odd moments, at home, 
on the train, in the office when 
the boss is not looking, at any 
and all times; little thumb-nail 
sketches in perspective of 
Doric, Ionic and Corinthian 
caps, cornices with brackets, 
doorways, windows, niches, 
balustrades, swags, cornucopia-, 
anything that comes into his 
hand in any and all mediums; 
not forgetting the august car- 
touche. Copies should be made 
of bits here and there culled 
from the best sketches pub- 
lished in the magazines, study- 
ing the technique of the vari- 
ous virtuosos; now attempting 
Mr. Gregg's trees in pencil and 
trying to draw his foregrounds; 
(you won't be able to do it for 
nobody can do it just like that 

but Mr. Gregg himself) now copying, as well as you can, 
some exquisite detail in pen and ink of Mr. (ioodhue's. 
Try also a sketch in color following as closely as possible 
Guerin or Birch Long, whose sketches are familiar 
through numerous reproductions, and whose masterly 
handling of architectural subjects with all their acces- 
sories has a sure and distinctive touch that proclaims 
them the last word, and withal, a simplicity and direct- 
ness that breathes of asphodel and amaracus. 

The first essays, the second and the third, and the 
twenty-third, will be failures, 
satisfactory wash as it is to pull 
the leg off a sawdust doll ; but 
if one out of fifty sketches are 
really presentable, distinct 
progress is being made, and, 
eventually an individuality of 
style will develop that will at 
least be worth all the pains 
and labor to say nothing of the 
fun you will have in the trying. 

It is to be noted that those, 
who by their agility and skill 
are able to dazzle and bewilder 
with the brilliancy of their 
technique, are most often con- 
tented with presenting their 
drawings in a simple restrained 
fashion. 

In addition to, or possibly 
subtraction from, its artistic 
quality, a drawing or sketch of 
an architectural subject must 




.Sketch for a commercial warehouse building, Andrew.s, 
Jatjues & Rantoul, architects. The first drawing, made on 
water-color paper, showing the building in full sunlight, was 
somewhat turgid, so this drawing was traced over it, mounted 
on cardboard, and then washed in, in deep, full washes, using 
plenty of color and a flowing brush. The method illustrates 
the flexibility of the "caique" and shows how a brilliant re- 
sult may sometimes develop from a jejune paradigm. 



It is not so easy to lay a 




study for a church, Calvin Keissling, architect, rendered in 
pen and ink on "vellum" tracing j)a|)er. Several vandyke 
prints were struck off by the X Ray Blue Print Company and 
this reproduction was selected as one of several essays in 
wash, using Bistre as a medium. In the original, this lu.scious 
and pellucid brown harmonizes charmingly with the color of 
the lines of the print. 



express primarily form ; and, 
unless the delineator is thor- 
oughly grounded on form, and 
knows what he is drawing, and 
how it looks from every point 
of view inside and out, plan 
elevation and section, struc- 
ture, mass, texture and mate- 
rial, no amount of cleverly 
contrived extraenous matter 
can hide its defects from the 
practiced eye; though the 
sketch ma}', nevertheless, serve 
its purpose perfectly by virtue 
of its sophistry. 

This may or may not be so, 
circumstances are so variable, 
and time is so often the gov- 
erning factor, that not one 
sketch in ten, or even a hun- 
dred, is the perfect expression, 
as it should be, of the idea of 
its author. Suppose in the 
case of an important commis- 
sion the architect has his 
" partie " fairly well deter- 
mined, the building committee 
are pacified, and all looks rosy 
for a quick settling of prelimi- 
naries, and the clearing of the 
decks for immediate action ; some influential person on 
the committee desires a perspective, or the newspapers 
want one for publication. The time is short and the 
whole office is busily engaged on the working drawings; 
the boss wears a worried look and divides his time be- 
tween his expensive stable of Paris graduates and the 
telephone, stopping now and then to interview the repre- 
sentative of the Chicago clothes' dryer, and the Diogenes 
report man; Madeline, the rosy cheeked stenographer, 
is pounding her pretty finger tips pink and getting car- 
bon paper on her violet cuffs, when John, the office boy, 

with eagle eye on the clock, 
announces a guy with long hair, 
velvet coat, flowing tie and a 
bored expression. 

Enter the perspective man, 
who forgets his bored look for 
a minute as Madeline's great 
round eyes look trustingly at 
him. He and the boss talk 
over the "scheme" for a few 
moments using such words as 
"partie," "rendu," "laver," 
"entourage," "nonage," " bos- 
(|uet, ' "trottoirs," "niche," 
" tricher," etc., etc., and then 
they come down to brass tacks 
and a discussion of whether the 
drawing had better be in mon- 
otone, water color or line. The 
artist respectfully suggests that 
sunrise effects are very popular 
this spring and that ' ' gouache " 



50 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




lie. XIII. 

One of "Pete" White's dashing renderings in color over a positive 
brown print of a pencil drawing. Mr. White holds the amateur middle- 
weight championship for eastern Massachusetts in this line of work, and 
was one of the pioneers in developing the possibilities of the rendered 
print. They say that his blueprint bills .sometimes average $40 a month. 

is being used extensively, though for his part he thinks 
there is nothing like a delicate pen and ink or transparent 
water color, or even a crisp and " coulant " pencil sketch, 
if time is a factor. That brilliant and stirring Palladian 
motive in the top story with the " art nouveau" panel 
deserves to be "brought out " as forcibly as possible, 
and for the foreground he suggests a 1912 model fore 
door "landaulet," with a gentleman in frock coat lean- 
ing on a cane staring at a couple of coryphees, and a 
little boy selling a paper to a paralytic. The park and 
fountain with a "bosquet" of trees on one side and a 
thunderstorm coming up from the southwest, through 
which is seen a factory chimney way off on the horizon 
on the left, and a church spire on the right. 

All this time the architect is wondering how much he 
is going to be stung for, and the perspective man is 
wondering how much of the architect's bank account he 
can annex without jeopardizing his future emoluments. 

With a promise to have the drawing by Tuesday, and 
a sidelong look at Madeline, the artist departs, a roll of 
"caiques" under his arm. On Tuesday the architect 
telephones and learns, that to do the subject justice, 
more time is required, and about Friday the finished 



FIG. XIV. 

An e.xample of rendering in wash and gouache over a solar print. Here 
and there the transparent limning allows the detail of the photograph to 
appear, and the drawing, by and large, may be described as a by-product 
of the aquarelle. The .design shows a splendid impulse in the Alfalfa 
Renaissance. 

drawing arrives. The artist stands anxiously and 
humbly on one foot, listening to the criticisms. Some- 
times the boss gives the drawing a quick glance, says 
" humph," and retires into his private office; sometimes 
he looks for a long time without saying anything; often, 
very often, radical changes are suggested, and that little 
part right in there, that the artist was most proud of, 
must be washed or rubbed out, as it destroys the har- 
mony of the composition, or disturbs the balance of the 
design. Then the trees shoiild be simplified ; they are 
too restless and need to be "pulled together"; the fig- 
ures are badly composed, the automobile should be 
coming, not going; and the clouds are too heavy or too 
light; besides, the building is not the right color and the 
point of view is all wrong; it doesn't do the building jus- 
tice or express the idea at all. 

About four years afterward the perspective man visits 
the same office and sees that very drawing expensively 
framed and hung in a commanding position, and the 
architect greets him warmly and says, " That's the best 
drawing you ever made for us, old man, I bet you 
couldn't do as well as that now," and the artist says no 
he couldn't. 



BOSTON PAEK DEPARTMENT 
FRANKLIN PAEK 
PRELIMINARY PLAN FOE ZOOLOCICAL CABDEN 




,. 1.1 ;]: 



^-<3^J: 



^^^ 



THE PLAViTEAD 



\ f. 



O . 




■^f-^-^j*-^^ (^ . 



,r:, ^■y^:^'^:yiX- ' 



, .Till . c 1/J-i ^l^^rs 






FIG. XV. 

Showing that pen and ink as a medium is suitable for the pre.sentation of plans as well as elevations, sections and perspectives. The conditions 
and surroundings are faithfully portrayed and the rendering could have been carried even further had it been essential. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

The Manual Training High School. — III, 



51 



r.V WILLIAM li. ITTNKR. 



EMERSON SCHOOL, GARY, INDIANA. 



THE Emerson School is the first of a series of school 
buildings completed for the new Steel City. It is 
unique in the fact that it is designed to accommodate 
what is called a continuation, or all-day-long school, 
upon industrial lines. It is also a 
district in which it is located. 

Although providing the equivalent of but two years 
of high school work it has a special problem to fulfil in 
the education of the mixed foreign element which makes 
up the majority of the population of the city. 

The building has a dimension of 245 feet by 141 feet 
9 inches, not including 
the boiler and fuel house 
which is located immedi- 
ately to the rear of the 
building. 

Ground Floor. The 
ground floor contains six 
regular class rooms, two 
kindergarten rooms, and 
two library rooms each 
being the equivalent of 
a class room. There are 
also four manual training 
rooms with storerooms, 
etc., each room being the 
equivalent of two class 
rooms. 

There are two gym- 
nasia with lockers, wash 
and toilet room, each the 
size of two class rooms 
and opening upon a 
swimming pool with 
shower baths. All class 
rooms and workrooms 
on the ground floor are 
above the grade of the 
playground. 

In addition there are 
two large locker rooms, 
one janitor storeroom, 
two general toilet and 
wash rooms, rooms for 

heating plant, boiler room, ash room, and a coal room 
which will hold one season's supply. The play-ground 
is 320 by 295 feet. On the ground floor is a corridor 
16 by 180 feet which will be u.sed for play during bad 
weather. 

First Floor. The first floor contains twelve regular 
class rooms, a principal's office, two teachers' rooms, a 
storeroom for the distribution of all school supplies, two 
large locker rooms, two general toilet and wash rooms, 
and the main floor of the auditorium. The auditorium 
seats five hundred and forty-six adults, and has a stage 
constructed in accordance with the fire ordinance of the 
city of Chicago. 



X'-'^MiL.'.C- 



The large main corridor is planned and lighted for a 
School Art Gallery as well as for general hall purposes. 
Second Floor. The second floor contains twelve reg- 
ular class rooms, two manual training rooms the same 
size as class rooms, the gallery of the auditorium which 
seats two hundred and seventy-eight adults, two rooms 
social center for the for infirmaries, a con.servatory for housing and propa- 
gating plants, and two general toilet and wash rooms. 
The large main corridor is used for a school museum. 

Third Floor. The third floor contains a drawing 
room ecjual in size to two class rooms. 

Summary. The number of regular class rooms or 
equivalents in the building is as follows: Ground floor, 

twenty-four; first floor, 
twelve; second floor, 
fourteen ; third floor, two 
— making a total of 
fifty-two. In addition to 
these there is an audi- 
torium that will seat 
eight hundred and 
twenty-four adults, four 
locker rooms, six general 
toilet and wash rooms, 
two rooms for infirma- 
ries, two teachers' rooms, 
offic'e, and two store- 
rooms. There are also 
large well lighted halls 
for an art gallery, school 
mu.seum and a conserv- 
atory, besides the usual 
retjuired space for gen- 
eral purposes. 

The construction is 
fireproof except the roof 
which is of mill construc- 
tion. All walls are built 
of vitrified brick laid in 
cement mortar. The 
ground floor corridors, 
manual training rooms, 
all lockers, toilets, wash 
rooms, gymnasia, and 
the swimming pool room 
have white enamel brick 
corridors have marble 




m in 
III III 

imnTi 



'i:.«^j|:i' 



KANCE, EMERSON SCHOOL 



wainscoting 7 feet high. All 
base. All stairs are of reinforced concrete with asphalt 
treads, marble risers, stringers, and newels. The closet 
and urinal stalls in toilet rooms have marble partitions, 
and are equipped with high-grade plumbing and electric 
fixtures throughout. The blackboards are natural slate. 
The interior finish is quarter sawed oak. All window 
stools are of glazed brick. A program master clock in 
the principal's office controls secondary clocks, the pro- 
gram liells in all class rooms and corridors and the i)lay 
ground gongs. A telephone system is installed to neces- 
sary points throughout the building with switchboard in 
the principal's oflice. 



52 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Class rooms and corridors have floors of clear maple, ground, in the auditorium, physical culture rooms, 
while the ground floor corridor, toilet, locker rooms, etc., laboratories, library, or special class rooms, the regular 
have floors of granitoid. The most approved heating class room where the school desks of the classes are 



C CLASS JSOO/V 



and ventilating apparatus is 
used with automatic tempera- 
ture and ventilation control. 
All air for heating and ventila- 
ting is washed before it is deliv- 
ered to school rooms which 
lowers the temperature about 
ten degrees during hot weather 
and raises the humidity of the 
parched dry air in cold weather. 
This washer also removes all 
dust and soot which in a short 
time would otherwise ruin the 
school room walls and ceilings 
which are painted in oil. 

In describing the school in 
his last annual report Mr. Wirt 
Superintendent of Schools says, 
" With the customary school 
organization there are on the 
ground floor ten regular class 
rooms, on the first floor twelve, 
on the second floor twelve, and 
on the third floor one. This 
would make a total of thirty- 
five regular class rooms. With 
forty children per teacher they 
would accommodate fourteen 
hundred children, and on this 
basis the average architect 
would compute his per capita 
cost of the building to be about 
{$140. However, two of these 
rooms are intended for a sub- 
station for the public library, 
one for a special music room, 
and another for a special draw- 
ing room, which would leave 
only thirty rooms for the reg- 
ular class work. Of these 
thirty rooms four would be re- 
quired for natural science lab- 
oratories where only half school 
room classes can be accommo- 
dated at one time. Thus we 
would have twenty-six rooms 
for regular classes of forty 
students each and four school 
rooms for classes of twenty 
students each, making a total 
of eleven hundred and twenty 
as the capacity of the building. 
The actual per capita cost with 
forty children per teacher 
would, therefore, be about 
$178. 

The customary school organization takes for granted 
that each child must have a regular school desk for his 
own exclusive use where he can keep his books and 
equipment. Therefore, when any class is on the play- 




5/zC0/\f// rL002 FlAyV 



/^-ffTi^S ae:OG 




I COAL 




^Mtzsav. 



\m\ 



located is vacant. The separate 
school desk for each child's own 
exclusive use means practically 
that the school must provide 
two or more places for each 
child at the same time. Thus 
the school plant has a capacity 
for twice the number of chil- 
dren actually accommodated. 
Besides, the mortgage that the 
day school pupils have upon 
the desks jirevents the use of 
the school rooms for night 
school. An entirely different 
plan will be used at our Emer- 
son School. Each scholar will 
have a steel locker for his 
wraps, books, and equipment. 
After placing his wraps in his 
locker on arriving at the school 
he will take from the locker 
the books and equipment 
needed for his work until he is 
given the opportunity to return 
to the locker. With this plan 
no school desk belongs exclu- 
sively to any child but may be 
used by other children during 
the day school period, and the 
school plant can be used to 
accommodate practically 
double the customary number 
of children. The day school 
rooms will also be available for 
use by the night school. The 
steel lockers with the book 
compartments cost much less 
than the cloak rooms usually 
provided by the customary 
school organization and are 
much more satisfactory. 

Figuring the capacity of our 
building at forty children per 
class room (or its equivalent), 
per teacher we are able to ac- 
commodate two thousand two 
hundred and forty children. 
We hardly expect to accommo- 
date in actual numbers the full 
capacity figured but fully ex- 
pect to accommodate easily, on 
the basis of forty children per 
teacher, eighteen hundred to 
two thousand students. This 
will make the per capita cost of 
the building about $100. 
In addition to accommodating day students the school 
is so planned that we can accommodate easily fifteen 
hundred night school students without interfering with 
the work of the regular day school. With the customary 



GJSOU/VZ? f-LOOZ 
/MLf- Of Pl/irGJSOlM/) 



-f/CH5C/100L. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



53 




:.. -•-■* ■ 



^^%s^-*^^- 




BIOLOliY I.AHORATORV. 



(OOklNi, ROOM. 



EXTERIOR AND KOUR INTKRIOR VIEWS, EMERSON SCHOOI., (JARV, INU. 
William B. Ittner, Architect. 



54 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




school organization this cannot be done, because it is 
difficult to use the regular school rooms occupied by day 
students with their individual desks for a different set of 
pupils in a 
night school. 

Gary's school 
organi za tion 
plans to train 
its children for 
the highest 
possible school 
efficiency in the 
most econom- 
ical way. The 
special plan of 
organ i zat i on 
for the Emer- 
son School uses 
thirty rooms for 
the regular 
work which 
rooms accom- 
modate ten hundred and forty 
students. While these chil- 
dren are in the regular work an 
ecjual number is accommodated 
in the remainder of the building 
in special work and play. We 
thus have two thousand and 
eighty children accommodated 
at all times during the day in 
addition to the kindergarten 
children. The only principle 
involved is that of occupying 
every part of the building all 
of the school day, and this is 
simple enough when the build- 
ing is arranged especially for 
the purpose. 

We are willing to admit that 
the advantages offered by 
schools of the type we have 
planned for Gary seem very 
extravagant and offer unheard 
of luxuries, so to speak. Even 
the largest cities do not have 
buildings which give the same 
opportunities to their children. 
But this type of building is 
extravagant only in the oppor- 
tunities offered. From the 
standpoint of the taxpayer this 
type of building is extraordi- 
narily economical." 



M) SCHOOL, GARY, IND. 







yi/icX£Eve&3s^ 



*^Ta 



r 



;-3r: 






L 



_ _i 



1. Vf-Ai 



/tt^Ti.ve y 



GARY'S SECOND SCHOOL 
BUILDING. 



u 



I 



own ■ir niirr J7.1A' 

FLANS OF Gary's second school 



THE second school of the 
series, plans for which are now in preparation, will 
provide the same number of class and special rooms, 
with the addition of a small laundry for instruction in 
this important part of domestic economy. It will also 



accommodate the same number of pupils as the Emerson 
School. 

Like the Emerson School it will be located on a large 

site, 550 by 815 
feet, giving the 
necessary space 
fora public park 
and playground 
which will be 
fully equipped. 
Toilet accom- 
modations will 
be provided in 
the building 
for the public 
grounds. 

The special 
features of the 
school differing 
from the P>mer- 
son School, will 
be the abandon- 
ment of the general toilet ac- 
commodations for the pupils 
except on the ground floor, and 
the introduction of toilet rooms 
opening directly from the class 
rooms. Where this is an un- 
usual feature it is felt that it 
will give the supervision neces- 
sary in a school of this character 
and simplify the problem of 
school management. 

Another feature worthy of 
special mention is the enlarging 
of the gymnasia, with inde- 
pendent entrances to the play- 
ground. There will be also two 
swimming pools, each 21 by 60 
feet, with locker and dresser 
booth accommodation for four 
hundred men and three hundred 
women. All of these will be 
used by the people of the school 
district independent of and 
without interference with the 
work of the school. The stage 
will also be enlarged and 
arranged for use as a third 
gymnasium. 

The teachers in charge of 
the gymnasia and play in the 
school will also supervise the 
public playground. This im- 
portant part of the municipal 
work will then be carried on 
without additional cost to the 
city other than the first cost of 
laying out and eciuipment. 
Plans of the new school are given and since the Emer- 
son School is described at length this building will be 
passed without further comment except that it will cost 
about $200,000 ready for its equipment. 



/■/i^orrLOXPiyi 



□!-> 



^ 



1 



HE-l 






S'Jt^Sj 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 20. NO. 3. PLATE 29. 




NEW CARR SCHOOL, ST. LOUIS, MO 
William B. Ittner, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 3. PLATE 30. 




ai- 



-=\ 



•i ' 



m 






O 
2 



D 

2 " 

•—4 uj 

H S 

CO 5 

J K 

O ^ 

§-^ 

O 03 

O ^ 

u 
2 



,-ii 



FT! 



•— T 



^ 



Fl 



I mxi^r .f^rrcf QAOS I 

r r ■' ■' ■' ' — hp^ 




r f 

L -- J 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 3. PLATE 31. 










THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 3. PLATE 32. 



If 



1 ^ 



o ^ 
o ' 



CO 

< 

2 



Z 

-J 

o 
o o 
u z 




il-'- 




jj-a- -J L^ca-J^ju __Z^ -1^ 




n-r 




Q 



iL.t « « » «, »J 



'1 ■ 



hi 




THE BRICKBUILDER 

VOL. 20, NO. 3. 



PLATE 33. 




WESTWOOD SCHOOL, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

Garber & Woodward, Architects. 



THE B R I C K B U 1 L D E R . 

VOL. 20. NO. 3. PLATE 34. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 3. PLATE 35. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 3. PLATE 36. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 3. PLATE 37. 





■.TJ'Ayi//Utl ■ ■ ■ 



CONSERVATORY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 3. PLATE 38. 




i 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 3. PLATE 39. 







O 



2 ^ 

UJ o 

CQ "^ 

C/) UJ 

O i 

•^ T 



DC u 



CO 

o 

X 
u 
a: 

X 

■o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 3. PLATE 40. 




5LCT/0yV 






p 

i- ^ 



N 




I' 






^ife^iH-^Ht^ 



» « 



riAN or v\;n 

JCALr m I 




EXTERIOR DETAIL AND PUNS. 

CHURCH OF ST. JOHN, KINGSBRIDGE, NEW YORK CITY. 

DAViS, >.1cGRATH &. KlESSLING, ARCHITECTS, 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 3. PLATE 41. 



o V 




4- ir *■ '■ 




vrK»viT ijTim. ^tAMiiji Jifjn'f. /wuM a cur 



C)nCTION 



CLr:VAT/OAl AT COJSA/C^ 



DETAILS OF ENTABLATURE. 

TANNERS NATIONAL BANK, CATSKILL, N. Y. 
Marcus T. Reynolds, Architect. 



THE B R I C K R U I L D E R . 

VOL. 20, NO. 3. PLATE 42. 




TANNERS NATIONAL BANK 
CATSKILL, N. Y. 
Marcus T. Reynolds, Architect. 





THEBRICKBUILDER. 55 

The Heating and Ventilation of Churches. — II. 



BY CHAXLES L. HUHBARl). 



EZE 



"r~r 



IN DESIGNING a system of indirect steam, much of 
the data given for furnace heating will remain the 
same, and in treating of this it is proposed to take up the 
different items in order, noting what changes are neces- 
sary. 

Indirect steam is applicable to much larger buildings, 
because the heat may be generated in a single boiler, or 
battery of boilers, and the warm air introduced at a larger 
number of points. This method of heating may be em- 
ployed in buildings seating up to five or six hundred 
people, or even more, although the air supply to the 
different heating stacks will become somewhat complica- 
ted in this case. Where the 1 
first cost will allow it, a fan 
system will give more satisfac- 
tory results in churches seating 
three hundred or more. 

Taking this up on the unit 
basis, as before, the air supply 
may be taken practically the 
same as in furnace heating. 
The grate surface should be 
increased to 6 square feet in this 
case to allow for the aspirating 

coils or flue heaters. The fact that the heat is trans- 
mitted in the form of steam instead of hot air, makes no 
difference in the amount of fuel burned or the size of 
grate and chimney, provided the same results as regards 
heating and ventilation are to be obtained. 

The heating stacks in this class of work are commonly 
made up of indirect pin radiators, placed at the base of 
the flues. They are usually encased in galvanized iron, 
although heating chambers of brick may sometimes be 
used to advantage in the case of large stacks. The total 
amount of heating surface may be based on the number 
of occupants, allowing 350 square feet of radiating sur- 
face to each one hundred people. One disagreeable 
feature in connection with furnace 
heating is the presence of cold 
drafts beneath large windows. 
This may be greatly lessened, if 
not done away with entirely, by 
placing heating stacks beneath, in the base- 
ment and connecting them with narrow 
grilles extending the full length of the win- 
dow sill. The rising current of warm air 
will thus tend to intercept the downward 
flow of cold air from the surface of the glass, and thus 
prevent the draft. 

As the number of heating stacks is increased, the diffi- 
culty of arranging the cold-air supply becomes greater. 

For this reason it seems well to place the larger part 
of the surface in four stacks at the corners of the room, 
following out the general arrangement shown in Fig. I, 
and supplementing this with a series of smaller stacks 
along each side under the windows, as already described. 
The main stacks may receive their supply from cold-air 
rooms, the same as in furnace heating, or from trunk 
Hues as in Fig. XII. When it is not convenient to carry 



'AC 



T"n~ 



yVA/A' COLD-AIZUOCT 



''AQ 



% 



FIG. XII. 




a main duct through the basement as shown, satisfactory 
results may often be obtained by placing the four large 
stacks in the cold-air rooms and omitting the bottoms 
from the casings, thus allowing the air to flow directly 
through them without the use of supply ducts. The 
small intermediate stacks may take tlieir supply from 
special ducts leading from the cold-air rooms, or through 
special wall openings adjacent to them. The object of 
the connecting duct, or trunk line, is to make use of 
changes in the direction of the wind by taking air from 
all points of the compass, and thus getting the benefit of 
wind pressure under all conditions. When the cold-air 
I duct is carried through rooms 

which are to be warmed, it is 
well to enclose it with a furring 
of lath and plaster, both on 
account of looks and to prevent 
the cooling effect of its exposed 
surface. 

The stacks should be divided 
into separately valved sections 
for rough regulation, according 
to the season, and also be pro- 
vided with mixing dampers for 
closer adjustment. These dampers are the same in prin- 
ciple as those used in furnace heating, simply being 
changed in form to adapt them to the changed condi- 
tions, as shown in Fig. XIII. The supplementary stacks 
beneath the windows are not usually furnished with 
mixing dampers, but may be divided into two valved 
sections each. 

Provision for air rotation may be made the same as 
for furnace heating when cold-air rooms are used ; other- 
wise, doors may be provided in the sides of the trunk 
airways, or in the bottoms of the stack casings, for 
taking air from the basement. 

The size and construction of 
the supply and vent flues should 
be practically the same as already 
described, which, based on the 
size of the heating stack, will call 
for 2% square feet sectional area 
for each 100 square feet of radia- 
ting surface. The stack heater in 
this case is replaced by an aspi- 
rating coil, containing about 60 
s(iuare feet of radiating surface. 
Witli this arrangement it is not necessary to carry the 
vent Hue to the l)asement, as in furnace heating, because 
the coil or heater may be placed directly above the vent 
opening, as shown in F^ig. XIV. This has the advantage 
of simplifying the duct construction, reducing the resist- 
ance because the air can flow directly upward, and also 
of allowing the vent Fegfisters to be placed in the wall 
instead of in the floor, which is a decided advantage on 
account of cleanliness. The aspirating coil should be in 
the form of a shallow heater, one or two rows of pipes 
deep, having a free area between the pipes etiual to the 
full sectional area of the flue in which it is placed. This 






KIG. XIII. 



58 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



surface for each one hundred occupants. A fan system 
supplying air to the room through the pews, as described, 
can only be used for warming when the fan is runnfng ; 
hence a supplementary system must be provided for 
heating the auditorium when the fan is not in operation. 
There are different methods for doing this, depending 
upon local conditions. One arrangement is to use 
direct radiators, concealed by screens, while in 
other cases, indirect stacks are hung beneath the 
floor, with registers above them, and taking air 
from inside the building by rotation. In either 
case, the supplementary system should 
placed on a separate line of piping, 
that it can be turned on or off by 
a single pair of valves. 

The amount of heating surface 
in the supplementary system kig. 

must be computed in each special 

case, according to the amount of wall and window sur- 
face, and has no fixed relation to the fan system. The 
type of boiler used in this size of building is usually 
rated on a horsepower basis, and may be proportioned 
according to the data given below. 

TABLE V. 

One boiler horsepower will supply : 

25 square feet of radiation at the fan. 

100 s(iuare feet of radiation in the form of rotation 

heaters beneath the floor. 
130 square feet of direct radiation placed in the 

room. 

Here, as before, only the auditorium has been consid- 
ered, and other rooms must be taken up independently, 
and sufficient boiler 
power furnished to 
care for them. 

A typical ar- 
rangement of fan 
and heater is shown 
in diagram in Fig. 
XXI. The heater 
in this case is made 
up of pin radiator 
sections, and sup- 
ported at an eleva- 
tion above the floor. 
The path of the air 
is indicated by the 
arrows and its tem- 
perature is regu- 
lated partly by 
shutting off certain 
sections by means 
of valves, and 
partly by use of the 
by-pass damper, 
which allows cold hg. 

air to enter the fan 

without passing through the heater. The fan in this 
case is arranged to discharge directly into a plenum 
chamber beneath the main floor of the auditorium. Fig. 
XXII shows the general arrangement for an air washer, 
or purifier, in connection with a fan and heater. The 
air is first drawn through a primary heater, or tempering 




XXIII. 




coil, to raise its temperature above the freezing point. 
It then passes through a spray of water which removes 
the dust and soot; then through a series of baffle plates 
for removing the spray, and finally through a secondary 
or main heater for raising it to the required tempera- 
ture before entering the fan. The heaters shown in this 
case are made up of vertical wrought-iron pipes 
instead of cast-iron sections. The outer one is 
commonly made two rows deep, and provided with 
a by-pass damper. The secondary heater is usu- 
ally divided into valved sections, and in 
some cases is provided with a by-pass also. 
A roof section showing a typical ar- 
rangement for a ceiling vent is 
illustrated in Fig. XXIII. When 
a supply fan is used, it is not 
usually necessary to provide 
either an exhaust fan or aspira- 
ting coils, as the pressure created within the room is 
suflficient to force the air out without other means. The 
ceiling and roof vent should have from 3 to 4 square feet 
sectional area for each one hundred occupants, and 
should be so designed that rain and snow cannot find its 
way into the auditorium in case of temporary back 
drafts. Such an arrangement is shown in Fig. XXIII. 

Fig. XXIV shows an interior view of the First Church 
of Christ, Scientist, Boston, and illustrates a practical 
application of the principles previously described. An 
air supply of approximately 90,000 cubic feet per minute 
is forced into the auditorium by means of four centrifugal 
fans located in the basement. The air first passes 
through washers, is then reheated, and discharged into 

a plenum space be- 
neath the raised 
floor, in a manner 
similar to that 
shown in Fig. XVI. 
From here it 
reaches the audi- 
torium through 
pews designed on 
the general princi- 
ple illustrated in 
Figs. XVII and 
XVIII. The fresh- 
air supply to the bal- 
conies is the same 
as on the main floor, 
special plenum 
spaces being pro- 
vided for this pur- 
pose. 

The supplemen- 
tary heating system 
for warming the 
■..xiN. church, when the 

fans are not in op- 
eration, consists of direct radiators placed back of bronze 
grilles beneath the first floor windows, and of rotation 
heaters beneath the gallery floors. The exhaust ventila- 
tion is through a large concealed vent in the domed ceil- 
ing, which in turn connects with outboard vents designed 
especially to prevent the inleakage of rain and snow. 



59 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

The Comparative Costs of a House of Moderate Si/e When 
Constructed of Brick, Wood, Cement, or Hollow Block. 



AT THE annual meeting of the Building Brick Asso- 
ciation, held at Louisville, Ky., February 7th, 8th 
and 9th, the secretary, Mr. J. Parker B. Fiske, submitted 
a report of an extensive investigation which he had con- 
ducted to determine the relative cost of a small house built 
of brick, frame and other types of construction. The very 
thorough manner in which Mr. Fiske has gone into this 
subject gives to his figures a value which is not usually 
credited to data of this nature. 

Mr. Fiske procured plans and specifications of a given 
house, to ascertain by actual bids from a number of reli- 
able contractors its difference in cost when constructed 
of frame, brick, cement, or hollow block. For this pur- 
pose a small, modern eight-room house of good design 
and excellent arrangement was chosen, the original hav- 
ing been actually built at Beverly Farms, Mass., under 
the direction of Thorndyke & Kiessling, architects. This 
house is typical in size, arrangement and cost to thou- 
sands of houses which are being erected throughout the 
country. 

The architects were commissioned to prepare the plans 
and specifications necessary for obtaining bids for this 
house when built with the following types of exterior 
wall construction, all other details being common to all 
types. 

DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF OUTER 
WALL CONSTRUCTION. 

Type 1. Frame covered with boards and finished with 
clapboards over building paper; inside surface furred, 
lathed and plastered. 

Type 2. Frame covered with boards and finished with 
shingles over building paper; inside surface furred, 
lathed and plastered. 

Type 3. A 10-inch brick wall, i.e., two 4-inch walls tied 
together with metal ties and separated by a 2-inch air 
space; inside surface plastered directly on the brick- 
work. Face brick to cost |17.50 per M. ; inside brick, 
$9.00 per M. 

Type 4. A 12-inch solid brick wall ; inside surface furred, 
lathed and plastered. Face brick to cost $17.50 per 
M. ; inside brick, $9.00 per M. 

Type 5. Eight-inch hollow terra cotta blocks, stuccoed 
on the outside and plastered directly on the inside. 

Type 6. vSix-inch hollow terra cotta blocks, finished with 
a 4-inch brick veneer on the outside and plastered di- 
rectly on the inside. Face brick to cost $17. .SO per M. 

Type 7. Frame covered with boards and building paper, 
furred and covered with stucco on Clinton wire cloth; 
inside surface furred, lathed and plastered. 

Type 8. Frame covered with boards (building paper 
omitted), and finished with a 4-inch brick veneer on the 
outside; inside surface furred, lathed and plastered. 
Face brick to cost $17.50 per M. 

Type 9. Frame finished on the outside with a 4-inch brick 
veneer tied directly to the studding (boarding omitted) ; 
inside surface furred, lathed and plastered. Face brick 
to cost $17.50 per M. 



A separate drawing showing the details of each type 
of outer wall construction was prepared, and each was 
accompanied by a set of complete specifications for the 
entire house. 

Everything about the house, except the outer wall 
construction, was identical in all nine types, and may be 
briefly covered by the following tables: 

DRT.MLS COMMON To ALL TYPES. 

A— Foundation.s Local Stone. 

15— Cellar Floor . Finished with 2-inch concrete of Port- 

land cement. 

C— Chimney Faced with Hrick costing S17.50 per M 

D— Fireplaces Faced with Hrick costinR S17.50 per M 

E— Plastering _ First-class "two coat " work. 

F— E.Kterior Finish ..Cypress. 

C— Blinds. ...White pine. 

H— -Screens ...Copper bronze on white pine frames. 

I — Window Frames. Hard i)ine. 

J — Floors Double lloors tliroughout, with paper 

between, except in tinfinislied attic ; 
Georgia Pine upper (loors ; main hall 
on first floor of oak. 

K— Inside Fini.sh North Carolina Pine. 

L— Doors Wa.shington Cedar. 

M— Hardware Bronze finish of ordinary tyi>e, costing 

$60.00 for the job. 

N— Wood Mantels. $45.00 eacli. 

O — Conductors. Copper. 

P— Flashing Tin. 

O— Electric Fixtures Costing f 80. 00. 

R— Hot Water Heating Costing .>250.(K1 complete. 

S— Wiring Costi ng 568. (»o. 

T— Plumbing Costing ,S370.(iO. 

U — Painting Exterior and interior ; clapboard house, 

5225.00; other houses, 5130.00. 

V— Glazing . .Double thick German glass. 

Note. - Shades, kitchen range and tile work not included. 

The following contractors of well-known reputation 
and experience were then selected: W. F. Kearns Com- 
pany, Boston, Mass. ; McDonald & Joslin Company, 
Boston, Mass.; P. H. Jackson and Son Co., Brockton, 
Mass. ; R. D. Donaldson, Lincoln, Mass. ; J. T. Wilson & 
Son, Nahant, Mass. 

Each contractor was fully advised of the object of this 
investigation, and was asked if he were willing to under- 
take the preparation of figures which should truthfully 
set forth, to the best of his ability, the cost (inclu- 
ding his profit), of a house to be built within ten tniles 
of Boston, according to these plans and specifications. 
Mr. Fiske impressed them all with the fact that he de- 
sired to know the exact truth ; and if, as alleged by .some 
contractors, the cost of a brick hou.se is twenty-five to 
thirty per cent more than one of wood, that he wished 
to know it, as nothing could be gained by an investiga- 
tion of this kind which was biased or influenced by any 
favoritism for one type over another. The contractors 
entered into the spirit of the investigation heartily, and 
agreed to figure out the cost fairly, to the best of their 
ability. Each one was given the same information and 
instructions, and asked to take plenty of time to figure 
the entire house with care. 

The following bids were submitted by the five con- 
tractors in question, arranged without reference to the 
above order of names, each bidder standing ready to 
enter into a contract for the house in question at the 
figures submitted: 



6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



COMPARATIVE BIDS. 



Typb No. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


6 


9 


s 


■o 




^ 


« 


c o 


<ii 


Q 




Sg 


1 

Q 


s 

D. 



41 
1 


2-cI 

to 




S3 

3.2 

Mo 


>og 


O u 

oa 
as 

to 


11 


S'"3 

>■§ 

'C c 

n o 


Bid No. 1 


JI6,732.0(I ' #7,572.00 


J7 ,416.00 


$7,777.00 


$6,857.00 


$7,130.00 


$7,080.00 


Bid No. 2 


6,235.76 $6,.370.4II 


6,7.16.43 


$7,105.00, 6,491.23 


6,762.83 


6,410.00 


5,746.20 


5,564.88 


Bid No. .1 


6,692.00 5,786.00 


7,118.00 


7,418.00, 7,179.00 


7,238.00 


6,847.50 


6,970.00 


6,895.00 


Bid No. 4 


6,690.00 


7,496.00 


7,801.00 


7,202.00 


7,648.00 


7,000.00 


7,495.00 


7,420.00 


Bid No. 5 


7,450.00 


7,450.00 


7,940.00 


8,240.00 


7,650.00 


7,990.00 


7,550.00 


7,790.00 


7,710.00 


Averaee 
of Bi& 


6,759.95 


6.8fi8.80 


7,372.48 


7,641.00 


7,187.65 


7,483.16 


6.952.90 


7,226.44 


7,153.98 



A comparison of these five bids, with reference to the 
excess cost of the various types as compared with the 
clapboard house, was also shown : 

COMPARATIVK BIDS. 

PERCENTAGE EXCESS COST OE EACH TYPE OVER CLAPBOARDS. 



same structure. Moreover, if these variations 
are encountered in obtaining the cost of a given 
building in a given place, still wider differences 
will arise in obtaining bids for different locali- 
ties where the price of material and conditions 
of labor are different. For this reason a certain 
amount of discrepancy between different au- 
thorities must be accepted as inevitable, and 
must not be allowed to throw suspicion on the 
figures." 

In order to arrive at some definite figure 
which would fairly and equitably set forth the 
difference in cost of these various types of con- 
struction, the general average of all five bids was taken, 
in addition to the two most favorable bidders as shown 
in the tables below : 

COMPARATIVE BIDS. 

AVERAGE FIGURES. 



Type No. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


6 


9 












•s 


•a 




«» 


u bo 






















1 


1 
a 


in 


10-inch 
rickWa 
Hollow 


1^3 


Ss 

u 




O 4J 

3b. 


= •■5 


i5« 


a 


U 




cs 


ca 


X 


m° 




a o 


« o 


Bid No. 1 


.0 




12.5 




10.2 


15.5 


1.9 


5.9 


5.2 


Bid No. 2 


.0 


2.1 


8.0 


13.9 


4.1 


8.4 


2.8 


8.2 


59 


Bid No. 3 


.0 


1.4 


6.4 


10.8 


7.3 


8.2 


2.3 


4.2 


3.0 


Bid No. 4 


.0 




12.0 


15.5 


7.7 


14.3 


4.6 


12.0 


10.9 


Hid No. 5 


.0 


.0 


6.6 


10.6 


2.7 


7.2 


2.7 


4.6 


3.5 


Average 
of Bids 


.0 


1.6 


9.1 


13.0 


6.3 


10.7 


2.9 


6.9 


5.8 









OS 


Excess 
boards 


Type 


Description 


Average Bid 


11 




No. 1 








io 


Clapboard 


$6,759.95 






No. 2 


Shingle 


6,868.80 


$108.85 


1.6 


No. 3 


10-inch Bricit Wall — Hollow 


7,3-2.4S 


612.53 


9.1 


No. 4 


12-inch Brick Wall— .Solid 


7,(41.0(1 


881.05 


13.0 


No. 5 


Stucco on Hollow lillock 


7,187.65 


427.70 


6.3 


No. 6 


Brick Veneer on Hollow Block 


7,483.16 


723.21 


10.7 


No. 7 


Stucco on Frame 


6,952.<;0 


192.95 


2.9 


No. 8 


Brick Veneer on Boarding 


7,226.44 


465.49 


5.9 


No. 9 


Brick Veneer on Studding 


7,153.98 


394.03 


5.8 



In presenting the bids Mr. Fiske said: "As might 
be expected, a considerable variation appears among 
the figures submitted by the different contrac- 
tors. No two contractors, even of equal skill 
and experience, will figure exactly the same 
cost on a given set of plans and specifications. 
Elements of chance must be considered, such 
as fluctuations in the market price of material 
and labor, weather conditions, and unexpected 
difficulties in construction. Moreover, each 
man's figure will be influenced to some extent 
by the measure of his desire to secure the con- 
tract in question; in fact, it is doubtful if the 
same contractor would bid exactly the same 
on different occasions, even for precisely the 



COMP.VRATIVK BIDS. 

AVERAGE OE THE TWO MOST FAVORABLE BIDS. 



Type No. ' 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


', s 










M 


l!» 




V be 


V M 






















a 


fr, 


ill 


•TJ' o 


3.2 




O ai 

o E 

be 

3U. 


8=5 

is 




o 


CJ 




03 


ca 


03 o 


M° 


tn 


C E 


£g 


No. 3 


$6,692.00 


$6,7.S6.0<I 


$7,118.00 


$7,418.00 


$7,179.00 


$7,238.00 


$6,847.50 


$6,970.00 


$6,895.00 


No. 5 


7,450.00 


7,4.i0.(l(( 


7,'«40.nO 


8 240.00 


7.650.00 


7,')90.yo 


7,650.O0l 7,790.00 


7,710.00 


.Average 


7, 071. (JO 


7,118.00 


7,52'<.0(1 


7,829.00 


7,414.50 


7,614.00 


7,248.75; 7,38li.0O 


7,302 50 


Kxcess 




















Over 




47.00 


458.00 


758.00 


343.50 


543.00 


177.75 


309.00 


231.50 


Clapb'ds 




















Per cent 




















Kxcess 
Over 




.7% 


6.5% 


10.7% 


4.9% 


7.7% 


2.5% 


4.4% 


3.3% 


{Clapb'ds 






















FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



HOUSE AT BEVERLY KARMS, MASS. 



THE BRIC 

Mr. Fiske in speaking of the two most favorable bids 
says : — 

" The two concerns referred to in the last table were 
very well prepared to make an accurate comparison 
on this particular kind of building. Mr. Joslin, of the 
McDonald & Joslin Company, has made a thorough 
study of estimating different types of small and moderate- 
sized buildings, and is a well-known authority on the 
subject. Mr. Donaldson has made a specialty of all kinds 
of small house construction for many years. Their fig- 
ures, like all the others, were prepared absolutely inde- 
pendently, and while they vary considerably in the totals, 
their percentage difference between the different types is 
in remarkably close agreement." 

In making up his figures, Mr. Joslin used the follow- 
ing: 

PRICK OF MATERIALS. 

Lime 51.00 per bbl., 2()0 lbs. 

Portland Cement J1.60 per bbl. 

Spruce Framing $26.00 perM. ft. H. U. 

North Carolina Pine Ic. per inch per ft. 

Georgia Matched Pine (first quality) JTS.OOper M. ft. B. M. 



K B U I L D E R 



6 1 



Shingles.. .._ 54.7.S per M. 

Clapboards fss.cK) per M. 

Hemlock Boarding . .. $22.0<J i>er M. ft. B. M. 

6-inch Hollow Blocks lO^Jjc. per s<i. ft. 

S-inch Hollow Blocks He. jut sq. fl. 

Face Brick fl7.50perM. 

Common Brick.. .>9.0<) per M. 

Allowance for Furring, Lathing, and Plaster- 

'"? .,Sc. per s<|. ft. 

Wages of Bricklayers 60c. per hour. 

Wages of Carpenters .5)ic. per hour. 

The cost of lumber displaced by brick on Types A, 4, 
5 and 6, would be as follows: 

Frame and Studding, 2,300 ft. B. M., @ 526.00 per M 559.80 

Square Edge Boards, 2,500 ft. B. M., @ 122.00 per M 55.00 

Spruce Clapboards, requiring for manufacture 600 ft. of 

stock, B. M.. 93.50 



Total, 5,400 ft. B. M «._ 5208. .V) 

These figures may be used in comparison with prices 
of similar materials and labor in other markets, and by 
adjusting the differences they could be made applicable 
in all sections of the country. 



Plate Illustrations — Description. 



Three New Schools, St. Louis, Mo. Plates 29, 30 
AND 31. The new Carr School cost exclusive of building 
site and equipment $113,400 or 20.67 cents per cubic foot. 
The new Lyon vSchool cost exclusive of building site and 
equipment $131,692 or 23.80 cents per cubic foot. The 
new Humboldt School cost exclusive of building site and 
equipment $176,832 or 16.95 cents per cubic foot. 

Westwood School, Cincinnati, Ohio. Plates 33, 34. 
The exterior of this building is finished with a reddish 
brown, wire-cut brick, laid in a light gray mortar. All 
the trimmings are terra cotta, the color of which is a 
trifle more yellow than buff Bedford. The panel over 
the main entrance is executed in rich brown, green and 
buff, and the iron grilles are finished in green. The 
location of this school being five miles from the business 
center of the city, and so far removed from the central 
library and gymnasium, it was necessary to make the 
library in the school building of sufficient size to be used 
as a branch library, and at the same time increase the 
size of the gymnasium. The auditorium will be used 
for semi-public gatherings as well Us an assembling place 
for the village. The total cost of the building, including 
equipment, heating, ventilating, etc., was approximately 
$197,950, making the price per cubic foot 17.5 cents. 

Lincoln School, Lincoln, Mass. Plate 32. This school, 
which was built for children of the lower and middle 
grades, contains six class rooms, teachers', superintend- 
ent's and play rooms. The building is built of water-struck 
brick with wood and marble trim and slate roof. Upon 
the interior the finish is of hard wood throughout and 
stairs of iron. All the class rooms are on the south side. 
The ventilating ducts are all gathered together in the 
roof space and brought out through the cupola in contrast 
to the usual system which necessitates ventilators coming 
up through the roof. The grade drops sharply on the 
south side permitting of basement entrances for boys 
and girls at grade, and light for the play rooms. The 
cost per cubic foot of this building complete, including 



ventilating apparatus, plumbing, etc., but exclusive of 
architects' fees was 19.4 cents. 

CiiiRCH OF St. John, Kingsbriuge, New York Citv. 
Plates 39, 40, The foundations for the nave of this 
church were built some fifteen years ago for a small 
church with a seating capacity of six hundred. It was 
designed in the Romanesque style with nave and aisles, 
corner tower, etc. The foundations were roofed over 
and the basement used for church purposes, until the 
demands of the ])arish required an edifice, capable of 
seating one thousand people. The old foundation ex- 
tended to about the point where the present transepts 
start. The new building starting from this point included 
the transepts and .sanctuary from the foundations. 
The treatment of the exterior design was therefore 
established as to the window spacing and entrances. 
A distinctive feature of the plan is that there are no 
interior columns or piers. The foundations are built of 
granite, the water table and all other trimmings and 
tracery are of mat glazed white terra cotta. The face 
brick are 3 by 12 inches impervious, light buff, laid with 
^ inch white joints and the roof is laid with green slate. 
The decorative panels in front are of faience, while the 
entrance steps and cheeks are of gray Tennessee marble 
with a honed finish. The building as described above 
cost approximately $100,000. 

Tanners National Bank, Caiskill, N.V. Plates 41, 
42. The exterior of this building is of Vermont marble 
on the street and alley facades while the rear extension 
and storage loft are of pressed brick. This bank was orig- 
inally organized for the convenience of the tanning trade 
which accounts for the head of a steer appearing above 
the key-stone and in one of the medallions. The build- 
ing is of fireproof construction throughout, the floor and 
roof slabs being supported upon steel construction. The 
main banking room is 27 feet from the floor to the under 
side of the lower skylight, which is glazed with No. 01 
glass giving a diffused light throughout. The flooring 



62 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



is of gray Knoxville marble tile and the wainscoting and 
counterscreen of pink Knoxville with a honed finish. The 
upper portion of the counterscreen is of mahogany, the 
walls are finished in plaster painted a delicate shade of 
French gray, and the ornaments including the enriched 
cornice and coffered ceiling are finished in gold. The 
clock above the vault is an example of Louis XVI work 
formerly in the New York State Capitol building. The 
cost of the building was as follows: General construc- 



tion, $31,153.07; vault, $7,000; iron grille, $325; interior 
wall decorations, $1,300; metal furniture, $1,300; cus- 
tomers' desks and grilles, $543; clock, $150; electric 
clock attachment, $20.84; and electric lighting fixtures, 
$495.75. The total cost amounted to $42,300. The 
cubical contents estimated from the under side of J,he 
floor slab in the basement to the upper side of the roof 
slabs is approximately 95,000 cubic feet, which gives a 
cost per cubic foot of 44.5 cents. 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



T" 



TUBERCULOSIS ASSOCIATION. 
'HE Boston Association for the Relief and Control 
of Tuberculosis should be commended in their efforts 
to prove the great advan- 
tage of fresh air as a factor 
in health. The association 
assumes that it is within the 
power of most architects, as 
well as their duty, to encour- 
age life in the open with the 
maximum of time spent in 
the fresh air. They claim 
that there is and should be 
an increasing demand for 
open sleeping porches, bal- 
conies and roof spaces. 
They urge that in con- 
structing stores, shops and 
mercantile establishments 
owners should be persuaded 
to provide open air accom- 
modations for noon lunch- 
eons and recreation. The 
roof is the most available 
spot for these resting places. 
It could easily be turned 
into open air rests at little 
expense and with their wide 
commanding views and 
abundance of fresh air 
would eventually pay for 
themselves in the increased 
efficiency of the force using 
them. They cite the remarkable re- 
sults obtained in open air schools for 
anaemic and tubercular 
children, with a demand for 
open air rooms, having at 
least one end that can be 
thrown entirely open. In 
constructing new school 
buildings they show how the 
roof may be used for both 
teaching and recreation pur- 
poses, removed as it is from 
the dusty, dirty, and noisy 
streets. This work, is be- 
ing urged upon all mem- 
bers of the architectural 
profession. 



CATHEDRAL IN MARBLE. 



A 



cathedral of 
in the city of 



^S^l 


fc^ 




jr 


^^f'^ 


w^^r 


Vi^l 






\p\ 


^ 




1 



GOTHIC 

erected 

Aristides Leonori, the church 
architect of Rome. The ca- 
thedral will be 250 feet in 
length, the nave 100 feet in 
width and the transepts 150 
feet. The height of the 
edifice will be 100 feet with 
its two towers having an ad- 
ditional height of 150 feet. 
The marble walls of the ex- 
terior will be tooled, while 
the interior. walls and marble 
pillars will be polished. 
When completed the cathe- 
dral will contain seven 
marble altars and pews to- 
gether with other furnish- 
ings in harmony with the 
architectural treatment. The 
estimated cost of the struc- 
ture is $500,000 exclusive of 
furnishings. 



white marble is being 
Buffalo from designs of 




UY THE NEW JER- 
TERRA COTTA 
COMPANY. 
Warren & Wetmore, Architects. 



DETAIL FOR FIFTH WARD 

SCHOOL, ATLANTA, GA. 

E.\ecuted by the Atlanta Terra 

Cotta Company. 

\V. A. Edwards, Arcliitect. 




CONGRESS OF TECH- 
NOLOGY. 

THE Congress of Tech- 
nology will be held in Boston, April 10th and 11th 
of this year. The first of these dates is the fiftieth an- 
niversary of the chartering of the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology, and the primary purpose of the 
Congress is fittingly to mark that anni- 
versary. A large number of Technol- 
ogy graduates who have 
been conspicuously success- 
ful in varied lines of engi- 
neering will present papers 
at the Congress, dealing 
with various aspects of the 
country's manifold indus- 
trial problems and treating 
of those problems not only 
as they exist now but as 
they promise to take differ- 
ent shape in the future. 
The whole body of papers 
will therefore constitute 
a survey of engineering 



AIL FOR PUBLIC SCHOOLS NUMBERS 34 AND 35, 

JERSEY CITY, N. J. 

Executed by the South Amboy Terra Cotta Company. 

Rowland & Eurich, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



^\. 



NEW BOOKS. 
Academy Architecture and Architecturai, Review. 
Second volume, 1910, edited by Alex. Koch, architect, 
and published at " Academy Architecture," 58 Theobald's 
Road, London. Agent for the 
United States, J. H. Jansen, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

American School Buildinc 
Standards. Wilbur T. Mills, 
architect. A book dealing with 
design, plan and equipment for 
schoolhouses. Columbus, Ohio, 
Franklin Educational Publishing 
Company. 

Garages and Motor Boat 
Houses. Designs for private and 
commercial buildings by architects 
from different sections of the 
country, compiled by William 
Phillips Comstoc'k. New York, 
The William T. Comstock Com- 
pany. Price $2.00. 





detail for convent. 

Made liy tlie Coiikling-Armstroiig Terra t'otta 

Company. 

Charles R. (rreco, Architect. 



Popular Ha,nd-Book for Cement 
AND Concrete Users. Edited by Myron H. Lewis, 
C. E., and Albert H. Chandler, C. E. A reference book 
covering the uses of plain and reinforced concrete. New 
York, The Norman W. Henley Publishing Company. 
Price $2.50. 



The Beautiful Necessity 
Essays by Claude Bragdon. 
plified form, those ideas 
on the subject of Archi- 
tectural ^Esthetics first 
treated of in Mr. Brag- 
don's address entitled 
Mysticism and Arc hit cc- 
ttirc, delivered at the 
third annual convention 
of the Architectural 
League of America, in 
Philadelphia, and again in 
his address entitled Se/J 
Education, given before 
the Boston Architectural 
Club, April 3, 1909. 
$2.00. The Manas Press, 
Rochester, N. Y. 



a book of Architectural 
The book presents, in am- 



IN GENERAL. 
Within a short time work 
will be started on three 
new high schools for San 
Francisco the total cost of 
which will be $1,300,000. 
Ground will first be broken 
for the new Lowell High 
School which will be built 
of brick and terra cotta, to 
accommodate forty rooms. 




detail oi twenty-five 

foot arch over main 

windows, vanderimlt 

hoiel, new york. 

E.xeciited in ireain and white mat 

glazed faience by Hartford 

Faience Company. 

Warren & Wetmore, Architects. 



The new Polytechnic High 



School to be erected will be a three-.story brick and terra 
cotta building on a steel framework to include sixty rooms. 



The University of Illinois announces a Fellowship in 
Architecture known as the Francis J. Plym p-ellcwship. 
The competition will be open to graduates of the De- 
partment of Architecture of that university. I'ull infor- 
mation may be obtained from 
Prof. Frederick M. Mann, Depart- 
ment of Architecture, University 
of niinois, Urbana, 111. 

Charles Zeller Klauder has been 
admitted to the firm of Frank Miles 
Day and Brother, Philadelphia. 
The name of the newly constituted 
firm will be Day Brothers and 
Klauder. 

D. J. Patter.son, architect, has 
opened an oflice in the Mechanics 
Institute Building, San F"rancisco. 

The Pfotenhauer-Nesbit Com- 
pany of New York furnished Kit- 
tanning brick for the exterior of 
the new St. John's Church, Kings- 
bridge, New York, which is illus- 
trated in this issue. Grueby 
Faience is also liberally employed in this building. 

Robert C. Svveatt, architect of vSpokane, Wash., has 
removed his offices to the Realty Building. Manufac- 
turers' samples and catalogues desired. 

The Soldan High School at St. Louis, William B. 
Ittner, architect, which was illustrated in The Brick- 
liiiLDER for February, was through a mistake mentioned 
as being located in Chicago. 

The Architectural Arts League of Atlanta, Ga., has 
formed an employment bureau, in order that 
raftsmen in that city may ascertain what vacancies 
e.xist in the various architectural ofiices. This 
feature is commendable in that it is a great 
saving of time and expense to the drafts- 
men and removes from the architects the 
constant annoyance of applicants. 
Architects will apply for assistance 
to the bureau, where a com- 
plete list of men and their 
abilities will be kept on 
file. 

The panel over the main 
entrance of the Westwood 
School, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
was executed by The 
Rook wood Pottery Com- 
pany, the color scheme of 
which is a rich brown, 
green and buff. 

San Antonio, Texas, is 

to have a twelve-story 

church and otlice build- 

1 ing. The basement and 

first two stories will be 

used for ecclesiastical purposes and the other floors for 

business. The structure when completed will cost 

approximately $1,000,000. 



»ii^ 







66 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Atlantic Terra Cotta Company furnished the 
architectural terra cotta used in the Westwood School, 
Cincinnati, Garber & Woodward, architects, and also for 
St. John's R. C. Church, Kingsbridge, New York, Davis, 
McGrath & Kiessling, architects. Both of these build- 
ings are illustrated in this issue. 

Architectural terra cotta for the following mentioned 
new buildings is being furnished by the Atlantic Terra 
Cotta Company: Third National Bank, Atlanta, Ga., 
W. T. Downing, Morgan E. Dillon and A. Ten Eyck 
Brown, associated, architects; Men's Dormitory, Univer- 
sity of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio, \j. C. Holden, architect ; 
Church of the Sacred Heart, Taunton, Mass., Matthew 
Sullivan, architect; Imperial Life Building, Toronto, 
Canada, G. M. Miller & Co., architects. 

The brick used in the construction of the New Carr 
School, New Humboldt School and New Lyon School at 
St. Louis, Mo., illustrated in this issue, was furnished 
by the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company of St. Louis. 

WANTED — Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds for 
The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas. Applica- 
tions are invited from men with technical training and practical 
experience in building construction. For particulars address 
College Architect, College Station, Texas. 

"SPECIFICATION BLANKS," by T. Robert Wieger, 
architect (formerly w^ith F. E. Kidder). Forms for all classes 
of buildings, each trade separate. Complete set, 44 pages, 
25 cents. Reduction on quantities. Sample page upon 
request. 628- 14th street, Denver, Colo. 

ARCHITECTS AND DRAFTSMEN— i register as- 
sistants KOR THE ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION EXCLUSIVELY 
IN AND FOR ANY PART OF THE UNITED STATES. HAVE CALLS 
FOR HELP CONTINUALLY FROM THE BEST OF OFFICES IN ALL 
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. MY LIST CONSISTS OF THE HIGH- 
EST GRADE TECHNICAL MEN. NO REGISTRATION FEE AND 
REASONABLE TERMS. IF YOU ARE NEEDING HELP OR SEEK- 
ING A GOOD POSITION, WRITE ME. LEO A. PEREIRA, 
218 La Salle St., Chicago. Long Distance TcI., Franklm U28. 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 

TRADE MARK - REG. U. S. PATENT OFHCE 

BULLETIN 



RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

Store and Apartment Building, Washington, D. C. Pa^e 63 

A. H. H EATON, Architect 

Built of Standard Golden "Tapestry" Brick with dark gray 
mortar joints. 

"PISKE 6- COMPANY INC 

lACE bricks; establish 

llRE BRICKSl ED IN 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Flatiron Building, New York 



■WANTED — Position in architect's office by a graduate of 
one of the best architectural schools. Twelve years' experi- 
ence in the execution of important work. Middle West pre- 
ferred. For particulars address " H. E. C, " care of The 
Brickbuilder. 

A BOOK OF HOUSE DESIGNS — THE TITLE OF 
A 64 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS THE 
DESIGNS SUBMITTED IN COMPETITION FOR 
A HOUSE BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW 
TILE. ILLUSTRATIONS OF HOUSES BUILT OF 
THIS MATERIAL, TOGETHER WITH ARTICLES 
DESCRIBING CONSTRUCTION, ETC. PRICE 
50 CENTS. ROGERS c'v: MANSON. BOSTON. 

A HOUSE OF BRICK OF MODERATE COST- 

THE TITLE OF A % PAGE BOOKLET WHICH 
CONTAINS 71 DESIGNS FOR A BRICK HOUSE 
OF MODERATE COST. THESE DESIGNS WERE 
SUBMITTED BY WELL-KNOWN ARCHITEC- 
TURAL DRAFTSMEN IN COMPETITION. IN- 
TERESTING ARTICLES. ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
HISTORICAL BRICK HOUSES. PRICE, FIFTY 
CENTS. ROGERS Ik MANSON, BOSTON. 



COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE 

IN SOUTH CAROLINA AND GEORGIA 

A SERIES OF THE CHOICEST EXAMPLES OF 

PURE COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE 

FOUND IN THE SOUTH 

Edited by CRANE AND SODERHOLTZ 

A collection of S2 plates illu.strating exteriors, interiors 
and numerous details : entrances, doors (interior and 
exterior), mantels, halls, staircases, interior trim, mould- 
ings, wrought iron work, furniture, etc. 

One volume, portfolio. \2H xl6X inches 
PRICE, $10.00 

THE BRUNO HESSLING COMPANY 

64 EAST 12th STREET, NEW YORK, N. Y. 



Ideal Floor Covering 

FOR CEMENT FLOORS 



LinolciDii secured by waterproof glue to cemt-nt floors 
can be furnished in plain colors or in inlaid effects. 

Cork Carpel in plain colors. 

Elastic, Noiseless, Durable. 

Is practical for rooms, halls, and [uirticularly adapted 
to public buildings. 

Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing .skilled workmen. 

FolUncinf; examples of our uork : 
Bronkline Public Library. R. Clipston SturKis, Esq., Architect, 
Suffolk County Court House, Boston, (".eorge A. Clough, Esq., 

Arcliitect. 
Registry of Deeds, Salem, Mass. C. H. Blackall, Esq., Architect. 
We Solicit Inqairiet and Correspondence 

Oualit\- samples speciall.\- prepared for architects and 
builders mailed on application. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 
646-658 WASHINGTON STREET - BOSTON, MASS. 

Have been continuously in this business for 93 years 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XX APRIL 1911 ■ Ni \imkr 4 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, I'll, by ROGERS A MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ........ $5.oo per year 

Single numbers 50 t*"*' 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............... $5.5n per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ............••.•• $*> '"i per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 



Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 
II 



Agencies — Clay Products ....... 

Architectural Faience ........ '' 

„ Terra Cotta . ... . II and III 

Brick m 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



rAGt 

Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ........ IV 

Fireproofing ......... IV 

Roofing Tile ' V 



CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 
WILLIAM A. BATES; LEON E. DESSEZ; FRANK B. MEADE; DWKiHT H. PERKINS. 

LETTERPRESS 

I'AliH 

CHURCH DE LA COMPANIA DE JESU.S, PUEBLA, MEXICO Frontispiece 

THE PRESENTATION OF PRELIMINARY STL'DIE.S OF ARCHITECTrRAL SUBJECTS. -PART IV. 

H. ('. Kifl'V 67 

POLYCHROME TERRA COTTA IN EXTERIOR ARCinTECTURK J. Monror H.uhll 71 

COLOR PLATE, MASONIC TEMPLE, BROOKLYN, N. Y '"'^ert 

THE MANUAL TRAINING HIGH .SCHOOL. - PART IV Wilham li. Ittnc, 73 

POLYCHROME TERRA COTTA IN THE MA.SONIC TEMPLE OF BROOKLYN 79 

THE CERAMIC CHEMICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA. ... //r; ;//,/». I. Vluuh W 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY ™ 

DETAILS OF TERRA CfJTrA HCJLLOW TILE CONSTRUCTION ''* 

COMPETITION PROGRAM -SMALL TERRA COTTA Hf)LLO\V TILE Ilor.SE 92 



\ 




5 ^.-5 



s -a 



2 "o SO 



c IS "3 




BY HUBERT C. RIPLEY. 



Tov epcoTO'i Tou Mip(;a/;X eVe/ca, 'iaOi eTrteLKt'j'i. 

— RosETTA Stone. 



ARCHITECTS and artists have had their 
vagaries in all ages, and the seapage 
from the writings of classic authors has in- 
dicated this unmistakably. It is often diffi- 
cult to tell the pose from the reality, for as 
Mr. Newton says, those who have spent their 
time, not in their study, but in the world, 
habitually acquire confidence, and, while this 
confidence chiefly owes its success to the per- 
sonal equation, the pose in the artistic equa- 
tion (this must be dual equation previously 
referred to) whether it be " anapestic or 
choreic, measured in strophe or antistrophe, 
with monody and epode " has always held a 
peculiar charm for the cymbocephalic high- 
brows. 

Michael, lord of Montaigne, in chapter 
XXVII of the first book of his es.says says, 

" Considering the proceeding of a Painter's 
worke I have; a desire possessed mee to imi- 
tate him : He maketh choice of the most con- 
venient place and middle of everie wall, 
there to place a picture, laboured with all 
his skill and sufficiencie; and all void places 



about it he filleth up with antike Boscage or 
Crotesko works; which are fantastical! pic- 
tures, having no grace, but in the variety 
and strangenesse of them. And what are 
these my compositions in truth, other than 
antike workes, and monstrous bodies, 
patched and hudled up together of divers 
members, without any certaine or well or- 
dered figure, having neither order, depend- 
nencie, or proportion, but casuall and 
framed by chance ^" 

Aside from the spelling and punctuation 
this seems a fairly reasonable and timely 
statement of conditions that obtain among 
those writers who earn their living by selling 
blue prints. Mike, a little further along 
(The First Booke chap. LI) says 

" But when I heare our Architects mouth- 
out those big, and ratling words of /'i/asttrs, 
Architraves, Comixes, l-'roiitispices, Corin- 
thian, and Dorike works, and such like 
fustian-termes of theirs, I cannot let my 
wandering imagination frame a sodaine 



^ g iiii i i n/Mi i i nniiiMjiiiiiini],ii[immii i 



m ii in lll ll i n i l M l ul l l l MI MMluillMIIIIMIIIIIIMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIMMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIIlllMlllllMllllllMIIIIMIIIMilimiHNilllllJNrMIIMIlNIIIIMIIl ll lll l lll l l N lll ll litTrTlTt 



68 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




Carrefour des Amourettes, Rome. A pink paper was appropriately 
selected for this sketch, and its sheen illumines the tender hues of the 
pelouse. Little touches of body color here and there in the foreground and 
on the figures indicate sunshine ; otherwise, transparent colors were used. 




FIG. XVII. 



This sketch, selected from Mr. Kidd's portfolio of drawings made while 
yet a student at the Atelier Denii-Tasse, was entirely finished in body 
color. Almost a whole tube of Horadams Chinese white, costing si.\ty 
cents, was used. In sjiite of this the colors are clear and lambent. 



apprehension of Apollidojiius his pallace, 
and I find by effect, that they are the seely, 
and decayed peeces of my Kitchin-doore." 

It would seem from this that the architects of the 



bright spots were the rambling sketches of good old 
T. Raffles Davidson. Now this is all changed, and 
almost every office possesses, in addition to Madeline 
and a branch private exchange telephone service, a 
choice and exotic collection of rare and costly art books 
sixteenth century found as much difficulty in expressing with portfolios of photogravures, color prints, and photo- 
themselves in simple straightforward language as they graphs, and reproductions of drawings, envois, es- 
do now, and it may be that this is true of writers on other (juisses, rendus, etchings, lithographs, engravings and 
subjects as well. This goes to show that the "pons asi- all manner of material that may be of possible assistance 
norum " and the " gradus ad Parnassum " are to be in working out any problem, from designing a tennis 



surmounted not by merely read- 
ing and dreaming over the 
works of the masters in dilet- 
tante fashion, but by hard 
manual labor with the T 
Square, triangles, pen, pencils, 
brushes, ink, colors and paper, 
and utter self abasement and 
fortitude under great stress; 
and the value of this enchiri- 
dion (if we may be pardoned 
the use of the word in speak- 
ing of so humble an instrument) 
depends for its justification on 
its insistence of thoroughness, 
concentration and self-re- 
straint. 

" In the old days " the aver- 
age architect's library consisted 
of a copy of Batty Langley or 
Gvvilt, half a dozen bound vol- 
umes of the architectural mag- 
azines, vintage of 1876, and 
Stearns' gutter-book. These 
were kept in the boss's private 
office and offered little tempta- 
tion to the draughtsman to 
while away the tedious hours 
between 8.30 and 5.30. The 
jejune and musty ruling pen 
perspectives were not very ex- 
citing or thrilling and the only 




FIG. XVIII. 

This study of a garden scene on the roof of one of our 
large hotels shows what can be done to brighten up our 
artificial city life and bring us all in closer touch with nature, 
and freedom from the trammels of art. Reckoned in terms 
of dollars and cents the construction is not really expensive 
and the hotel management says that the investment has 
already more than paid for its initial-cost. 



court to a fountain in the 
greenhouse, from writing the 
specifications for a vitrified 
terra-cotta corset factory, to 
selecting the draperies for the 
drawing-room of a malefactor 
of great wealth. 

With such storehouses right 
at hand to draw upon, it seems 
presumptuous to attempt to 
add anything to the subject. 
There are, however, a few 
points that are not exhaustively 
covered, and on this bright, 
sunshiny, spring morning let 
us take up for consideration 
with a little more detail than 
we have previously done, the 
rendering of drawings in water- 
colors. 

First the palette. Despite 
the impression that has been 
circulated to the contrary, the 
Romans had a very extensive 
palette that ranged from black 
to white and contained such 
colors as Ochni.- or sil, the Ru- 
brica of Sinope, Pontus, and 
Lemnos, Pnttorium, Melinium 
(both white earths), Theodo- 
tion, or green earth, Auripig- 
mentum, Sandara (which must 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



69 



not be confused with Sandarac), Cinnabar, Sinopis, Syri- 
cum, Chrysocolla, or gold solder; and in addition to these 
many factitious colors such as black, made from the lees 
of wine dried and burnt in a furnace (the better the wine 
the better the black) called Indicum Ceruleum and Usta, 
made from the glebe of good sil, Ceruse, a white lead 
(when burned this became red lead), Ostrum, which was 
the famous and celebrated purple of the ancients and 
was made from broken conchylia, Rubriaand Hyginium, 
and a purple made of prepared vaccinium, milk and 
luteum and Silinusian earth, called Porpura, rich in its 
promise of dramatic contrasts, and fecund with the gar- 
nered haze of incense breathing morn. 

Try some of these over on your typewriter, and you 
and your friends will be pleased with the result. 

These colors all offer many useful suggestions for pres- 
ent day needs, being particularly valuable in describing 
a drawing. It sounds so much better for instance to say 
that your sketch is rendered in tones of Sandarac, and 
Marmorosum with a little Aerugo in the blacks, than to 
say that you used Indian Red for the roof and French 
Blue and Gamboge for the gazon. Another thing to keep 
in mind is to give the French names for the colors used 
even if the drawing is a monochrome. Don't say India 
Ink or Charcoal Gray; say Noir de Peche 
and Grez de Fusan. Such shades as Honane, 
Taupe and Vervain (a word sometimes 
attributed to a perfume) are being used 



extensively this spring, and combine charmingly for 
distant foliage and soft dull tones. 

While these colors may all be employed to advantage 
in their proper places, for everyday use we recommend 
the following palette, as containing all that is really es- 
sential ; Horadams Chinese White, Peach Hiack, French 
Blue, or, if you can afford it. Smalt or I'llramarine, 
Prussian Blue (these two blues are quite necessary as 
they supplement each other) Aurora Yellow, Lemon Yel- 
low, Yellow Carmine, Orange Vermillion, Carmine and 
Gallstone. Alazarin crim.son may l)e used in place of 
carmine if a less expensive color is desired. To this 
should be added Bistre, making in all eleven tubes, 
which should be a sufhcient equipment for every class 
of work. 

If some take exception to this list let them add the 
Roman colors to the color box, and we feel sure that 
carping criticism will stand abashed, and the most exact- 
ing martinet falter and grow confused like a small boy 
who rises to speak his piece on graduation day. A 
shorter list even would be better as it is quhe possible 
to do excellent work with but the.se colois— Cerulean 
Blue, Pale Orange Cadmium, and Japanese Red — but as 
each colorist has his or her own pet special color, no 
hard and fast rule can be laid down. 

Second, the paper. We now begin to ven- 
ture on thin ice and tread very delicate 
ground, to speak tautologically, as the average 




FIG. XIX. 
An example of Boscage and Crotesko work, a cyrtostylc abode of Dryad and Hylidii-. The 
andouiUe of the enclosing frame would serve e(|ually well as enfonrage for another sketch than 
that shown and vice versa. 



70 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



architectural illustrator is about as fussy over the kind 
of paper for a drawing, and uses as much care and 
thought in choosing it, as he does over the mixing and 
consuming of the hebdomidal cocktail. And this is 
rightly so, as the limitations and restrictions of architec- 
tural illustrations leave little to chance, all accidental 
effects must be taken advantage of, and the whole present 
a knowing and unlabored result. If a certain shade or 
texture of paper is selected that does away with the 
necessity for a wash to represent material, or effective 
use for a portion of the drawing can be made of the 



violet or heliotrope near the horizon, dries out well and 
looks like a sky. If the building is then rendered lightly in 
transparent colors, with perhaps here and there a touch 
of creamy high lights, and some full deep blacks in the far 
shadows, these are the essential elements that go to make 
a successful drawing even without much labor or skill. 

By successful we mean presentable from the architect's 
point of view and suitable for the purpose of illustrating 
his idea, and showing the client what he is up against. 
The majority of us cannot hope to cope with real artists 
and infuse atmosphere, chiaro-oscuro, tone and quality into 



medium upon which you are working, the opportunity our pictures; we should be satisfied with a graphic por- 

to commit mistakes and blunders is greatly lessened. trayal that does not pretend to be anything but what it is. 

Probably more discussions have been held, acrimoni- If the idea of using opaque colors is abhorrent to some, 

ous invective used, and life-long friendships shattered good clean drawings may be made on lightly tinted 

in extolling the virtues, or expatiating on the defects of paper; but in this case, the texture of the paper is of 

rival brands of water color paper among the architec- prime importance, and it is better on the whole to 



tural illustrators, than any other one thing. 

Many colorists always use white paper, but with- 
out wishing to go too far, and with all due respect 
and sincere admiration for the beautiful drawings 
that have appeared in the past, and that are yet 
to appear in the future, we venture to make a 
few suggestions that may fall on fallow soil. 

Let the pencil outline be drawn with 
as much care as if it were to be rendered 
in that medium, even going to the extent 
of laying in shadows and foliage, 
and occasionally touching up here 
and there with pen and ink. This 
all goes to give texture to the va- 
rious portions of the drawing, and 
form and texture are about as far 
as the architectural draiightsman 
can hope to carry a sketch. 

Make this drawing on a tinted 
paper of a rather smooth surface, 
selecting a shade that is the pre- 
vailing color the drawing is to be. 
If trees predominate in the draw- 
ing, use a green charcoal or crayon 
paper that is not too strong in tone 
and is pleasing in shade, and that 
will etaler through the washes, 
here and there letting the actual 
color of the paper appear. If a 
large brick building is to be shown, 
use a light red or pink paper; if a 
limestone or plaster building, a 
gray paper, and so on. This means 
that body color will have to be ex- 
tensively employed, but not so extensively as one might 
suppose. 

The chief thing to bear in mind is to make the build- 
ing "stand out " against the sky, not to merge gently 
into the landscape or be thin and aerial. The best way 
to make a sky transparent is to use opaque colors, and 
transparent colors properly handled give the effect of 
solidity. If the .sky is to be blue, the one best blue for 
that purpose is Prussian blue (a very heavy, dark and 
deep, rich blue), mixed with Chinese white; this gives a 
beautiful clear color, which, when put on a tinted paper 
nice and thick and sticky, and graded and merged into 



,^^) 




Portrait of O. U. Kidd, Esq., architect, from an old 
mezzotint by A. Brayton Butler, loaned tlirough the 
courtesy of the Boston Architectural Club. This 
shows Mr. Kidd discovering the origin and inspiration 
of the Ionic cap, surrounded by a group of his favor- 
ite trophies. The necktie and the background are in 
grisaille and the foliage supporting the encadrenient 
is the celebrated plumbaginoides diligens cartouchii 
or busy cartouche plant. 



stick to Whatman's, washing or staining the draw- 
ing before the colors are applied, as previously 
indicated. High lights may be taken out after the 
drawing is all done with an ink eraser, or put 
on with white contc crayon sparingly used, and 
well rubbed in. 

In all drawings, as well as in architectural 

work of every character, too much 

stress and emphasis cannot be laid on 

the value of seriousness. The work 

is in a way permanent and may 

stand for centuries, and every step 

should be carefully and thoroughly 

scrutinized. 

Seriousness is one of the chief 
assets of the successful architect, 
and his ability to impress on the 
public that this quality oozes from 
every pore is in direct ratio with 
the number and importance of his 
commissions. Where many a bril- 
liant man falls down is in the mis- 
take he makes in not taking himself 
seriously, and while his equipment 
and ability may exceed that of his 
fellow associates, his cash register 
sales and blue print bills will fall 
far below those of his less gifted 
compeers. 

Cultivate this quality of serious- 
ness in all stages of the work. Be- 
gin by trying it on yourself, and 
after a while it will be as easy to 
pick out the architect by his long 
hair and wrinkled brow, as to tell the doctor by his beard. 
Cultivate also an individuality, either in style, or 
technique in rendering (and the possibilities here have 
by no means been exhausted), or the use of some well 
known material in an unexpected place, or an unheard of 
material in a well known place; something that has not 
been attempted before, or something that, having been 
done, has been forgotten. Let this pervade every stage 
of the work from the first rough sketch to "them sky- 
light details," and let it be particularly insistent in the 
preliminary sketch. As Kallicrates used to say to his 
pupils " T) iXeuOepia eveica t>}? Te;^M;? rj ottXottj? €aTi." 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 71 

Polychrome Terra Cotta in Exterior Architecture. 



PV J. MONROE HEWI.KTT. 



AT a meeting of one of the art societies some years 
ago, a casual reference by one of the speakers to 
architects as "modelers of buildings" called forth a 
vigorous protest from Russell Sturgisat the slight recog- 
nition given by the general public, and by architects 
themselves, to the functions of the architect asa"colorer 
of buildings." 

In spite of all we have learned from the arch.'cologists 
as to the color treatment of their architecture by the 
Greeks; in spite of all that we have seen in Spain and 
Italy and all that Ruskin and others have said about it; 
in spite of the charming effects that have been produced 
both in ancient and modern times by combinations of 
brick and stone contrasting sharply in color, there is still 
an almost universal feeling that in its more monumental 
phases architecture, to attain the maximum of dignity, 
simplicity and grandeur, must be kept in a general uni- 
formity of tone, and that that tone must be light enough in 
value to clearly define the light, shade and shadow of all 
the detailed forms.and maintain undiminished the sculp- 
turesque quality universally associated with the greatest 
buildings. This habit of mind is one that should not be 
lightly departed from. It is easy to imagine the deca- 
dence in the art of sculpture that would result from 
giving predominance to questions of color over those 
of form, and a similar development in architecture would 
be no less disastrous, for it seems obvious that a distinct 
color variation in the masonry fac^ade of a building is 
artistically defensible only when this variation is intro- 
duced in such a way as to define and emphasize definite 
characteristics of the composition which have already 
been developed in the study of form, or perhaps I might 
better say, of light and shade. 

To those critics, professional and amateur, who are 
prone to regard recent architectural developments as the 
result of a feverish seeking after some new thing, as 
well as to those who charge our architects with a .slavish 
adherence to threadbare precedent, the history of the 
development of polychrome terra cotta in this country 
should be enlightening as an illustration of gradual 
progress tempered by healthy conservatism. 

In an Architectural League Exhibition, about fifteen 
years ago, a small store front of highly colored terra 
cotta erected against one wall of the Vanderbilt Gallery 
aroused general interest in that it represented about the 
first tentative effort to impress upon the architects and 
the public the possibilities of this interesting material 
for exterior design. 

More than ten years later the Madison Scfuare Presby- 
terian Church was begun, and this may be said to be the 
first notable example of the use of polychrome terra 
cotta throughout all portions of the exterior of an impor- 
tant building. During this interval and for some time 
previous there had been evident a steadily increasing 
interest in the texture and color of the various materials 
employed in the execution of exterior design, and a 
better understanding of the interrelation of color and 
texture. The soft gray tones of unpainted .shingles, the 
interesting sparkle of rubble walls built of discolored 



and moss-grown field stone, the subtle suggestion of pat- 
tern due to the presence of black headers in rough brick 
walls with wide joints, all testified increasingly to the de- 
sire for color united with agreeable texture, and helped 
to make general an appreciation of the fact that strong 
color contrasts must be united with agreeable textural 
quality in order to be architecturally acceptable. 

This period was rendered notable for the purposes of 
this di.scussion by the newly built Museum of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, a building which perhaps illus- 
trates better than any other example that we have how 
vigorously color contrasts may be u.scd for the enrich- 
ment of our facades without destroying the necessary 
repose, by combining and surrounding them with care- 
fully studied surface textures. Furthermore, as an 
example of the color effect that may be obtained by care- 
fully studied surface texture without the introduction of 
any definite color treatment, we have the University 
Club of New York, a building, I believe, unequaled in 
this respect. As a preliminary, then, to the introduction 
of large masses of glazed and colored terra cotta upon 
the fac^ades of buildings, public taste may be said to 
have developed to the point of realizing the futility of 
the effort to introduce color interest into architecture 
by such expedients as the introduction of panels of 
tile mosaic in the midst of great surfaces of the tradi- 
tional Philadelphia brick, or other material e(|ual1y 
uninteresting in texture, a characteristic of a certain 
period of our architecture which fortunately was a brief 
one. 

I have referred above to the Madison S(|uare Presby- 
terian Church as the first notable example in this coun- 
try of the use of polychrome terra cotta in exterior 
design. In view of this fact and also of the prominence 
of the location of this building it is, I think, most for- 
tunate that the color has been applied with great reserve 
— so much so, in fact, that to one observing this building 
from a sufficient distance to grasp the efTect of the entire 
composition on a bright day the color variation merely 
serves to impart a slight vibrant golden glow to the pre- 
vailing creamy tone of the building without in the least 
diminishing the quietness of the shade and shadow; but 
on a gray, overcast day, when the building is seen in 
diffused light, the detailed interest of the color treatment 
immediately becomes apparent, and thus substitutes an- 
other and different kind of interest to compensate for the 
loss of the shadow forms. In this respect it seems to me 
that this building is deserving of the highest praise, and 
it is, I believe, destined to exercise a most salutary influ- 
ence in restraining those whose fondness for color con- 
trast might easily lead them to the other extreme. 

Two other buildings have recently been completed 
which are of particular interest in this connection. In 
the Church of St. Ambrose in Hrooklyn, a scheme of 
color contrasts far more brilliant than any of those em- 
ployed in the Madi.son Square Church has been used 
with results thoroughly satisfactory as to color, but some- 
what unfortunate as to texture, owing to the fact that 
the bonding of the brickwork of the several portions of 



72 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



the facade has been varied to such an extent as to fail, it 
seems to me, in its legitimate function of adequately 
tying together and unifying these various portions of the 
facade. 

Another example of great interest is the Brooklyn 
Academy of Music. This building, owing to its great 
expanse of wall surface, offers a particularly favorable op- 
portunity for the concentration of color enrichment at 
certain significant spots, an opportunity that has been 
well utilized, particularly around the window and door 
openings. The importance of surrounding the strong 
red, blue and yellow glazes by fillets or bands of the pre- 
vailing tone of the building itself is, it seems to me, 
emphasized in the balustrade above the main cornice, 
where the failure to do this has caused the juxtaposed 
colors to merge together in such a way as to give to the 
entire balustrade a sort of purple sheen not quite in 
harmony with the clear definition of the color treatment 
below. 

These and other interesting examples which we already 
have might well be dwelt upon in detail, but my object 
in this brief paper is not so much a critical survey of 
what has been done as a discussion of the tendencies to 
be encouraged and avoided in order that this interesting 
material may not, like so many others, enjoy a brief 
vogue quickly terminated by its own excess. 

The fact should be constantly borne in mind that in 
the average modern building the color interest of the 
fa<;ade must be mainly dependent upon the window open- 
ings with their glass catching varying reflections of sky, 
earth and foliage, their painted sash and glimpses of 
curtains or other colored objects in the interior, and that 
unity and integrity of all the solid portions of the fac^ade 
are of far greater importance in the general result than 
any added interest to be obtained from agreeable color 
contrasts. This consideration seems to limit the appli- 
cability of this class of design to the comparatively small 
number of buildings whose functions permit of ex- 
tended wall space and a comparatively small area of 
window opening, and if it shall chance that this limita- 
tion be generally observed it will, I think, be in all 
respects fortunate. 

A danger to the orderly development of exterior 
polychrome ornament arises from the high degree of 
efiiciency to which the manufacturers have already at- 
tained. The great assortment of so-called " softly blend- 
ing " colors available makes it possible for the designer 
to introduce color variation in such a way as to be com- 
paratively inoffensive even though it contributes nothing 
to the character of the design. In this respect the pres- 



ent situation is similar to that of the arts of stained glass 
and mosaic since the introduction of " opalescent " glass. 
The baleful influence of this material is manifest in the 
majority of our churches and in many of our other 
buildings. It has enabled the ignorant designer to 
escape the natural results of his ignorance by distract- 
ing attention from the inadequacy of the design and 
concentrating it upon the beauty of the materials. We 
have need of all beautiful materials in the greatest 
possible variety, but I am convinced that the only 
safe method for those who would introduce color varia- 
tions into their masonry fae^ades is to study the de- 
sign in a few strongly contrasting colors of great inten- 
sity. This method will result in the abandonment of 
color variation, at many points where it is in no way 
necessary to the composition and will tend to concentrate 
the chromatic interest at the points where it has greatest 
significance. There is no quality that can so ill be 
spared from architecture as repose. 

It is certainly not too much to say that terra cotta as a 
distinct element in modern architectural design has but 
recently come into its own, for it is only recently that its 
most distinguishing characteristic" has been generally 
taken into practical account, and it has been shown by 
actual results that far from being merely a less expen- 
sive substitute for stone, it possesses along with the 
greatest durability, qualities and possibilities of texture 
and color treatment entirely different from and in cer- 
tain respects far beyond those of any other material. 

The entire history of architecture, or at least of those 
phases of it that are included in the evolution of the 
traditions upon which our modern methods of design are 
based, furnishes abundant evidence of the necessity of a 
transitional period of greater or less duration for the 
gradual assimilation of any new material, motif or de- 
tailed form which has permanently taken its place as 
characteristic of the work of any epoch. During the 
next few years we shall unquestionably see a decided in- 
crease in the use of polychrome brick and terra cotta; at 
the same time a general sentiment will be forming as 
to the suitability of these materials for exterior design. 
If this follows the course of most similar manifestations 
excessive indulgence will be succeeded by nausea and 
subsequent distaste. This would be unfortunate. The 
material possesses so much intrinsic merit as a medium 
of architectural expression, and the initial essays in its 
use have been so reserved and dignified in character 
that we have, I believe, good grounds for expecting a 
gradual, wholesome and beautiful development of its 
possibilities. 




DETAIL OF TYMPANUM IN PEDIMENl, MADISON S(JUARE CHURCH, NEW YORK CITY. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 




ATLANTIC TERRA COTTA COMPANY, 
APRIL 1911. 



MASONIC TEMPLE. BROOKLYN. N. Y. 
Lord &. Hewlett and Pell & Corbett, Associated, Architects. 



SUPPLCMENT, 

THE BRICKBUILOER, 

APRIL 1911. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

The Manual Training High School. — IV. 



73 



BY WILLIAM 1!. ITTNKR. 



HIGH SCHOOL, LAFAYETTE, INDIANA. 

THE Lafayette High School recently placed under 
contract is designed to accommodate twelve hun- 
dred pupils. The building has a frontage of 240 feet 
with a depth of 170 feet. 

The first floor level has been placed about 11 feet 
above the grade allowing full window surface to all the 
rooms on the ground floor. 

The approach of the main entrance is by easy stages 
to the first or main floor. Entrances to the ground floor 
from the side streets are provided for the pupils. The 
necessary number of service entrances are also provided 
to the shops and boiler room. 

Three well lighted stairways are provided and located 
with respect to rapid circulation as well as to minimize 
travel distance between the various parts of the building. 

The stairways near the session rooms are double stair- 
ways so that some pupils may pass up one while others 
are coming down the other. 

The main corridor is 18 feet wide, and the secondary 
corridors 10 feet wide, all receiving direct light. 

Session Rooms. Six session or study rooms are pro- 
vided, each room being 30 by 62 feet, and seating one 
hundred and fifty pupils in single desks. All are uni- 



structors' rooms, dark rooms, etc. The lecture rooms 
will accommodate double classes (fifty pupils) and are 
arranged with amphitheaters. The biological laboratory 
has a conservatory in the bay window. 

CoMMKRciAi. Rooms. Three rooms on the ground floor 
are set aside for classes in bookkeeping and stenography. 
These rooms are unilaterally lighted, the bookkeeping 
room having the necessary floor space for the bank and 
business houses in the bay window. 

Free-Hani) Drawing and Art (Iallerv. Two class 
rooms are arranged for free-hand drawing and will have 
a northern light. 

Mechanical Dkawinc. One room is provided for 
mechanical drawing and is located near the group of 
shops. 

Manual Traininc;. The Lafayette School being located 
in a university community will make no provision for 
iron work. Two manual training rooms are provided 
for woodworking, and three rooms for arts and crafts 
work. These rooms which are all located along the north, 
and convenient for getting in supplies, are of ample size 
to accommodate the classes and are top-lighted. Each 
group has its necessary storeroom, instructor's room, 
tool room, wash and locker room, etc. 

Domestic Science. The domestic science group in- 




new hu;h school, lafayette, Indiana. 



laterally lighted and are convenient to the double stair- 
ways, locker rooms, toilets, etc. One of these rooms is 
to be used for music and public speaking. 

Class Rooms. The class or recitation rooms are all 
arranged for unilateral lighting and conveniently placed 
with respect to corridors and stairways. Each room will 
accommodate thirty-five pupils in single seats. 

Laboratories. The laboratories are placed in the 
large corner rooms on the first and second floors. They 
are arranged for unilateral light, are planned to open en 
suite with the lecture rooms and are provided with in- 



cludes a sewing room, a cooking room, a dining room, and 
a bedroom. All are conveniently located on the ground 
floor and are provided with store rooms, fitting room, etc. 

Library. The library is located next to the oflice for 
convenience in supervision by a single attendant in the 
principal's office. It has stack capacity for twenty-five 
hundred volumes. 

Admimsikation Rooms. The administration rooms 
consisting of a general office, principal's office, a storage 
vault, and storeroom are located on the first floor next to 
the main entrance. 



74 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Auditorium. The auditorium occupies the center of on each of the street fronts, sufificient for a small ter- 

the building on the first floor the balcony of which is race and planting area, and about 28 feet between the 

reached from the second floor corridors. It is provided new and the old buildings to insure the proper natural 

with ample well located exits for rapid egress and is well lighting of both. 

lighted from the courts and by skylight. It will furnish The boiler house is placed between the new building 

comfortable seating for twelve hundred pupils, the stage and the old with its roof below the level of the ground 



seating one hundred. 

Teachers' Rooms. Retir- 
ing or rest rooms for both 
pupils and teachers are pro- 
vided. 

Gymnasium. A large well 
lighted gymnasium is pro- 
vided with locker and shower 
rooms for both boys and 
girls. 

Lunch Room. A small 
lunch room is located under 
the auditorium and is ar- 
ranged with convenient 
serving counter. 

Lockers and Toilets. 
The toilets which are ar- 
ranged in stacks at conve- 
nient locations are well 
lighted and planned for 
proper privacy and super- 
vision. The main locker 
rooms are located in well 
lighted rooms under the 
courts, while locker rooms 
for both boys and girls are 
arranged on each floor next 
the session rooms. 

Heating and Ventila- 
ting. The building is ar- 
ranged for the steam plenum 
system of heating and venti- 
lating supplemented by 
direct radiation in the rooms, 
the air being washed before 
passing to the fans. The 
apparatus and the boilers are 
placed back of the main 
building. Ample fuel stor- 
age space is also provided. 

Cost. The cost of the 
building which is of ordinary 
construction with fireproof 
corridors, stairways, and 
boiler room, ready for its 
etjuipment will be $212,000, 

which is at the rate of 13.5 cents per cubic foot, or $177 
per capita for twelve hundred pupils. 

HIGH SCHOOL, WICHITA, KANSAS. 

IN THE Wichita High School the session rooms have 
given way to combined class and study rooms of 
standard size seating fifty pupils each. 

The building has a frontage of 228 feet on Emporia 
street with a depth of 125 feet on Third street. Owing 
to the limitations of the site this will leave about 15 feet 




PLANS OF new high SCHOOL, 
LAFAYETTE, INDIANA. 



floor windows. 

The first floor level has 
been fixed about 12 feet 
above the sidewalk grade 
which will allow full win- 
dows to all ground floor 
rooms and insure the proper 
lighting and dryness of the 
rooms on this floor. 

The building is two stories 
high with the single excep- 
tion of the art room which 
is placed over the north 
corridor, locker, and toilet 
rooms. 

Four main entrances to the 
first and ground floors are 
provided together with three 
service entrances, two of 
which are available as emer- 
gency exits if required. 

Four • well lighted stair- 
ways are provided, located 
with respect to rapid circu- 
lation and to minimize travel 
distance between the various 
parts of the building. 

The main corridor is 15 
feet wide and the secondary 
corridors 9 feet wide, which 
together with the convenient 
location of the stairways will 
enable rapid circulation with- 
out congestion. 

Class Rooms. Twenty-five 
class rooms are located on 
the first and second floors. 
They are all arranged for 
unilateral lighting, conve- 
niently placed with respect to 
corridor and stairways and 
will accommodate fift}' pupils 
each in single seats. . 

Laboratories. The phy- 
sics and chemistry labora- 
tories are on the ground floor 
while the biology and physical geography laboratory is 
on the firi>t floor. They are of generous size to accom- 
modate the number required and are provided with in- 
structors' laboratories and storage space. The physics 
and chemistry laboratories each have a dark room. 

The lecture rooms opening off the laboratories and 
corridors are arranged for amphitheaters and will accom- 
modate double classes. 

Commercial Rooms. The commercial rooms on the 
ground floor will accommodate the classes in bookkeep- 
ing and stenography and are unilaterally lighted. 



THE R R I C K B U I L D E R 



75 



HHH 


- 


H-lfl 


S| 


miff 


\4\m\\ 




gBr ii-g — }! = ^ . 



o 
o 

S »' 

Ul Z 

X u 

s < 

X - 



■< is 

Id ^ 

o 
o 

w 
h 

■4. 



76 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Free-Hand Drawing. The free-hand drawing room 
has been placed where it will receive north light through 
a toothed skylight. It is large enough to accommodate 
two classes, has an unbroken wall surface and ample 
store and instructors' rooms. 



Lunch Room. The lunch room, 28 by 80 feet, will 
accommodate about half the school at one lunch period. 
It has an ample kitchen and is arranged for rapid and 
convenient service. 

Lockers and Toilets. The lockers and toilets are dis- 



Manuai. Training. The five manual training rooms tributed in stacks on each floor. They are in well lighted 



.i — ^e 



§ 



consisting of a woodworking, wood turning, forge, ma 
chine shop, and mechanical drawing room are located on 
the ground floor in the south wing. Each room is of 
adequate size to accommodate the classes and is well 
lighted. An instructor's room and the necessary tool 
rooms are provided as well 
as a large general storeroom, 
convenient to service door 
opening on the alley. 

Domestic Science. The 
domestic science group is 
located on the ground floor 
in the north wing, consist- 
ing of a sewing and cooking 
room, each of generous size. 
The cooking room will have 
its range setting, model din- 
ing room and storeroom, 
while the sewing room will 
have a fitting room and 
storeroom. 

Library. The library 
commands a central position 
on the second floor. This 
room is emphasized by fit- 
ting architectural treatment. 
It is especially well lighted, 
has floor space for fifty or 
sixty readers and possesses 
well lighted stacks capable 
of holding about five thou- 
sand volumes. 

Administration Rooms. 
The administration rooms 
consisting of a general office, 
a private office with record 
vault, and a storeroom, are 
located on the first floor 
next the main entrance. 

Assembly Hall. The as- 
sembly hall occupies the 
center of the building on 
the first floor, the balcony 

being reached from the second floor. The room is well 
lighted from the courts and overhead, and with its 
gallery will seat over twelve hundred. Ten exits are 
provided, five to each floor, thus insuring the rapid 
vacation of the room to the stairways, the various parts 
of the building, and the exterior exits. 

Teachers' Rooms. Two teachers' rooms are provided 
on the second floor. 

Gymnasia. Two gymnasia are provided, each room 
being 24 by 78 feet, with ample floor space for classes of 
fifty pupils and well lighted. The rooms are located so 
that the noise will not penetrate the class rooms and 
each is provided with ample lockers, showers, and toilet 
space. 



WX.7J OK'/yVy1i,/UM 



I rl Pn ^ - ''- ^ "^^ rl 



Li/tjj/:ai/ 5 




t;r/ys/cs | [ r. 



groups and arranged for proper ventilation and supervis- 
ion. The toilet rooms opening off the locker rooms give 
them proper privacy and convenience. On the boys' side 
ground floor wa.sh trays for the shops have been placed. 
Janitors. Lockers and toilets are conveniently lo- 
cated at the service entrance 
for janitors' use. 

Heating and Ventila- 
ting. Ample space is pro- 
vided for the heating and 
ventilating apparatus, the 
steam being carried from 
the boiler room thereto 
through an underground 
trench. 

Cost. The school which 
is of ordinary construction 
with fireproof corridors and 
stairways, and isolated fire- 
proof boiler room, will cost 
complete, ready for its 
equipment, about $175,000. 
This amount will make its 
cost per cubic foot 13.92 
cents, and its per capita cost 
about $147, on the basis of 
twelve hundred pupils. 



stca-vi/nooePiA/y 




L 



/-/esTrtooFFUyV 



plans of high school, WICHITA, KANSAS 



HIGH SCHOOL, SHEL- 
BYVILLE, INDIANA. 

THE High School at 
Shelbyville is typical 
of buildings for towns of 
moderate size, where the in- 
struction in manual training 
must necessarily be limited 
to woodworking for the boys 
and cooking and sewing for 
the girls. 

This building has a front- 
age of 149 feet with a depth 
of 104 feet. The site is 300 
by 600 feet, and the building is placed on the central 
axis of the site with room for future extension and play- 
ground to the rear. It is two stories high above the 
ground floor which is level with the grade to insure 
proper sanitary conditions and light. 

Class Rooms. The twelve class rooms are all arranged 
for unilateral lighting, are conveniently placed with re- 
spect to study hall, corridor, and stairways, and are the 
correct size to seat thirty pupils each in single desks. 
Each class room is provided with two bookcases and will 
have natural slate blackboards on three sides of the 
room. 

Assembly Room or Study Hall. The assembly room 
or study hall is placed on the second floor in order to give 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



77 



it the additional height necessary to insure its perfect 
■ lighting. It will seat two hundred and fifty pupils in 
single desks, or five hundred in opera chairs. The six 
exits afford every opportunity for rapid movement of 
classes. 




Laboratories. The 
two laboratories are 
placed on the second 
floor with the lecture 
room between. The 
lecture room will have 
an amphitheater and is 
arranged for use from 
either laboratory or may 
be used independently. 

Gymnasium. The 
gymnasium is placed on 
the ground floor conve- 
nient to the playground, together with several shower 
baths, toilets, and locker rooms. 

Locker Rooms. Locker rooms for both boys and girls 
are located on the ground floor and accessible to the en- 
trances, gymnasium, and future manual training rooms. 

Toilets. Toilets are placed on each floor convenient 
to the corri- 
dor s and 
are well 
lighted and 
ventilated. 

Rest 
Rooms. 
Rest rooms 
for both 
pupils and 
teachers are 
located on 
each floor 
next to the 
toilets. 

Adminis- 
T R a T I o x . 
The general 
office and 
principal's 
office are 
placed on 
the first 
floor and 
are p r o - 
vided with 
storeroom 
and vault. 

Manual 
Tra I n I ng 
Rooms. 
Large 

rooms suitable for manual training and domestic science 
are provided on the ground floor. 

Heating and Ventilating. The building is heated 
and ventilated by the steam plenum system with the 
boiler room entirely outside of the building. 

Cost. The building is of ordinary construction with 
the exception of the corridors, stairways, and boiler room 




NORTH elevation, HIGH SCHOOL, SHELBYVILLE, INDIANA. 




SacO/V^ S7-X££ T 



PLANS OF HIGH SCHOOL, SHELBYVILLE, INDIANA. 



which are fireproof, and will cost about $102,000, giving 
a cubic cost of 13.4 cents. 

HIGH SCHOOL, COLUMBIA, MLSSOURI. 

THE High School at 
Columbia, Missouri, 
is essentially a prepara- 
tory school for the Uni- 
versity of Missouri as 
ninety-five per cent of 
its students enter the 
university. It also con- 
tains upper grade rooms 
together with high 
school and manual train- 
ing rooms, a large study 
hall or assembly room 
and a gymnasium. 
The building is three stories high with the first floor 
raised above grade to insure proper sanitary conditions. 
The building contains, for the high school, a study 
hall or assembly room, 38 by 68 feet, two recitation 
rooms 24 by 21 feet, two 18 by 25 feet, and two 21 by 24 
feet. In addition there are three laboratories each 

21 by 36 
feet, with a 
lecture 
room 21 by 
11 feet, in- 
s true tor's 
and store- 
rooms, a 
small refer- 
ence library 
and a prin- 
c i p a 1 ' s 
office. 

The 
gram mar 
school con- 
tains eight 
class rooms 
each 21 by 
24 feet, 
ecju i pped 
with single 
desks. 

In addi- 
tion to the 
above there 
is a gymna- 
sium 38 by 
68 feet, a 
cooking 
room 21 by 
36 feet, and 

a sewing room 21 by 36 feet with store and fitting 
rooms between. Arrangement is also made for a 
woodworking room 20 by 52 feet, with lumber, storage, 
and finishing rooms, a mechanical drawing room, 
four locker rooms, general toilets for boys and girls, 
and the necessary space for the heating and ventilating 
plant. 



yVCW 
/f/O/t SCHOOL 






78 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The class and recitation rooms are arranged for uni- 
lateral lighting, provided with bookcases, and equipped 
with single desks. 

The assembly room on account of its great width is 
given addi- 



Toilets are arranged on each floor and drinking foun- 
tains will be placed in the corridors. 

The gymnasium has been given good height, the sec- 
ond floor corridor serving as a gallery thereto. 

The neces- 




t i o n a 1 
height in 
order to in- 
sure perfect 
lighting. It 
will seat 
three hun- 
dred pupils 
in single 
desks. 

The lab- 
orator ie s 
are placed 
at the corn- 
ers of the 
building on 
the third 
floor and 
are lighted 
from t w o 
sides. The 
1 e c t u r e 
room, open- 
ing en suite 
with two of 
the labora- 
tories, will 
have an am- 
phitheater 
and is ar- 
ranged for 

use from either laboratory, or may be used as a class 
room. 

The library is placed so the teacher in charge of the as- 
sembly room will have supervision over it from her desk. 




TJI/eOfiMISPl^yV 




PLANS OF HIGH SCHOOL, COLUMBIA, MISSOUR 



sary space is 
providedfor 
the heating 
and venti- 
lating sys- 
tem which 
is of the 
steam 
plenum 
type. The 
boilers are 
placed in 
the court 
and isolated 
from the re- 
mainder of 
the build- 
ings. 

Four en- 
trances are 
prov ided, 
two on the 
front and 
twoopening 
on the play- 
ground. 
The first 
floor toilets 
aresoplaced 
as to be 
readily ac- 
cessible from the playground through the rear entrances. 
The building is of ordinary joist construction with fire- 
proof corridors and stairways, and will cost complete ready 
for its equipment, $101,000 or 16.35 cents per cubic foot. 




HiuH ^CH(K)L, CUl.lMHiA, .MISSOURI. 



THE B RIC KBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 4. PLATE 43. 





GROVER CLEVKLAND HIGH SCHOOL. CHICAGO, ILL. 
DwiCHT H Perkins, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 4. PLATE 44. 




^Jp^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 20, NO. 4. 



PLATE 45. 





CARL SCHURZ HIGH SCHOOL, CHICAGO, ILL. 

DwiGHT H. Perkins, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 4. PLATE 46. 



wttm^m 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 4. PLATE 47. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 4. PLATE 48. 




HOUSE AT CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
Frank B. Meade, Architect. 



m5T r/M/? FL4.^7 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 4. PLATE 49. 



.■,ft? 







[1 ' < »— 



T-'-i: 



H 



/'..'V/ O 



L.J' 



Till 



HOUSE 

AT 

CLEVELAND, 

OHIO. 

Frank B. Meade, 
Architect. 





:i.CM/; A, 




SUN ROOM. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 4. PLATE 50. 




f7£jr rioj/? Fi/iyi/ 



^ 



5LC0/V/7rM£f//!A 




DINING ROOM, 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 4. PLATE 51. 




^m 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL, 20, NO. 4. PLATE 52. 




m.(ywrioo£F/Ayy 




sm 



nF5T riODI? F/ /lA 




HOUSE AT CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Frank B. Meade, Architect. 




I ' T frat 



HOUSE AT CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

Frank B. Meaoe, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 4. PLATE 53. 



'i**'^'' 
^r, 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 4. PLATE 54. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 4. PLATE 55. 




THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 4. PLATE 56. 



Iiji* ' 



.■^'-^^.■^:''vyr >'iJt. - ^, ^ - 







/ 



ENGINE HOUSE NO. 2, 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Leon E. Dessez, Architect. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



79 



Polychrome Terra Cotta in the Masonic Temple 

of Brooklyn. 



THE character of the Masonic Order and the purpose 
for which the Masonic Temple in Brooklyn was 
erected combined to give the architects an oppor- 
tunity to adapt an ancient style of architecture in a 
somewhat original way to modern needs. The lines 
of the building are pure Greek Ionic, and its predomi- 
nant characteristic is the liberal use of polychrome terra 
cotta. 

The brick faces, while their integral parts show dis- 



liven the general tone and serve as a normal inception of 
the graduated scheme. Next comes a more decided 
course of yellow leaf modeling with dark blue back- 
ground and panels of light green. The blue is too con- 
stricted in area to add individual color value ; it is chiefly 
used to give the leaf modeling a sharper outline. This 
course clearly defines the base from the superstructure, 
and the two are further defined by the sharp contrast be- 
tween the horizontal lines of the base and the vertical 




SECTION OF CORNICE, MASONIC TEMPLE, liROOKLYN, N. Y. 

LORD & HEWLETT AND PELL & CORKETT, ASSOCIATED, ARCHITECTS. 

All except the brickwork in polychrome terra cotta. 



tinct variations in color values, at a short distance have 
a bronze monotone almost somber, contrasting with the 
lighter terra cotta colors and in harmony with the metal 
window gratings and roof cresting — altogether the color 
scheme is a distinct success and it is interesting to note 
the details. 

Beginning quietly at the base the colors gradually in- 
crease in strength and mass as they occur higlier and 
higher from the ground. The plain marble base courses 
alternate with narrow courses of terra cotta; too narrow 
to apparently affect the solidity of the base, but sufifi- 
ciently patent in their shades of cream and yellow to en- 



lines of the fluted Ionic columns. The vertical lines are 
farther emphasized by the fact that the (lutes are in yel- 
low to supplement the natural shadow and create a 
stronger contrast with the cream. Other vertical lines 
occur in the delicate pilasters in cream white, clearly 
defined against the dark brick background. 

These pilasters support the sub-entablature, and in this 
feature the more definite colors begin. Yellow and light 
green show prominently while blue and sienna are u.sed 
more in the defining background. The corner panels, 
corresponding in position to the sub-entablature, are 
cream, green and blue with masonic emblem medallions 



8o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 







auuDaauufflBuf^fflBir 



i|l F "Mp^1jf^5^ 






UUUffllBnfflBBumj 



J'^ ffiauQmtn 







DETAIL, ACADEMY OF MUSIC, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
HERTS & TALLANT, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




v| 



ST. AMHKOSli L.HUKCH, liKUUKl.\N, N. S. 

georc;e h. streeton, architect. 

A, green, sienna, old gold, cream and yellow ; B, cream, green and old gold ; C, blue, cream and old gold ; D, blue and cream ; E, cream ; 
F, cream and old gold ; G, cream and yellow ; H, old gold, green background ; J, cream, sienna, yellow and green ; K, cream bordered 
with sienna, green and old gold ; L, cream, old gold, sienna, green and blue ; M, cream ; N, cream and yellow ; O, cream on old gold ; 
P, cream with blue background. 



82 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




INTERIOR, ST. FRANCIS DE SALES CHURCH, PHILADELPHIA, 
HENRY D. DAGIT, ARCHITECT. 
AH ornament in polychrome terra cotta. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



83 



in sienna and yellow. In the Ionic capitals the colors 
are yellow, green, blue and sienna. 

The construction method of the large columns is of 
particular interest because it has never before been em- 
ployed, although unusually well adapted to architectural 
terra cotta. Owing to the high temperature at which 
terra cotta is burnt in the process of manufacture slight 
warping is apt to occur and large pieces are peculiarly 
liable to uneven shrinkage. It is of course absolutely 
necessary that the separate pieces should fit exactly or 
the continuity of the courses is broken. When medium 
size pieces are made, although the courses may take up 
well, the joints are apt to interfere with the monolithic 
impression so desirable in a large column. In a smaller 
column involving fewer joints the effect would not be 
impaired. The architects in this instance successfully 
obviated the difficulties by going to the other extreme. 
The column shafts are made up of countless small pieces 
of terra cotta, and the numerous joints — by their very 
number, and because partially obscured by the natural 
shadow and the darker color of the flutes — are practi- 
cally imperceptible at even a very short distance. The 
resultant impression is all that could be desired. 

The architrave consists of a base course of solid cream 
white of sufficient height to define the recommencement 
of horizontal lines. In the soffit cream predominates in 
the central panels marked by a narrow marginal model- 
ing in yellow, blue and green. The reel and spindle and 
the unconventional egg and dart moulding in cream, blue, 
yellow and green are superimposed by a narrow course 
in cream, and in the panels of the frieze the strongest 
colors occur. The modeling of the panels is on a large 
scale so that the blue of the background and the yellow 
figure are easily distinguished, bringing out the full 
value of each color. The central medallions alternate in 
green and sienna. The dental course in cream and 
sienna, and the conventional egg and dart in yellow and 
green — -of the cornice bed moulding — are .shadowed by 
the crown moulding. The bracket soffits of the cornice 
are cream and green, and the intervening panels cream, 
blue and green. The plane face of the crown moulding 
is cream, topped by unconventional egg and dart in 
cream, blue, yellow and green. The honeysuckle mod- 
eling is in cream, yellow and green. 



Above the cornice the brick faces are relieved with 
terra cotta belt courses and coping in cream. The lower 
windows are framed in terra cotta of the same color, and 
the upper tier in very dark header brick. The bronze 
roof cresting finishes the building harmoniously and de- 
cidedly in solid dark color, saved from heaviness by the 
delicate cheneaux. 

It will be noticed that the dark blue, and generally the 
sienna, have been used more to bring out the livelier 
colors than to add their own values. The alternate 
frieze medallions in sienna are the exception to the rule. 
The life and light occur in the cream, green and yellow. 

It takes the nicest kind of judgment to graduate the 
colors in a building evenly — their value is dependent 
upon so many circumstances. The ornament largely de- 
termines the area to be covered and must be designed 
accordingly. • The brick, metal and other contrasting 
elements are all factors in emphasizing, modifying or 
nullifying the colors, and must be considered accord- 
ingly. Again, it is impossible to foresee beyond an un- 
certain limit what the effect of various colors will be 
when set in a building at varying distances from the 
ground. Combining the colors for harmony, strange to 
say, is not one of the most difficult problems. There is 
a quality about ceramic colors of good texture which 
makes them harmonize almost as freely as the colors of 
nature. For example, the combination of green and 
yellow in polychrome terra cotta is as harmonious as the 
green leaf and yellow flower of a jonquil! 

In the construction and decoration of buildings it 
should be borne in mind that properly made architectu- 
ral terra cotta is impervious and that the colors are sub- 
ject to the but slight alteration due to the accumulation 
of dust, and that dust is easily removed. Therefore, if 
the entire building is not of terra cotta, the effect of 
weathering on the materials employed becomes an im- 
portant consideration. 

In the present instance every phase of polychrome 
treatment, artistic and practical, received the most care- 
ful, detailed study. In consequence, the Masonic Tem- 
ple of Brooklyn is not only eminent among the homes of 
the Order throughout the world, but is of scarcely less 
note as an excellent example of a recently rejuvenated 
style of architecture. 



The Ceramic Chemical Development of Architectural 

Terra Cotta. 



BY HERMAN A. PLUSCH. 



PERHAPS to many it will seem inconsistent, even 
strange, that terra cotta color — that peculiar, rather 
unsightly reddish buff — is one of the few colors that the 
manufacturers of architectural terra cotta do not make. 
It flourished for a while thirty years ago, and will con- 
tinue to be found in many buildings of that period until 
they are torn down to make way for more modern struc- 
tures, built — very probably — of more modern terra 
cotta. Imagine, for instance, a small four story building 
of brick, with sills, a belt course and cornice of terra 
cotta, terra cotta color, standing on the corner of Liberty 



and Nassau streets, New York, thirty odd years ago. 
Go down there to-day, and see the Liberty Tower en- 
tirely of dull soft cream colored glazed terra cotta for 
thirty-two sheer stories! That is the epitome of archi- 
tectural terra cotta. 

The fact that terra cotta was developed to such a high 
state several centuries ago, makes it strange that the art 
of making it should have been so entirely lost until its 
recent regeneration. The Delia Robbias brought glazed 
terra cotta to great efficiency in their time; "Delia 
Robbia blue " is far better known than " terra cotta 



84 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



color," and yet it is true terra cotta. Perhaps the artis- 
tic worth of the modeling of the Delia Robbias will 
never be equaled, but the possibilities are not as limited 
to-day as they were then. Modern methods have brought 
it in color possibilities and structural efficiency to a 
higher plane than terra cotta ever attained in its " former 
existence," but it had to be developed again from the 
beginning. 

The early examples of modern times depended entirely 
upon the natural burnt clay colors, and the typical terra 
cotta shade was due to the fact that a large amount of 
red clay was used in the composition. Terra cotta was 
first generally used for the decorative features of build- 
ings in connection with brick, for at that time it had not 
reached its present state of mechanical accuracy. Its 
natural colors suited the brick of lighter shades, and by 
increasing the amount of red clay used it could be made 
harmonious with the darker colors. The New York 
Produce Exchange exemplifies the early iise of terra 
cotta. 

With the introduction of buff brick the manufacturers 
were called upon for a wider range of color, and in the 
Madison Square Garden and the Herald Building the 
terra cotta was made almost entirely of buff burning 
clays. 

Up to this point the terra cotta had been the same 
color all the way through, but its increasing use in a 
structural way — as opposed to a purely decorative 
medium — gave rise to a new development. The clays 
that gave the most accurate mechanical result were used 
constantly, and the color was obtained by spraying or 
coating the body before burning with a mixture of clay 
of the proper color and water. In firing the body and 
the color became thoroughly incorporated. Very simple, 
rule of thumb chemistry, this. 

It was the demand for a white terra cotta that first 
necessitated true chemical knowledge, and required the 
services of a trained ceramic chemist. No white burning 
clay could be found that would adhere permanently to 
the body and give a smooth satisfactory surface. Even 
the ceramic chemist had no knowledge that could be 
directly applied, but his fundamental training enabled 
him to experiment along the right lines. Rapidly his 
work became indispensable to the manufacturer, and the 
chemical department is an established feature to-day in 
every terra cotta factory. 

By this time architectural terra cotta was being widely 
used and demands were made upon the manufacturers 
to match every known form of marble, limestone, sand- 
stone and granite. Two undesirable results were soon 
apparent: — 

First, experiments were made to match certain colors, 
and an untried sample, perhaps from a small experimen- 
tal kiln, would be approved. The order would be rushed 
through and placed in large kilns. Two weeks later 
when the kiln doors were taken down the terra cotta 
might come out an entirely different shade from the 
accepted sample. The cause for such a change is mass 
action in the kiln, producing under high temperature 
chemical reactions beyond control. Indirectly, it was 
because the architect was too anxious to have a new 
color, and the manufacturer would take unwise 
chances to supply it. Frequently the material — off 



f 



color as it was — would have to be used at the build- 
ing to fulfil the time clause of the contract. Increased 
knowledge — and caution — has practically eliminated 
this trouble. 

The other disadvantage was due to directly opposite 
causes. Matching marble, limestone and granite induced 
people to use terra cotta as a substitute, and, conse- 
quently, a widespread impression was created that it 
was an imitation stone; it was used as stone and its 
peculiar properties were overlooked. It is astonishing 
that even to-day, when architectural terra cotta is so 
widely used, comparatively few people know what it 
really is. For example, how many out of the thousands 
that pass the Liberty Tower daily realize that thirty-two 
stories are entirely of terra cotta ? 

Partly it is the possibility for flexible modeling that 
has been active in raising architectural terra cotta out of 
its false position in the imitative class. There is a well 
recognized character to modeling in a clay material that 
can never be attained in a medium that requires the 
chisel, and yet it is as adaptable to crude, impression- 
istic treatment as it is to the graceful, finished detail 
of Renaissance design. It was the development of 
colored glazes, however, that finally and conclusively 
placed architectural terra cotta in a distinctive class by 
itself. 

At their inception the color slips were no more 
impervious than the body, and the material would 
gradually tone down to some extent with the accum- 
ulated dust. Soon, however, the impervious, vitrified 
slips were instituted, absolutely weatherproof; and 
then, in logical secjuence, the glazed material. Glazes 
are complex chemical combinations and the best tech- 
nical knowledge is necessary not only to produce the 
glazes, but to incorporate them with, and to adjust 
their fusion points and expansion coefficients to the clay 
body. 

The first white glazes produced were bright, and for 
several years when a dull finish was desired the bright 
surface would be cut by sand-blasting. It took time for 
the chemist to develop the dull impervious surface in 
general use to-day, but " mat " glaze has proved by far 
the most popular terra cotta ever produced. The bright 
glaze still holds its own in notably smoky cities because 
it keeps clean longer and is more easily washed down 
than any other material. 

With the first successful glazes a new and unlimited 
field, polychrome, was opened to the manufacturer; the 
most complicated and difficult, and at the same time the 
most interesting, phase of terra cotta. It is a significant 
fact that polychrome was first employed by McKim, 
Mead & White, on the Madison Square Church, New 
York. 

Mr. White's selection of old gold and green for the 
cornice happened to be a matter of moment to the manu- 
facturer. The original selection was a golden yellow 
and a bright green, both of which had proved perfectly 
reliable in different kiln burnings. Several kilns of the 
two colors together were filled before the first came out 
and it was found that only a slight indication of the 
yellow selected could be seen on the very high lights of 
the ornament, and that the shade deepened until almost 
brown at its meeting with the green. The factory im- 



\ 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



85 



mediately sent for Mr. White, who luckily was delighted 
with the accidental effect. The change was due to vap- 
orization of the green glaze in the burning, the gases 
affecting the yellow and altering the expected reaction. 
Though it can be corrected, the combination has since 
beea used to advantage frequently, notably on the 
St. Ambrose Church in Brooklyn. 

Mr. George H. Streeton used color with less conserva- 
tism than Mr. White and on the St. Ambrose Church in 
some cases used exact Delia Robbia duplicates. By 
boldness of color a striking effect was obtained without 
the aid of a striking design, such as that of the Madison 
Square Church, and yet the result is not in the least 
bizarre but thoroughly in keeping with the spirit of 
ecclesiastical architecture. 

The Brooklyn Academy of Music, by Herts & Tallant, 
represents a lavish use of color and more originality, 
such as the character of the building would naturally 
allow. Again the old gold and green appear on the 
fa(;ade. The singing and playing cherubs, cream against 
yellow, in bold relief around the main entrance have 
been aptly called "Modern Delia Robbias." 

One of the most recent important examples of the 
exterior use of polychrome is the Masonic Temple, also 
in Brooklyn, by Lord & Hewlett and Pell & Corbett, 
Associated. This building was planned from the begin- 
ning for polychrome terra cotta, and aided by the ex- 
periences of others, backed by their own ideas, and the 
further development of the material, the architects pro- 
duced a result that is certainly most successful. 

An interesting example of interior decoration is the 
St. Francis de vSales Church, in Philadelphia, Henry D. 
Dagit, architect. The style is an adapted combination 
of the Byzantine and Romanesque. The colors are 
very brilliant but in the mellow light of the stained glass 
windows the tone is softened and the result restful. 

The problems which faced the manufacturer at first in 
the production of polychrome were many and varied. 
The terracotta body used for the Madison Square Church 
was chiefly composed of clays with a tendency to warp 
slightly. This was in direct accordance with Mr. White's 
wishes. In fact, he once caused a course to be reset be- 
cause it was too exact mechanically to be in harmony 
with the crude form of brick used. The compactness 
and partial vitrification of the terra cotta body made 
the application of the glaze so that there would be no 
crazing a difficult matter, but a successful method to 
obviate this trouble was devised. The method of ap- 
plication was by brush, apt to result in too mechanical 
an effect, but softened by quiet colors and graceful 
modeling. 

On both the Madison .Square Church and the St. Am- 
brose Church the effect of the background color on some 
features was in part lost, either because the shadow cast 



by the ornament was darker than the color, or because 
the background space was too small to be noticeable. 
Dark colors are frequently used, however, to accentuate 
modeling in low relief, rather than to lend their own 
color tone. 

On the Academy of Music and the Masonic Temple 
in Brooklyn, broad fields were allowed for the color 
so that the distance from the ground would not des- 
troy the polychromatic effect — and that is a very 
important point to be kept in mind when designing 
for color. A straight burning body was used for these 
buildings. 

Architects occasionally insist in their specifications for 
terra cotta that there must be "no variation of color." 
As a matter of fact there seldom is any true variation of 
color, but it frequently occurs that there is a slight 
difference of tone between two pieces. It is next to im- 
possible to avoid this because the color is fixed on the 
material, and the fusion and solidification of slip and 
glaze take place at a temperature approximating 
2300° F. The brick manufacturers sort for color, but it 
is impossible to do this with terra cotta when each piece 
occupies its particular place in the building and its acci- 
dental place in the kiln. The variation in terra cotta is 
no greater than the variation which occurs naturally in 
any other structural material, and generally the archi- 
tects realize that slight variation gives light and life to 
the fa(5ade of a building. In fact, many of the architects 
insist upon variation because modeled work when the 
color is flat and even is apt to give an effect of pressed 
metal. On the New York University Club, McKim, 
Mead & White had the stone tooled with three different 
cuts, and set some of the stone so that the tooled lines 
would be vertical, while the stone next to it might have 
different tooling, running horizontally. Carrere & Hast- 
ings for the New York Library selected the stone with 
the greatest care to insure variation. Of course, archi- 
tects should not accept pieces of terra cotta that are very 
decidedly off color, but a small amount of variation is 
not only inevitable but desirable. 

With all the rapid development of the Twentieth Cen- 
tury, terra cotta is just beginning to surpass the point 
reached by the Egyptians and Assyrians, and the early 
Moors and Italians. Glazed terra cotta has been in exist- 
ence, unimpaired, since 3000 b.c. and yet there are some 
who doubt its durability. There is nothing about terra 
cotta to decay; nothing that can be acted upon by acids 
or alkalis. Weather cannot affect it because the slip or 
glaze makes it impervious, and it stands fire because fire 
made it. 

Harmony in color is what is most effective, and from 
the progress made in terra cotta during the last five 
years alone, one can conjecture optimistically regarding 
its future. 



KAISER AS A TILEMAKER: the success of the 
German Emperor as a manufacturer of glazed tile 
on his estate at Kadinen has been so marked that he has 
found it necessary to have the plant enlarged. The work 
on the additional equipment is now nearly completed and 
will go into operation early in May. The great demand 
for glazed tile has led the Emperor to consider more 



than ever the harmonious effects of the various colors 
and bring this material to its highest efficiency in a 
structural sense. The stations of a new line of the 
Berlin Underground Railwa)', completed several years 
ago, are among the more important examples of build- 
ings which are ornamented with tile from the Emperor's 
plant. 



86 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS DESCRIPTION. 
Gro\ ER Cleveland Elementary School, Chicago, III 



Plates 43, 44. This building is treated in a rough wire 
cut texture brick with the base in grey brick and all 
above in buff. The mortar joints are very wide, scraped 
off (lush with the brick and of the same color. The 
plan is arranged for the pur- 
pose of elementary school 
instruction, with a large 
number of rooms having a 
maximum window area for 
light. The assembly hall 
is centrally located on the 
second floor with special 
entrances to it from the 
ground floor for the public. 
The children have direct 
access to the stage. There 
is no basement, the first 
floor being on the ground 
level. The manual train- 
ing, domestic science, con- 
struction work and drawing 
are provided for in the 
ordinary class room units. 
The corridor extends from 
one end to the other 
through the center with 
four ample staircases, one 
at each end and two at in- 
termediate points, which 
afford the greatest facility 
for egress in time of panic 
or for the ordinary transfer 
of classes. The plans pro- 
vide for twenty-six rooms 
in addition to the as- 
sembly hall and gymnasium, and will accommodate 
1,300 pupils. The building is entirely fireproof and cost 
approximately §240,000. 

Carl Schurz High vSchool, Chicago, III. Plates 
45-47. The exterior of this building is executed with 
large speckled buff brick in the lower stories and a 
purplish-brown brick in the upper stories. The roof is 
of tile. The plan shows an example of a modern cosmo- 
politan high school for both boys and girls. Provision 
is made for the usual classical and English courses, in 




ENTRANCE TO KENNEDY HIILDINC, OMAHA, NEB. 

E.xeiuted in terra cotta by the St. Louis Terra Cotta Company. 

Fisher and Lawrie, Architects. 



addition to the vocational work and manual training. 
Shops for wood working, wood turning, foundry and forge 
work have been arranged for the boys. For the girls 
there is the usual cooking and sewing equipment con- 
nected with an apartment reproducing the rooms of a 
house with instruction for the design and care of same. 
There is also laundry work, textile weaving and dyeing 

included in the girls' de- 
partment. Back of these 
departments and arranged 
with special reference to 
them are the mechanical and 
free-hand drawing rooms 
with an extra amount of 
space and eciuipment. The 
fourth floor provides for a 
professional studio and 
drafting room. The build- 
ing, which is fireproof 
throughout, accommodates 
1,000 pupils and cost ap- 
proximately $425,000. 

Engine House No. 2, 
Washington, D. C. Plates 
55, 56. The exterior of 
this building is treated in 
" Tapestry " brick with the 
predominate color a dark 
red verging into brown and 
purple shades. The orna- 
mental panels and mould- 
ings of the cornice are of 
terra cotta, the arches of 
the doors and the sill 
courses are of stone, while 
the vestibule arches are of 
tile. The cost of the build- 
ing was $39,240, which 
gives an approximate cost per cubic foot of 1?Kki cents. 

DISASTROUS FIRES IN LOFTS AND FACTORIES. 

THE recent shirtwaist factory fire in Washington 
Place, New York City, has brought forth not only 
some merciless criticism as to the causes of such calami- 
ties, but also some excellent means for lessening the 
possibilities of such disasters in the future. 

In Oermany the skyscraper type of building is being 
widely condemned as largely responsible for the recent 




DETAIL OF \. M. C. A. BUILDING, CAMBRIDGE, .MASS. 

E.xecuted in polychrome terra cotta by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

Newhall and Blevins, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



87 




ANNEX TO Y. M. C. A. BUILDING, LEAGUE ISLAND, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
Exterior walls constructed of 16 inch "Natco" Hollow Tile and terrace walls of 12 inch 
Hollow Tile, furnished by the National Fire Proofing Company. 
A. M. Adams, Architect. 



' Natco' 



catastrophe. The 
newspapers are 
filled with commu- 
nications and 
editorial articles 
decrying tall build- 
ings and warning 
the Berlin munici- 
pal authorities to 
continue their op- 
position to the in- 
troduction of what, 
in German idiom, 
are called "cloud 
scratchers. " 

Herr Reichell, 
Chief of the Berlin 
Fire Department, 

in discussing the Washington Place horror points out that 
a disaster of such magnitude is practically excluded in 

Germany be- 
cause of the 
relentlessly 
rigid building 
and inspection 
laws, which 
are not only 
enacted but 
enforced in 
that country. 
In the German 
cities the Fire 
Departments 
are clothed 
with the 
"even more 
important 
function of 
seeing that 
the buildings are genuinely fireproof." Extensioxi 
ladders and elevators are useless when fires break 
out in skyscrapers, according to Herr Reichell, who 
thinks that the only trustworthy precautionary ar- 
rangements in such structures are balconies at every 
floor with substantial steps leading to the street. 

William A. Bor- 
ing, President of 
the Architectural 
League, New York 
City, in discussing 
the shirtwaist 
factory fire, says, 
that one means of 
lessening the possi- 
bility of such disas- 
ters in the future 
would be a curtail- 
ment of the room 
space for the use 
or storage of in- 
flammable material. 
He thinks that the 
large floor space 




DETAIL FOR WAR COLLEGE AT 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Made by Brick, Terra Cotta & Tile Company. 

Capt. John Stephen Sewall, Engineer in Charge. 



might be cut up 
into smaller rooms 
protected by fire- 
proof double parti- 
tions of wire glass, 
leaving air space 
between them. 
This would make it 
possible to watch 
all operations going 
on in the smaller 
rooms, and in case 
of fire it could be 
confined to one spot 
for an appreciable 
length of time so 
that the blaze would 
not sweep through 

the entire establishment with such rapidity as to create 

panic and endanger lives. Mr. Boring also believes that 

the installing 

of automatic 

sprinklers and 

automatic 

doors would 

givea mechan- 
ical arrange- 
ment, so that 

the human 

element — the 

necessity of 

quick thinking 

to do the right 

thing — would 

be minimized. 

He further 

suggests the 

advisability 

of enacting 

regula t ions 

whereby 

workers in 

big loft build- 
ings should not be placed beyond a certain distance from 

the means of escape. He does not favor the unprotected 

fire escapes, but 
thinks the exterior 
enclosed stairways 
are the safest and 
most reliable. 




DETAIL FOR SCHOOLHOUSE. 

Made by Winkle Terra Cotta Company. 

J. Walter Stevens, Architect. 




LINCOLN ME- 
MORIAL SITE. 



T 



GYMNASIUM AT BELOIT COLLEGE, BELOIT, 

Roofed with Ludowici-Celadon tiles. 
Patton & Miller, Architects. 



WIS. 



'HE Lincoln 
Memorial 
Commission, cre- 
ated by the last 
Congress, held its 
first meeting at the 
White House re- 
cently. It decided 
to request the 



88 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




DETAIL IJV SCHMIDT, GARDEN AM) MARTIN, ARCHITECTS. 
Made by The American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Company. 

National Fine Arts Commission to sug^gest various plans 
for the proposed memorial to be erected in this city to 
Abraham Lincoln, also to select three or four sites in 
the National capital which would be most appropriate 
for the plans submitted by them. The amount granted 
by Congress for the me- 
morial was ^2,000,000. 
All the members of the 
commission were present 
at the meeting, namely. 
President Taft, Senators 
Cullom, Wetmore and 
Money, and Representa- 
tives Cannon, Clark and 
McCall. 



Maria degl' Angeli, into which the sudatorium and tepi- 
darium of the baths were converted by Michelangelo. In 
recent years the vast halls which remain have been 
divided into comparatively small rooms, and the corners 
of the great buildings have become little wine shops, 
stables, and fifth-rate inns. 

All of the thirty-six provinces of the Roman Empire in 
Europe, Africa, and Asia have contributed to the exhibi- 
tion, aided by an appropriation from the government. 
The exhibition will remain as a permanent institution. 



CASTLE OF KER- 
JEAN. 

THE ruined Chateau 
of Kerjean which 
has just been purchased 
by the French (iovern- 
ment stands in the middle 
of the Department of 
Finistere and is one of 
the best specimens of six- 
teenth century Breton 
architecture, uniting as it 
does the elegance of the 
second period of the Re- 
naissance with the more 
ancient imposing majesty 
of feudal times. The 

Minister of Fine Arts has decided to turn the castle into 
a museum and library, where all branches of l^reton art 
and literature will be represented. 




ENTRANCE TO KINGSIiURV TERRACE, ST. I. GUIS, .\IO. 

E.xeiutfd in dark red " Mat " brick, furnished by the HydrauHc-Pre.'i.s 

Brick Company. 

Willjur T. Trueblood, Architect. 



ARCILEOLOGICAL EXHIBITION AT THE 
BATHS OF DIOCLETIAN. 

THE Arch*ological Exhibition of the Italian jubilee 
was inaugurated April 8th at the Baths of Diocle- 
tian. Prof. Rudolfo Lanciani, the archaologist and 
writer, delivered an address, describing what has been 
done in redeeming the celebrated baths for many years. 
The baths were built by the Emperor Diocletian in 
305, covering a mile square and accommodating 3,000 
bathers. Like the Coliseum, it has been a perfect quarry 
for mediaeval builders. To-day there stand on the site 
several churches, including the magnificent one of vSanta 



AMALGAMATION OF ART ACADEMY AND 
SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES. 

CONSIDERABLE feeling has been aroused over the 
scheme to unite the Academy of Art and the School 

of Classical Studies in Rome. The friends of the amal- 
gamation claim that the 
.' -* • interests of the artists 

will be looked after by. 
their own representative, 
as will be those of the 
classical students; also 
that the school or academy 
will gain immensely in 
standing and wealth, and 
will become a social 
center. Those against 
the idea argue that the 
students are there for art, 
not society, and that such 
a union would tend to de- 
stroy the artistic atmos- 
phere and freedom 
essential to their work. 

There is con.siderable 
doubt as to whether the 
funds which were sub- 
scribed for the purely 
artistic institution can be 
diverted to other pur- 
poses, and that if any 
subscribers were to ob- 
ject the project could not 
be carried through. 
J. Pierpont Morgan is in 

favor of the amalgamation and intimates that if it is 

not brought about he will lose interest and may retire 

from both institutions. 

William R. Mead, the architect, is to investigate the 

practical side of the matter and see if the property on 




DETAIL OF PANEL, PAROCHIAL SCHOOL, FREEHOLD, N. 
Executed by the .South Amboy Terra Cotta Company. 
Harry A. Youn^;, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



89 



the Janiculum can be adapted for the purpose. It is 
reported that Mr. Mead regrets exceedingly that, so 
shortly after the death of Mr. McKim (who may be con- 
sidered the founder and chief subscriber to the American 
Art Academy, and who 
was known to desire that 
the academy should re- 
main an institution to 
itself,) his ideals should 
be so thoroughly set aside. 



IN GENERAL. 

The tile used in the 
vestibule arches of Engine 
House No. 2, illustrated 
this month, was furnished 
by the R. Guastavino 
Company. 

The growing popularity 
of hollow terra cotta tile 
in building construction is 
exemplified in the new 
fireproof passenger sta- 
tion which has just been 
commenced at Towaco, 
N. J., by the Delaware, 
Lackawanna and Western 
Railroad Company. The 
partitions as well as the 
walls will be of hollow tile. 



The city of Washing- 
ton, D. C, will soon have 
a new structure for the 
Bureau of Engraving and 
Printing which is estimated to cost $1,750,000. The 
building is to be 850 feet long and four stories in height. 

The Atlantic Terra Cotta Company furnished Poly- 
chrome Terra Cotta for: Madison Square Church, New 
York, McKim, Mead & White, architects; St. Ambrose 
Church, Brooklyn, George H. Streeton, architect; Brook- 




MANTEL FOR SUN ROOM. 

Executed in faience by the Hartford Faience Company. 

Grosvenor Atterljury and Julian Peabody, Associated, Architects 



lyn Academy of Music, Herts & Tallant, architects; 
Masonic Temple, Brooklyn, Lord & Hewlett and Pell & 
Corbett, Associated, architects; St. Francis de Sales 
Church, Philadelphia, Henry D. Dagit, architect. 

The "Tapestry" brick 
for Engine House No. 2, 
illustrated in this number, 
was supplied by Fiske & 
Co., Inc. 

Building operations in 
Cleveland, Ohio, continue 
to be quite active. The 
important constructions 
in addition to the new 
City Hall building are the 
new Y.M.C.A. building 
and the Cleveland Art 
Museum. 

The Architectural 
League of America an- 
nounces four University 
Scholarships for the year 
1911-1912, programs for 
which will be given out 
May 13th. Further infor- 
mation may be obtained 
from H. S. McAllister, 
Sec'y, 1517 H. Street, N. 
W., Washington, D. C. 

Samuel P. Hall of Phil- 
adelphia has been ad- 
mitted to the firm of 
Marriott & Allen, archi- 
tects, Columbus, Ohio — 
the new style of the firm being Marriott, Allen & Hall. 
Mr. Hall is a graduate of Harvard, and has been con- 
nected with the offices of McKim, Mead & White, and 
Cope & Stewardson. 

Herman A. Plusch who contributes an article in this 
number on the Ceramic Chemical Development of Archi- 




HOUSE AT DULUTH, MINN. 

Brick furnished by The Ironclay Brick Company. 

J. J. Wangenstein, Architect. 




^IM^^^ 





KAll.WAN SI \ Mi).\, I'.KI.LEROSK, I.. I., N. V. 

Built of red group " Tapestry " brick in American running bond, with 

)4 inch mortar joint raked rougli, made by I'iske & Co., Inc. 

J. C. Fowler, Arcliitect. 



CJO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



tectural Terra Cotta is the chief chemist of the Atlantic 
Terra Cotta Company. 

The brick used for the Grover Cleveland Elementary 
School, Chicago, 111., illustrated in this issue, was fur- 
nished by the Thomas Moulding Company. 

W. C. Knighton has been appointed architect for the 
State of Oregon, with offices in the Capitol Building, 
Salem, Oregon. Manufacturers' catalogues and samples 
desired. 

Frank Miles Day gave an illustrated lecture before the 
Architectural League of New York upon the American 
Academy in Rome, on the evening of April 4th. 

The Atlantic Terra Cotta Company will supply architec- 
tural terra cottaonthefollowingnewbuildings: Y.M.C.A., 
Cambridge, Mass., Newhall & Blevins, architects; Plaza 
Home Club, New York City, C. W. Buckham, archi- 
tect; Service Building, Packard Motor Car Company, 
Philadelphia, Albert Kahn, architect; Y. W. C. A., 
Youngstown, Ohio, Angus S. Wade, architect; Metro- 
politan Theatre, Seattle, Howells & Stokes, architects; 

A HOUSE OF BRICK OF MODERATE COST- 

THE TITLE OF A 96 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH 
CONTAINS 71 DESIGNS FOR A BRICK HOUSE 
OF MODERATE COST. THESE DESIGNS WERE 
SUBMITTED BY WELL-KNOWN ARCHITEC- 
TURAL DRAFTSMEN IN COMPETITION. IN- 
TERESTING ARTICLES. ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
HISTORICAL BRICK HOUSES. PRICE, FIFTY 
CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 

A BOOK OF HOUSE DESIGNS — THE TITLE OF 
A 64 PAGE BOOKLET WHICH CONTAINS THE 
DESIGNS SUBMITTED IN COMPETITION FOR 
A HOUSE BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW 
TILE. ILLUSTRATIONS OF HOUSES BUILT OF 
THIS MATERIAL, TOGETHER WITH ARTICLES 
DESCRIBING CONSTRUCTION, ETC. PRICE 
50 CENTS. ROGERS & MANSON, BOSTON. 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 

TRADE MARK -REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 

BULLETIN 

RECENT WORK, Illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

Engine House No. 2, Washington, D. C. . Plates 55, 56 

Lkon E. Dessez, Architect 

Railway Station, Bellerose, L. I., N. Y. Page 89 

J. C. Fowi.ER, Architect 

TI^'ISKE 6- COMPANY INC 

lACE bricks; establish 

llRE BRlCKSl ED IN 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Flatiron Building, New York 



Tulsa Hotel, Tulsa, Okla., Frank W. Hunt, architect; 
Baptist Memorial Hospital, Memphis, Tenn., John Gais- 
ford, architect; Ferguson Building, Los Angeles, Cal., 
George Wyman, architect. 

New York City is to have a new Aquarium, which will 
be the largest and best equipped institution of the kind 
in the world. Castle Garden, the building which the 
Aquarium now occupies and which is to be enlarged, is 
one of the most picturesque structures in the city. The 
general government erected it in 1807. The structure 
was first known as Castle Clinton, and was a fortress, 
which accounts for its walls of 14 feet in thickness, 
supposed at the time to be bomb-proof. 

"SPECIFICATION BLANKS." by T. Robert Wieger. 
architect (formerly with F. E. Kidder). Forms for all classes 
of buildings, each trade separate. Complete set, 44 pages, 
25 cents. Reduction on quantities. Sample page upon 
request. 628- i 4th street, Denver, Colo. 



r 



BOILERS AND RADIATORS 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

Water Tube and Return Flue Boilers 

Plain and Ornamental Direct Radiators 
Direct-Indirect Radiators 
Indirect Radiators 

For Steam and Water Warming 

Send for complete illustrated catalog 

THE H. B. SMITH CO. 



Westfield, Mass. 
Philadelphia 



New York 
Boston 



Ideal Floor Covering 

FOR CEMENT FLOORS 



LijiolciDH secured b>' waterpruuf glue to cement lloor.s 
can be furnished in plain colors or in inlaid effects. 

Cork Carpet in plain colors. 

Elastic, Noiseless, Durable. 

Is practical for rooms, halls, and particularly adapted 
to public buildings. 

Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing skilled workmen. 

I'oUoiiing ixampUs of our uork : 

Brookline Public Library. R. Clipston .Sturgis, Esq., Architect. 
.Suffolk County Court House, Boston. George A. Clough, Esq., 

Architect. 
Registry- of Deeds, Salem, Mass. C. H. Blackall, Esq., Architect. 
We Solicit Inquiriea and Corretpondence 

Quality samples specially prepared for architects and 

builders mailed on application. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 
646-658 WASHINGTON STREET - BOSTON, MASS. 

Have been continuously in this business for 93 years 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



91 



STANDARD 



WALL 5LOCKS 



^^»«^ SHns? nsn p5a 

2Xi^xi2" 3'xirxii" 4'xi£-xia- ti^^ii^i^di^ 

MOTE ;- 5TAK1DAR.D WALL BLOCKS EACH MAKE ^"^ '^ '^ '^ 

1 5Q,. FT, OF WALL. THlCKNfDS IM WALL 15 GIVEN flR.ST, WIDTH IM WALL S" a {2" X IS" 

5E.COND, HEIGHT IM WALL OR, LENGTH OF H0LLOW5, THIRD. ffXIE'-ir MEAM5 8'THICK , 1^' WIDE IO"Xirxi£- 

AND IZ' HIQHo BXlOfc" MEANS 8THiCK,irwlPt,6"HIGH,THV5 FORMING A HALF BLOCK. ALL 5IZE BLOCKS MADE IN J/^ANd!^ HE1QHT5 




12" X I2"X 12" 



JAM5 BLOCKS 



HALF JAM5 BLOCKS y^TYPlCAL fLATARCVI 




92 THEBRICKBUILDER 



JO i > p < i n' > < i nr 



COMPETITION FOR A SMALL HOUSE TO BE 
BUILT OF NATCO HOLLOW TILE. 

Cost of House not to Exceed $6,000. 

FIRST PRIZE, $300. THIRD PRIZE, $150. 

SECOND PRIZE, $200. FOURTH PRIZE, $100. 

MENTIONS. 



PROGRAM. 



01 



THE problem is a small detached house to accommodate a family of four with one maid. The outer walls and 
foundations of the house are to be built of Natco Hi)llow Tile. 
The location may be assumed in any town, small city, or suburb of a large city. 

The cost of the house — exclusive of the land — shall not exceed 56,000. The method of heating, the plumbing, 
other fixtures, and finish, to be governed by the limit of cost. 

Many houses of this type of construction have recently been built in different sections of the country, and from the 
data which has I)een gathered concerning the cost of a large number of these houses, an average pi ice per cubic foot 
has lieen obtained. This cost is given as the basis upon which the size — figured in cui)ic feet — of each house submitted 
in this Competition must be approximated. The price is 50.20 i>er cubic foot. 

Measurements of the house proper must be taken from the outside face of exterior walls and from the level of the 
basement door to the average height of all roofs. Porches, verandas and other additions are to be figured separately 
at one-fourth (25 per cent) of their total cubage. The cost of porches, etc., is to be included in the total cost of the 
house (56,000). 

On this basis of figuring — the number of cubic feet multiplied by the cost per cubic foot — the jury will not consider 
any designs which exceed the limit of cost. 

There are no restrictions as to the shape and style of the house or the size and location of the lot. 

The particular object of this Comi)etition is to encourage the study of the possibilities in the use of .Natco Hollow 
Tile in the exterior walls of houses. Here is a durable material which will insure a house being warmer in winter, and 
cooler in summer ; easily meets in all respects the demands of the designer, and gives to the house that permanent 
value which is lacking in the more perishable materials. A house can he built of this material at very little more cost n 

than one built of wood, or of plaster on wire lath and stud. The walls are knit together as solidly as if built of .stone. 
The cost for up-keep is nothing. Any mason of average ability can easily do the work. U 

CONSTRUCTION. 

The following suggestions are offered as being jiractirabk- and admi.ssible. 

First. Outside walls may be of Natco Hollow Tile S inches thick (8 inches by 12 inches by 12 inches). Foundation 
walls, below grade, should be not less than 12 inches thick. The blocks being heavily scored on two sides, stucco may 
be used for an outside finish and plaster applied direct to the block for interior finish. 

Second. The walls may be built double using in the outside wall a 4-inch hollow tile, and on the inside a 6-inch 
tile. The treatment of the face of such a wall, and the manner of bonding the outer and inner walls are left to the 
designer. 

The floors and roof need not be of fireproof construction. 

DRAWING REQUIRED (there is to be but one). 

On one sheet a pen and ink perspective, without wash or color, drawn at a scale of 4 feet to the inch. Plans of the 
first and second floors at a scale of 8 feet to the inch. A section showing construction of exterior wall, with cornice. 
A sketch showing detail of front entrance. In connection with the plan of the first floor show as much of the arrange- 
ment of the lot in the immediate vicinity of the house as space will permit. The plans are to be blocked in solid. A 
graphic scale must accompany the plans. The character of the exterior finish must be clearly indicated on the per- 
spective and detail. 

The size of the sheet is to be exactly 34 inches by 22 inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on the sheet 
1 inch from edges, giving a space inside the border lines 32 inches by 20 inches. The sheet is to be of white paper 
and is not to be mounted. * 

The drawing is to be signed by a now de plume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with 
the nam dc plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawing is to be delivered flat, or rolled (|)ackaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing), at the ot^ce of 
Thk BuiCKUUiLDliR, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., on or before June 26, 1911. 

Drawings submitted in this Comiietition are at owner's risk from time they are sent until returned, although 
reasonable care will be exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The designs will be judged by three or five members of the architectural profession representing different sections 
of the country. 

First con.sideration will be given to the fitness of the design, in an aesthetic sense, to the materials employed : 
Second — the adaptability of the design, as shown by the details, to the practical constructive reijuirements of the 
material. 

Drawings which do not meet the requirements of the program will not be considered. 

The prize drawin.gs are to become the jjroperty of Thu Hrickkuii.dick, and the right is reserved to publish or 
exhibit any or all of the others. The full name and address of the designer will be given in connection with each 
design published. Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, may have them by enclosing 
in the sealed envelopes, containing their names, ten cents in stamps. 

For the design placed first there will be given a prize of $300. For the design placed third a prize of $150. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200. For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 

This Competition is open to everyone. 

The prize and mention drawings will be published in The Brickbuildkr. 

On the preceding page will be found examples of construction which may be helpful to competitors. 

UOl )]|t ini 3] [o] |< [Ql ^|f 'Ol~ 3]|< 'Ol ;| [o' 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XX MAY 1911 Number 5 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1911, by ROGERS * MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ........ $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ..................... SO cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............... $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ................. $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order 



P.\GE 

Agencies — Clay Products ...... II 

Architectural Faience ....... II 

Terra Cotta II and III 

Brick Ill 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



PAGE 

Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ....... IV 

Fireproofing ........ IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



CONTENTS 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

FRANK A. BOURNE; EDWARD T. P. GRAHAM; WILLIAM M. KENYON; MacCLURE 
& SPAHR; MAGINNIS & WALSH; PEABODY & STEARNS; 

REED & STEM. 

LETTERPRESS 



PAGE 



CHURCH OF SAN DIEGO, AGUAS C ALIENTES, MEXICO Frontispiece 

CHRIST'S HOSPITAL SCHOOL Henry A. Ftost 93 

SOME PROBLEMS IN SCHOOL PLANNING — THE ELEMENTARY .SCHOOL R. Clipston SImgis 99 

THE HEATING AND VENTILATION OF HALLS Charles I.. Hubbard 103 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION 107 

NEW ST. PAUL HOTEL, REED & STEM, ARCHITECTS 108 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY "0 

COMPETITION PROGRAM -SMALL TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILE HOUSE IH 




CHURCH OF SAN DIEGO, 
AGUAS CALIENTES, MEXICO. 



The field of the flome is composed of alterna- 
ting rows of buflf and white tile, the ribs and 
top of lantern of blue and white. 



Christ's Hospital School. 

BY HENRY A. FROST. 
PLANS BY WALTER G. THOMAS. 



CHRIST'S HOSPITAL SCHOOL, or as it is more fa- 
miliarly known to Englishmen, the " Bluecoat 
School," was founded by Edward VI. in 1553, in London, 
on the site of the Grey Friars, as a mathematical school 
for boys and girls. Under royal patronage the school 
grew so rapidly that eventually it was divided, the boys' 
division remaining in London, while the girls were trans- 
ferred to Hertfordshire. But in spite of this division 
the London school was for many years handicapped in 
its cramped quarters. Not until 1894 however did the 
authorities take a decisive step to improve the situation. 
Then a committee was appointed to study conditions and 
to advise as to the establishment of a new school. This 
committee reported that while for ease of control, conve- 
nience and economy of administration, the medieval 
quadrangle plan admits of no 
improvement, still for condi- 
tions of healthy life it has 
some defects. It is unsani- 
tary because an inclosed 
quadrangle with its four 
corners excludes some sun- 
light and causes a stagnation 
of air. An abundance of sun 
and a free movement of air 
being considered a prime req- 
uisite of health for the boys 
the committee advised the 
adoption of a plan which 
would separate the buildings. 

They further recognized 
that such a principle pushed 
to extremes would result in 
an unworkable plan and so 
advised a combination of the 
two principles, the dormi- 
tories to be well separated 
and given a southern ex- 
posure, and the working por- 
tion to be disposed around 
a cloistered quadrangle in 
order to permit a greater 
facility in management. 

The requirements of the competition as then drawn 
up called for fourteen houses each to accommodate fifty 
boys in dormitories of not more than twenty-five nor less 
than ten beds. Each house was to provide ample day 
rooms, baths, lavatories, sitting rooms and bedrooms 
for a house master and an assistant master, a sitting 
room and a bedroom for a matron and studies and cubi- 
cles for two monitors. The suggestion was also made 
that the houses would best be arranged in blocks of two 
or three for greater ease of discipline. 

A head-master's house and at least six other masters' 
houses were required. 

There was to be a dining hall centrally located having 
a seating capacity of eight hundred and twenty with ad- 




GREAT HALI 



equate kitchens and accommodations for the kitchen staff, 
and closely connected with it, a master's common room. 
Sufficient housing was required also for a smaller pre- 
paratory grade, the treatment of which could be more or 
less independent of the rest of the group. Finally the 
residential requirements of the competition included 
very complete hospital accommodations with wards for 
at least one hundred boys, dispensary, operating room, 
a separate kitchen, and isolated fever wards. 

The educational group, according to the program, re- 
quired a " Speech Hall " of sufficient size to seat the 
whole school with space for an organ and an orchestra 
at one end and thirty class rooms varying in size grouped 
as far as possible — except the science class rooms — 
around or contiguous to it. There was also required a 

science school with chemical 
and physical laboratories, a 
library and museum which 
might be contained in one 
building, sufficient drawing 
rooms, and a chapel. 

After due deliberation the 
competition was awarded to 
Messrs. Webb and Bell 
whose plans, it was decided 
fulfilled the requirements 
more skilfully than did those 
of any other architects com- 
peting. It was not however 
until 1897 that the corner 
stone of the dining hall was 
laid by the Prince of Wales 
(afterwards Edward VII) 
representing Queen Victoria. 
The day chosen for the cere- 
mony was October 23d, the 
anniversary of the birth of 
the school's founder, 
Edward VI. For five years 
the work proceeded rapidly 
so that in 1902 the school 
stood ready to receive some 
seven hundred boys ranging 
in age from six to seventeen years. 

The new school is admirably situated near Horsham, 
in Sussex, on a broad natural plateau somewhat above 
the level of the surrounding country where it receives 
the full benefit of sun and air. Two stone posts carved 
with shields and surmounted by lamps brought here from 
the old London school mark the entrance to the grounds. 
A driveway curves up a slight incline towards the school. 
To the left is an octagonal keeper's lodge of brick and 
plaster, perhaps the least successful building of the 
group. To the right of the drive, and well separated 
from the other buildings, are the fever sanitorium, and 
the infirmary which is in reality a fully equipped hospital 
with three large wards having accommodations for one 



94 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



hundred boys. These rooms are lighted by windows on 
the two long sides. At the end of each room but sepa- 
rated from it by a short passage so that they form an 
annex are lavatories and baths. This treatment which 
occurs again in the dormitories is an interesting feature 
of the plan. There are numerous smaller rooms for 
more advanced cases, but as a rule if a boy is in a serious 
condition, though still able to be moved, he is tended 
outside the school. The purpose of the infirmary is 
rather to care for those ills and bruises so common in 
a boys' school. The surgical room therefore while 
equipped for any emergency seldom witnesses anything 
more serious than the dressing of a cut, the bandaging 
of a bumped head, or the treatment of a strained muscle. 



dormitories and on through the school grounds until it 
reaches the public highway again. A glance at the plan 
will show that half of the living quarters of the school 
lies on each side of the quadrangle with the dining hall 
as the dividing point. The two dormitories at the end 
of the line, and furthest removed from the quad, are 
given over to the preparatory department. 

The dormitories are built on an "H" plan. The 
governing portion containing the rooms of the resident 
master, his assistants, the matron and her assistants, lies 
in the connecting link. The central entrance used only 
by the house officers and visitors, gives directly to their 
studies and living apartments, and to stairs for their use, 
permitting access both to the upper floors, and to the 



Fi>*ri>i& 







^°T^""^:; 



Pi>i.Yi?r a T'lEj-P^ 




Wnnl 1 




ri.>>.Yi/itf ri^uusf 



BLOCK FLAN OK CHRIST S HOSPITAL SCHOOL. 



On the ground floor are the doctor's office, the dispensary 
where prescriptions are filled, and waiting rooms for the 
boys. Above is a large living room for convalescents. 
Behind the infirmary is the fever sanitorium consisting 
of an administration building, a scarlet fever building 
with room for thirty beds, and a diphtheria building with 
room for fifteen beds. As in the case of the infirmary 
each of these is in itself a fully equipped hospital with its 
wards, small bedrooms, nurses' quarters, kitchens and 
lavatories. Each one is a complete unit requiring no 
communication with the others, and kept in readiness for 
instant isolation from the rest of the school. 

After passing the hospital group the road sweeps in a 
great curve past a line of dormitories, crosses the quad- 
rangle near one end and continues past a second line of 



service subway which connects all the buildings of the 
school. To each side of this central entrance are cor- 
ridors leading to the boys' entrances which are located 
at the ends of the biiilding. These give direct communi- 
cation on the ground floor to large sunny day rooms 
under the supervision of two monitors whose studies 
open from them. They are provided with study tables 
and benches while along the walls are cupboards for 
books and papers. Across the corridor are changing 
rooms where every boy has his athletic clothes and bags 
for towels and soap. Adjoining are the shower baths. 
Thus the necessity for a central gymnasium is done away 
with. Indeed in a country where exercise out of doors 
is possible practically all the year and in a school where 
every boy is required to interest himself in some out- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



95 




' --' -• ■■ tf \ nrrrS «■■»■«■■■- •- — • ■ 






»=^ 





96 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



97 




INTERIOR OF CHAPEL. 



INTERIOR OF CHAPEL. 




ENTRANCE TO LARGE HALL. 



ENTRANCE TO UOKMITOKV. 



VIEWS OF CHRIST S HOSPITAL SCHOOL, 
HORSHAM, SUSSEX, ENGLAND. 



98 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



door sport, not once in a while, but regularly, this 
arrangement is much more satisfactory. On the ground 
floor are also boot rooms. The dormitory rooms in the 
second and third stories accommodate twenty-five boys 
each. The beds are ranged along opposite sides of the 
room as in a ward. At each end, separated by open air 
passages, are lavatories as above mentioned. Every boy 
is required each week to take two hot baths and a complete 
change of clothing. The school furnishes the clothes 
and while each boy keeps his own frock, trousers, and 
shoes, his underclothes are given out twice a week. 
In addition to direct ventilation from many windows 
each dormitory has a system of flues in the walls con- 
nected by trunks in the roof with a large ventilator on 
the ridge which contains a steam coil. 

The drive enters the great (juadrangle through the 
cloisters which run down the two long sides and which 
would be rather gloomy corridors were it not for the fact 
that they are partially open to the sun. To the right, at 
the foot of the quad, the dining hall, which seats the 
whole school, is so placed as to be most convenient both 
to the dormitories and to the class rooms. At the east 
end of the Hall is a dais with long tables for the masters 
and directly behind it the masters' common room. In 
back of the hall are the kitchens equipped with all the 
most modern culinary appliances and behind them again 
are the living quarters for the kitchen staff. The tower 
which rises above this group can be seen for miles 
around. 

At the head of the quadrangle dominating the entire 
group is the great "Speech Hall" flanked by lower 
buildings containing the class rooms. The main en- 
trance, a very successful piece of detail, opens into a 
spacious vestibule which gives access to the hall and by 
stairways to the balcony. The hall is approximately 
130 by 50 feet and about 50 feet high with a seating 
capacity sufficient for the whole school. The pipes of 
the great organ are made to play an important part in 
the scheme of decoration and the timber roof treatment 
is not unlike that of Cardinal Wolsey's chapel in Hampton 
Court palace. Here, in striking contrast with the din- 
ing hall, there are ample exits at the rear and along the 
sides as well as along the front of the building. The 
north wall has set into it a bit of the original design 
executed by Sir Christopher Wren for the London school 
consisting of a pilaster treatment with pediment and a 
semicircular niche for a statue. The illustration will 
show that the composition is readily distinguishable from 
the rest of the wall because of the different character of 
the brickwork. 

The chapel is placed with its side to the quadrangle 
and its front facing the avenue from which it is entered 
by a vestibule though access is also given by smaller 
doors opening into the cloisters. The scheme of plan is 
similar to the usual collegiate solution of the problem as 
seen at Oxford and Cambridge, consisting of a broad 
central aisle running the length of the chapel with seats 
in parallel tiers on each side. The interior treatment is 
very interesting. All woodwork is of oak left in its 
natural state. The walls are paneled to the height of 
the balcony floor, and above this the brick walls show, 
broken only by a stone line marking the base of the 
windows, by stone architraves, and stone corbels carry- 



ing the open timber roof which is also left in its natural 
color. The reredos screen and the pulpit are of very 
delicately carved Caen stone. 

The science building, which balances the chapel, needs 
no comment except perhaps to call attention to the 
rather unusual wall treatment in the second story of the 
three projecting bays. The library and museum are in 
a small one story building of no particular interest. The 
manual training building, recently added, is in harmony 
with the rest of the group. In the center of the quad- 
rangle is a very fine memorial monument arranged with 
seats on the four sides, and buttresses containing drink- 
ing fountains in small niches, at the angles. A life 
size statue of Edward VI surmounts the monument 
flanked on the corners at a lower level by statuettes of 
Coleridge, Lamb, Middleton and Maine, former students 
of the school who afterwards became famous. The fig- 
ures are all represented in the school dress of frock and 
knickerbockers. In the quadrangle, which measures 
approximately 250 by 375 feet, one is impressed by the 
evidently intentional lack of trees and planting of any 
kind though the avenue of approach is well lined with 
young trees which offer a pleasant relief from the monot- 
ony of brick walls. Here however no attempt has been 
made to secure such relief, possibly in order to insure 
the full play of sunlight and the free movement of air 
which the authorities decided was of such importance to 
the health of the boys. 

It might be interesting in closing to give some idea of 
the life led by the boys in this rather ideal school — 
which the neighboring townspeople speak of as the " Red 
City on the Hill." The school is conducted on a lenient 
military basis. The day is begun by chapel exercises at 
7 o'clock to which the boys march by houses and from 
there to breakfast. The time from 8.15 to 12.15 is 
given over to class work. A recreation hour is then 
allowed before dinner after which work is again resumed 
at 2.15, and lasts until 4.15, when there is recreation 
again until 6, during which time practically every boy 
is engaged in some outdoor sport. The school clings to 
many old customs, as for instance, the uniform which 
has not changed since its foundation and consists of a 
heavy blue frock, reaching almost to the knees, blue 
knickerbockers, white stockings and black shoes with 
large buckles. This costume which seems to us some- 
what cumbersome does not bother the boys at all. When 
playing their games they simply pull up the skirts and 
tuck them into their belts. Another old custom, more 
practical if less picturesque than the uniform, is the rule 
that every boy must black his own shoes and keep the 
pair he is not wearing for the day in condition to pass 
inspection. Each boy has a pigeon hole for his brushes 
and polish, and is held responsible for them. Still an- 
other custom which tends to produce in the boys a spirit 
of independence and an ability to help themselves is that 
of detailing certain boys each day to set the tables in the 
dining hall. No student is excused from this duty. The 
school it will be seen not only makes itself responsible 
for the mental and physical development of its seven 
hundred boys but concerns itself also with their morals 
and with their religious training, — in a word strives to 
make men of them. Certainly one would have to travel 
far to find a more manly looking set of boys. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Some Problems in School Planning. 

FIRST PAPER — THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. 

BY R. CLIPSTON STURGIS. 



99 



WITH the concentration of life in great cities, and 
the consequent loss of that training which comes 
naturally in an agricultural community, there has arisen 
a demand for some training of hand and eye to supple- 
ment the purely mental exercise of the school. On the 
farm the ordinary everyday life gave exercise, and train- 
ing in the use of tools; and in the villages and small 
towns the accessible country and the tool shed and 
household service gave varied occupation. In the large 
cities these important elements in education are not nat- 
urally present ; even home and its housekeeping has disap- 
peared more or less, and it was to provide such that the 
first movement toward broadening the school curriculum 
took place. The tool shed and the kitchen stove were 
introduced into the elementary school. 

About the same time a movement was started to care 
for children 







^a-yi^yb*iia 









MLUAM LLOYD GAZR/SOA! SCtlOOL -HOTOIIAIGS cST-^ODTOM-M^Sd. 



who were be- 
low the school 
age. This 
again met a 
civic condition 
and was in- 
tended to 
solve a prob- 
lem which in 
the country 
did not exist. 
There the 
little children 
could safely be 
about the 
house and out 
of doors with- 
out interfer- 
ing with the 
ordinary day's 
work of the 
mother or oc- 
cupying her 
time unduly, but in the city a constantly growing per- 
centage of mothers was forced to work away from home 
and there was no one to care for the children. It was 
more to meet this civic condition than to carry out 
Froebel's theories in education that the kindergarten 
room is so well filled in the city school. 

The equipment for all this work — cooking, manual 
training and kindergarten — meant added rooms and 
teachers; for at one end of the grades additional pupils 
were admitted, and at the other, additional instruction 
required special rooms. Both these added to the cost of 
elementary buildings and elementary instruction. 

Along the same lines and to meet the same kind of 
demand — that is, to give what one might have expected 
the home to provide — were the sewing class, the school 
library, the drawing room ; and each of these made 
demand for space and for teachers. 



The plan for an upper elementary school arranged for future extension, assembly hall making con- 
necting link on first and second floor, By Newhall & Blevins. 



Up to this point each branch added to the elementary 
course was added with a view of giving the city child 
what the average country child got in home life. 

The next step was to meet another civic condition, 
especially marked in manufacturing centers. At four- 
teen the child, whether or not fit mentally and physi- 
cally, might be withdrawn from school and set to work. 
In many cases work meant tending a machine or some 
similar narrow occupation where education stopped and 
atrophied. Compulsory education presupposed condi- 
tions in the school and home which, especially among the 
foreign population, did not exist, and children were being 
dismissed from school, or rather withdrawn, before they 
had obtained the education which eight years of school 
life was supposed to give. Parents could not be forced 
to give them more and school authorities therefore sug- 
gested courses 
which might 
be expected to 
have a direct 
bearing on the 
wage-earning 
capacity of the 
child. This 
again meant 
added courses 
andequipment 
in the school 
curriculum, 
or, failing to 
reach the child 
before the 
working life 
began, oppor- 
t unity for 
evening in- 
struction; the 
one intended 
as an induce- 
ment to keep 
the child longer in school, the other intended to coun- 
teract the narrowing influence of factory work by supple- 
menting and filling out the meager elementary education. 
Again this required added teachers and accommodation. 
In the former, the useful courses serving as a bait are 
the industrial courses now being introduced here and 
there in the elementary schools (for the child of fourteen 
has not always finished his course here), and in the latter, 
the continuation schools of the simplest character. 

Thus far the changes in elementary school courses 
had been made largely if not wholly to make good some- 
thing which had been lost. 

(a) To replace what simpler conditions of life pro- 
vided, there are added to the city elementary school, 
kindergarten, cooking, manual training, sewing and 
drawing. 

(b) To meet the need of those who had not received at 







lOO 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



fourteen years of age the education which was contem- 
plated when that limit was fixed, there are added various 
courses which by their practical character may tempt the 
child to longer attendance until he has received the edu- 
cation which the age limit was meant to represent. 
These are courses which have a direct bearing on an 
occupation or trade — housekeeping or dressmaking, cleri- 
cal work or mechanical. Rut it is not only to replace 
something that has been lost that educators now are 
striving, but also to make that advance in methods of 
education which is necessary to enable our children to 
cope with modern conditions and requirements. The 
early trader in foreign lands could exchange glass beads 
for gold and ivory, a bottle of fire-water for beaver and 
white fox; the modern trader, in sharp competition with 
his brother trader, must fight with well-trained brains 
for his market. 
Life is com- 
plex and edu- 
cation must 
conform to the 
complexity 
and supply the 
child with the 
weapons of 
modern war- 
fare. 

All this 
means rapid 
increase in the 
cost of build- 
ing and main- 
taining our 
schools, and 
one is con- 
fronted with 
the (luestion — 
not, is it worth 
while to do, 
but — is it 
worth what we 
are paying ? 
or, still more 

to the point are we providing this very necessary educa- 
tion in an economical way ? 

Before attempting to answer these problems one must 
consider the similar demands of modern education as 
they afTect the secondary schools. The earlier types of 
secondary education were simply High and Latin Schools, 
the former fitted for the ordinary occupations of business 
and trade, the latter led to college and the professions. 
It is a long time now since a classical education has been 
a requisite for college, and but a small proportion of 
students go to college because they intend to teach or 
preach or practice law. The secondary schools instead 
of running smoothly in two well-defined channels, branch 
in innumerable directions, and the school is expected to 
guide the pupil along any of these courses. 

The secondary school seeks to cover many fields, and 
indeed must cover them if it is to meet fully the de- 
mands of modern life. It must train for college and for 
technical schools; it must round out and complete as far 
as possible the education of those who go no farther, and 




A large upper elementary school of forty rooms by A. W. Longfellow. Assembly hall on first floor 

and all rooms arranged to have sunlij^ht at times. Note that the only room with a northerly 

exposure has windows on south angle. 



prepare its graduates for a business career or for life as 
a mechanic or as a tradesman. More and more one finds 
that in every trade and occupation intelligence is of 
greater value than mechanical skill, and so the secondary 
schools must be equipped to train the clerk to more than 
using a typewriter and to give the mechanic more than 
just the ability to run a power lathe. 

In the elementary school the problem is comparatively 
simple — to give some manual training and such indus- 
trial work as shall hold the children longer; in the second- 
ary schools the problem is very complex. In large cities 
it may be met by a variety of secondary schools each 
having its special course — its special end in view — but in 
smaller communities where the demands are nearly as 
varied this cannot be done and some way must be found 
of offering the different courses in one building without 

too great ex- 
penditure for 
the apparatus. 
The modern 
secondary 
school must 
lead on the one 
handtofurther 
education, to 
academic col- 
leges and to 
pol ytechnic 
schools, to 
commercial 
colleges and 
trade schools; 
and on the 
other hand it 
must train the 
child for good 
citizenship 
and effective 
work in almost 
any walk of 
life. To do 
thispractically 
— that is so as 
to obtain the results — and economically^ — that is spend- 
ing freely for what is necessary but nothing except that 
- is the modern problem in school planning and equip- 
ment. The first aspect of the problem is one for the 
educator to answer, the second is for the architect, and 
neither aspect has had sufficient study to make possible 
the intelligent planning of modern schools. Germany 
and England have advanced further than we, partly 
under force of necessity (with them it was a matter of 
vital importance to keep their foreign trade, and they 
believed rightly that education alone could accomplish 
this, and partly through organization. Here, we are not 
fully aware of the necessity, and are without organi- 
zation. Completely content in the belief that we are 
among the great ones of the earth and self-sufficient, we 
seek indifferently the expansion of our trade. Com- 
munities, with like aims and objects, study independ- 
ently and profit neither by the failures nor \by the 
successes of each other. 

One is convinced that the country is now pretty well 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



lOI 



aroused to the necessity of increasing the efficiency of 
the schools, and believes in organization for the study of 
the problem. The practical way to accomplish this 
would seem to be under the 



J YMDOty 

TEACMtR/ OtJK 
"WKT PUPIL J TA.CE 



-h 



Commissioner of Educa- 
tion at Washington, before 
whom could be laid for tab- 
ulation the results of ex- 
periments throughout the 
country. Until such cen- 
tralization is effected much 
effort will be wasted. 

The following sugges- 
tions are based on observa- 
tion in a narrow field and 
can be considered as sug- 
gestive only. They are 
the less useful because no 
one of the experiments in 
education has been suffi- 
ciently followed up to 
serve as a conclusive test 
of the efficiency of the in- 
struction given. Until one 
knows that the cooking 
class has taught the pupils 
to cook one lacks assurance 
that the course in cooking 
is right, just as one sus- 
pects something amiss if 
eight years' schooling fails 
to teach the pupil how to 
write English, or even to 
spell. 

It is proposed to take 
first the elementary 
schools, and then the sec- 
ondary, and review in each 
(a) what is demanded, (b) 
what furnished, (c) what 
is accomplished, (d) what 
it costs, and then consider 
whether the same results 
could not be accomplished 
more effectively with sim- 
pler equipment. 

In the elementary 
school the following are 
demanded: Kindergarten 
to take those who are 
below the school age (a 
matter not always easy to 
determine in towns filled 
with emigrants — Dr. Gu- 
lick suggests judging by 
teeth rather than birth cer- 
tificates) ; cooking classes 
to train girls in the rudi- 
ments of the work in the 

home kitchen ; manual training to give the boys (and girls 
too sometimes) a knowledge of the use of tools or control 
of their hands ; sewing for the girls to help them to be use- 
ful at home; drawing for girls and boys to train eye and 




LOOK 



A lower elementary school by James T. Kelley and Harold J. Graves, 

Architects. An exceptionally compact plan on a city lot running 

through from street to street, but without opportunity for 

light at the sides. All the rooms have east or 

west e.xposure. 



hand and teach some love of beauty; science, the simpler 
elementary things, to give them a better understanding 
of natural processes; the assembly hall, for common ex- 
ercises, to teach them the 
value of concerted work, 
eradicate self-con- 
sciousness and encourage 
self-confidence; the gym- 
nasium to train and harden 
the body and teach self- 
control and cooperation in 
sport; shops for wood and 
metal working or other 
general trades more ad- 
vanced or more specialized 
than the manual training 
room to fit the boy to be a 
better wage-earner, or 
shops for dressmaking, 
millinery or domestic 
science to do the same for 
the girls. 

In addition to all this 
indoors there is a demand 
for playground facilities 
outside where recreation 
in school time and the 
hours after school may be 
spent in play and sport for 
physical and mental de- 
velopment. Finally, many 
believe that even the city 
child should have nature- 
studies to bring him into 
touch with at least his 
native fiora and fauna. 

These are the demands 
made for the first eight 
years of the child's edu- 
cation ; when added to the 
usual academic curriculum 
it makes a formidable list. 
With each of these 
branches one may consider 
what is provided, what is 
accomplished and what it 
costs. 

The kindergarten is pro- 
vided pretty generally in 
the elementary schools 
and serves the admirable 
purpose of a creche where 
the children are cared for 
and kept off the streets. 
Educationally one hopes 
that the children learn 
something useful, perhaps 
cleanliness and obedience. 
If this is all the kinder- 
garten does there is no very obvious reason why the city 
should not extend the scope and include the babies as well. 
It is worth study to determine how much on? i.s justified 
in spending for this purpose. Rooms for fifty or sixty 




-!—■.. 



BAJEMENT AND LOT' PLAN 



I02 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



] 



occupy the space of a class room seating fifty and repre- 
sent roughly speaking $7,500 of building. 

The cooking room is generally provided and equipped 
for classes of twenty. Three or four classes a day for 
five days is about the limit of what one such room will 
serve. The equipment is simple and practical and it re- 
mains only to prove that the children are taught to do 
what will be of real use in the homes of their parents or 
in their own homes later. The work requires room and 
costs about what the kindergarten space costs ($7,500). 
But in this case no additional child is admitted ; the room 
is used for additional instruction to the girls who have 
desks elsewhere. Both cooking and sewing are house- 
hold occupations, and with them go cleanliness, neatness 
and order. One is inclined to doubt whether the teaching 
leads directly to its practical end, but if it does it would 
seem entirely feasible to put the results in practice in the 
school itself by having lunch (a growing necessity in many 
poor districts of our cities) provided by the girls of the 
second year cooking class and by having all the girls take 
part in the house cleaning and order of the class rooms. 

What applies to the cooking for the girls applies with 
greater force to the manual training for the boys. This 
occupies the same space, 
costs the same and provides 
for the same number of pu- 
pils. For the most part they 
are occupied in somewhat 
purposeless work. The boy 
on the farm learns early to 
use tools to some purpose 
and gains thereby what no 
purposeless work can give. 
It would seem practicable to 
have all minor repairs about 
the 'school done by the boys 
who have proved themselves 
efficient and trustworthy. 
One is inclined to think that 
there would be rivalry to be 

allowed to do this work. Then while the girls kept class 
rooms clean the boys would polish desks and floors, set 
broken glass and replace window cords; and both girls 
and boys would take pride in their class rooms. Once 
the kitchen and shop became merely the training place 
for real work, a room in the basement or a shed might 
serve. The end after all is the training of the child and 
the only problem is how best to arrive at that end. 

Drawing like writing is but a training of the eye and hand, 
but unlike writing it is not expected that every pupil will 
learn to draw as all are expected to learn to write. Useful 
as drawing is, one is inclined to think that part at least of 
the time given to it might with advantage be devoted to 
writing. Practice in lettering is one of the best of all draw- 
ing exercises and is a help towards good handwriting. 
Drawing should be done in the class room and not add to 
the cost of the building. It is not a question of money ex- 
penditure but of time spent and the results of that time. 

Such science as may properly find its place in the ele- 
mentary schools does not require laboratories or lecture 
rooms, and except as incidental to other lessons is out of 
place. It does not require expenditure and may therefore 
be disregarded here. 




A standard type of plan for an upper elementarj' school with assembly 
hall on first floor. The building is three stories. This school, 
planned for a training school, contains all grades from kin- 
dergarten to the eighth. 



The assembly hall is an accepted feature of nearly all 
elementary schools, certainly of all which include the 
upper grades, and that it is a useful and indeed a neces- 
sary part of the equipment cannot be denied. It is how- 
ever a costly feature, and is often not used sufficiently to 
justify the cost. The smallest halls would represent 
two class rooms ($15,000) and the larger ones four to six 
rooms. Four rooms ($30,000) is a considerable invest- 
ment, and one should be sure so to arrange for its use as 
to justify the cost. Twenty minute exercises once a day, 
occasional singing lessons and a few lectures — some 
of which are public — are not enough. A gymnasium is 
less frequently provided in elementary schools than a 
hall and yet the gymnasium would be in use all day and 
every day. It would seem entirely feasible to have the 
hall serve a double purpose. The morning exercises, 
reading and singing for the whole school, might be 
standing so that the floor would be available at once for 
classes, or the floor might be cleared of its benches in 
five minutes by the organized aid of the pupils. A hall 
for this double use might well be simpler than the some- 
what pretentious rooms which now serve the architect as 
an opportunity for display of skill. 

Ordered exercise and play 
do not occupy a suflficiently 
important place in the ele- 
mentary school. One is in- 
clined to think that the child 
in its active years of growth 
would study better if his 
mental work were frequently 
varied with physical exercise, 
and thateducationwouldgain 
by his taking part in organized 
sport where he will learn 
discipline and cooperation. 
This is all conjecture, but it 
appears worth considering. 

The last, or rather the la- 
test, demand is for study that 
may be called vocational — that leads to some definite 
end. In a way it is rather a misnomer, or a reflection on 
other studies, as if they had no practical end in view. 
Under this head would come typewriting and stenog- 
raphy, work in cloth, cardboard, wood and metal ; trades 
innumerable when you once begin. Nearly all of these 
require additional space and special teachers, and only 
when the child is unable to get this education later or 
when only such opportunity will hold him in school at 
all does such work seem excusable in an elementary 
school. One may perhaps pass it by here to be consid- 
ered later under the secondary schools, remarking merely 
that if introduced it should be only after such study as 
shall insure the accomplishment of the end in view. Gen- 
erally speaking one is inclined to think that the kitchen 
and the shop, together with what can be done in the class 
room and the assembly hall, will give the child about all the 
instruction he can profit by during his first eight years of 
school. If this is supplemented by physical exercises and 
games that stimulate his interest while they exercise his 
body and give him some training in obedience and coop- 
eration he will be fairly well fitted to carry his studies 
further, or, if this cannot be, to take up his work in life. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 5. PLATE 57. 




HOUSES ON CHARLES RIVER EMBANKMENT, BOSTON, MASS. 
Frank a. Bourne, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 5. PLATE 58. 



msserzooPM./iyi' 




Tifr ti f . T 



wusc /vo/ 




/fOU^ /V0Z5 










*5 



TTP/CAL LOT PLAN ■'^^'>-A->ty 





\-&r 



? 



■PM/tOK 



\\ 



I a 1ALL cjvvau J 






JiHj 



a 



vZfSOitAT/Z 




—I 



2: 

I 



1 ^ I 



lU 



\ B ■ I I I 



^ f^z h LJ_I 



^ 



^ 






HOUSES ON CHARLES RIVER EMBANKMENT. BOSTON, MASS. 
Frank A. Bourne, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 5. PLATE 59. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 5. PLATE 60. 





YALE BOAT CLUB HOUSE, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 5. PLATE 61. 




THE BRICKB UILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 5. PLATE 62. 




THE 

VOL. 20, NO. 5. 



BRICKBUILDER. 

PLATE 63. 




CHURCH FOR ST. JOSEPH S PARISH, DAYTON. OHIO. 
Maginnis & Walsh, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 5. PLATE 64. 




CHURCH 

FOR 

ST. JOSEPH S PARISH, 

DAYTON, OHIO. 



Maginnis & Walsh, Architects 




I d 



I .. 



MADISON ITlLEtT 



THE BRICK BUI L D ER. 

VOL 20. NO. 5. PLATE 65. 




CHURCH OF MARY IMMACULATE OF LOURDES, 

NEWTON UPPER FALLS, MASS. 

Edward T. P. Graham, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 5. PLATE 66. 



CnUDCH-0r-MAGY-lMMACULATDOr-L0UCDC3 
■ NCWTON • UPPCD. • TA LL.!) • MAOD.. 
tDW-T P.GEAHAM --ACCH'T., 
■ ZO'DCACON - .5T.,- BODTON.- 




KC-f OP matj:eim5 

I I BKKK 

|..^)..] CONCRtTC 



raoMT or POBTico 



^nCTlON TliBO POl^TfCO 



CHURCH OF MARY IMMACULATE OF LOURDES, NEWTON UPPER FALLS, MASS. 

Edward T. p. Graham, Architect. 



THE B RICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 5. PLATE 67. 




CHURCH OF MARY IMMACULATE OF LOURDES, 

NEWTON UPPER FALLS, MASS. 

Edward T. P. Graham, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 5. PLATE 68. 




J 



HOUSE AT MINNEAPOLIS, MINN 

William M. Kenyon, 

Architect. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 5. PLATE 69. 




TWO HOUSES AT PITTSBURG, PA. 
MacClure & Spahr, Architects. 



r/esr rtooe plaa 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 5. PLATE 70. 




HOUSE AT MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 
Reed & Stem, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

The Heating and Ventilation of Halls. 



103 



BY CHARLES L. HUBBARD. 



THE chief difference between the methods employed 
for the ventilation of churches and halls depends 
upon the fact that it is usually necessary to keep the 
floor free for dancing and other purposes in case of the 
latter. This makes any system of finely divided air 
distribution, similar to those described in a previous 
article on church ventilation, out of the question. 

For small and medium sized halls, where furnace or 
indirect steam heating is employed, the general methods 



F-LOL 



PLAN 




ETI 



HEATE:^ 
COLD-AK^ 



V- 'A"- 



\ --d 



LLtVAT/OA/': 



rtUE: 



y/EATCZ 



COLDAIJI 
ROOM 



FIG. I. 

and data already given in connection with church heating, 
apply equally well, except perhaps, the method of basing 
the various parts of the apparatus upon the number of 
occupants. With halls there is less uniformity in the 
relation between the exposed wall and window surface 
and the seating capacity; a hall often being simply a 
part of a building used for other purposes and having 
perhaps only one outside wall exposure. Again, there 
is commonly a wide variation in the ratio of floor space 
to cubic contents, which makes it better to treat the 
systems of heating and ventilation separately, basing 
the former upon the exposed wall and window surface, 
and the latter on the number of occupants. This same 
method is also applicable to. churches where the propor- 
tion of exposed surface to seating capacity is out of the 
ordinary. 

The heat units required per hour for warming a room 
of average wooden or brick construction may be found 
by the formula 

(1) Hi = [ (W X 25) + (G X 100) ] X E 
in which 

Hi = heat units required per hour. 

W = outside wall surface, in square feet. 

G = glass surface, in square feet. 

E = factor for exposure, which may be taken as N, 1.32 ; 
E, 1.12; vS, 1.0; W, 1.26. 
When there is an unwarmed roof space above the ceil- 
ing, each 3 square feet of ceiling should be taken as 1 of 
outside wall, in applying the above formula. 

The heat units required for warming the air for venti- 
lation may be found by the formula 

(2) Ho = (O X C) X 1.3, 

in which 

H2 = heat units required per hour. 
O = number of occupants. 

C = cubic feet of air per occupant per hour, which may 
be taken from 1,500 to 1,800. 



The total heat units required for both warming and 
ventilating is the sum of the two quantities found 
above ; or 

Hi -f- H2 = H.^ = total heat units required per hour. 

Having found the different values of H, other data may 
be determined as follows: 

(3) Hi -T- 250 = square feet of direct radiation re- 

quired for warming the room. 

(4) H2 -i- 700 = square feet of indirect radiation re- 

quired for ventilating the room. 

(5) H.s -T- 500 = square feet of indirect radiation re- 

quired for both heating and venti- 
lating the room. 

(6) H2 -f- 1,500 = square feet of steam blast coils for 

ventilation only. 

(7) H;t -f- 1,200 = square feet of steam blast coils for 

both heating and ventilation. 

(8) Hs -^ 40,000 = square feet of grate surface for fur- 

naces or cast-iron sectional boilers. 

(9) H:{ ~ 30,000 = horse-power of tubular boilers. 

If the room is heated and ventilated by indirect steam, 
add 1 square foot of grate surface to the boilers for each 
100 occupants, to care for the aspirating coils in the 
vent flues. The flue areas for both supply and vent, 
in furnace and indirect gravity steam heating may be 
based on the number of occupants and made the same 
as for church heating, under like conditions. This also 
applies to cold-air supply ducts, both for furnaces and 
indirect stacks. 

Tables of fan capacities already given, both of the 
centrifugal and disk types, apply equally well to the 
conditions of hall ventilation. 

For furnace heating, the general arrangement of flues, 
with supply registers at each corner of the room, and 
vents at each end (one being in the front of the stage), 




T T T T 

/fA MA NA MA 



¥ 



3 



^- 



S:- 



il 



S 
^ 



ffj^ //A NA HA HA 
CZZI (ZZD C_) CZ—I 



Jl 



FIG. II. 

is as satisfactory as any for halls of small size. This 
same arrangement may also be used in the case of 
indirect steam, supplementing it with supply registers 
along the outer walls beneath the windows in rooms of 
large size. The use of the cold-air rooms and multiple 
air-inlets should be retained if possible, as described for 
church heating. The method of locating one of the 
large corner heating stacks in the cold-air room, and the 
arrangement of casing and mixing damper is shown in 



I04 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



C£.fLINQ\ \Vf://T 



plan and elevation in Fig. I. The stack is hung from 
the ceiling in the corner of the room and enclosed in a 
galvanized iron casing with an 
open bottom which allows the air 
to pass freely between the sec- 
tions of the heater. The cold air 
for the mixing damper is taken 
from a point near the floor, as 
shown, otherwise in mild weather, 
when the damper is set for nearly 
all cold air, the supply will be- 
come heated by passing across the 
bottoui of the stack if the opening 
is made higher up, as at " A " for 
example. 

A typical arrangement of 
supply and vent registers for a 

fairly large hall, heated by indirect steam, is shown in 
plan in Fig. II. In this case one-half the air supply is 
brought in through two large wall registers placed over 
the doors at either side of the stage, and the remainder 
through narrow floor registers along the sides of the 
room beneath the windows. If 
the outer walls are of sufficient 
thickness to carry an uptake 
flue these registers may be 
placed in the wall, instead of 
the floor, on account of cleanli- 
ness. This arrangement is 
often made possible by using a 
somewhat deeper window sill, 
and breasting out beneath it 
sufficiently to give the neces- 
sary depth for carrying the 
flue. A diagram representing 
a section through Fig'. II, and 
showing the stage end of the 
room in elevation, is given in 
Fig. III. Part of the discharge 

ventilation is through registers or grilles in the front of 
the stage connecting with a flue in the rear, while the 
remainder of the air is taken off through a special flue at 
the opposite end of the room as indicated. In the case 
of small halls the necessary draft in the vent flues may 

usually be 
secured by 
the use of 
aspirating 
coils, but in 
larger rooms 
more posi- 
tive results 
may be ob- 
tained by 
means of a 
discharge 
fan placed 
either in the 
attic or base- 
men t, as 
most convenient. A typical arrangement of an attic fan 
for the system shown in Fig. II is illustrated in Fig. IV. 
The two vent risers from the first floor are connected by 





KIG. IV 




FIG. V. 



horizontal ducts just above the ceiling with a fan chamber 
located at some convenient and central point. A direct- 
connected fan of the disk type is 
best adapted to this purpose on 
account of its light weight and 
ability to handle large volumes of 
air at low pressures. 

In the arrangement shown, the 
two horizontal ducts are brought 
into the bottom of the fan cham- 
ber by means of easy curves. The 
fan is placed in an opening in the 
side of the chamber with its shaft 
in a horizontal position, and dis- 
charges into an outboard flue pro- 
vided with a hood and damper. 
If the attic space is limited as to 
height, the ducts may be brought into the sides of the 
chamber instead of the bottom, the fan and door occupy- 
ing the two remaining sides. It will be seen by reference 
to Fig. Ill that ceiling vents are provided in addition to 
those at the floor. These are for use in mild weather 
and for quick cooling, should occasion require. They 
may be connected with the attic ducts leading to the 
fan, and, like the floor vents, should be provided with 
dampers — controlled from some convenient point, either 
on the first floor or in the basement. The 
fan and motor should be easily accessible 
for inspection and oiling, and a regula- 
ting rheostat should be provided forvary- 
ing the speed to meet requirements. In 
many cases it will be more convenient to 
place the fan in the basement and con- 
nect the vent registers with the 
fan chamber by means of ducts 
beneath the floor. In this ar- 
rangement it is only necessary 
to carry a single vent uptake 
through the building, that lead- 
ing from the fan outboard. In this case it is not 'possible 
to connect the attic vents with the fan, but this is not of 
so much importance because there is usually a good draft 
through these, due to the high temperature of the air at 
the upper part of the room. The duct from the ceiling 
vents may be connected into the fan discharge in the 
attic space, provided it is brought in on an angle with 
the direction of flow, so that the air from the fan flowing 
past the in- 
let will act 
as a suc- 
tion. A 
common 
arrange- 
ment for a 
basement 
fan is 
shown in 
Fig. \' . 
In this case 
the fan is 

placed directly in the base of the outboard flue, with its 
shaft in a vertical position. This reduces the resistance 
somewhat, as it does away with the 90 turn in front of 



COLDAIIL 

\ 


r 


\ ^ 








. ! 


JJOOAL 


won 


/ftAFLJl 






- 








GALV.IROAf CA'SZ/VG 





no. VI. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



105 







mc.- 










PLAN 



RCG. 



MC/CT 



fk;. VII. 



cau/^G 



V£JVT 



OALCONYw 



\LCONY 



HA 



ff.A 



the fan shown in Fig. IV. On the other hand, the motor 
is more exposed to the weather, but this objection may- 
be overcome by using one of 
the enclosed type and pro- 
viding a good form of hood 
at the top of the flue. 

The methods of determin- 
ing the size of vent flues for 
fan ventilation has already 
been taken up in connection 
with churches and need not 
be repeated here. Before 
leaving the subject of grav- 
ity indirect heating, atten- 
tion should be called to the 
necessity of providing means 
for air rotation, or inside circulation, for warming when 
ventilation is not required. 

We now come to the treatment of large halls where a 
supply fan, usually of the centrifugal type, is used for 

provid i n g 
the fresh 
air. In de- 
signing a 
system of 
this kind 
p r ovi s io n 
must be 
made for 
warmingthe 
room when 
the fan is 
not in use. 
There are 
various 

ways of doing this; one being to make the heating and 
ventilating systems independent, warming the room by 
direct radiation and making the main heater at the fan 
simply large enough for warming the air supply up to 
70° in zero weather. By "direct radiation" is meant 
either the usual form of cast-iron sectional radiators 
which are placed in the room, 
or indirect stacks hung be- 
neath the floor and arranged 
to take air from above as 
shown in Fig. VI. The ordi- 
nary form of direct radiator 
may often be concealed by 
breasting out beneath the 
windows sufficiently for en- 
closing the radiator, and pro- 
viding grilles at the bottom 
and top to allow for a circu- 
lation of air over it. 

When the main heater at 
the fan is proportioned for 
raising the total air supply 
through 70°, much of the time 
there will be more capacity than is needed for ventilation 
alone, and this surplus heat may be used toward warming 
the room and a portion of the direct radiation shut off. 
As the outside temperature rises, a point will be reached 
where the main heater will be sufficiently large to do both 



I^tQ. 



-, 1 



flLG. 



f-LUL 

t 



the ventilating and heating. If thermostatic control is 
placed upon the direct radiation this balance between the 

radiators and main heater 
will be maintained automati- 
cally. The main heater may 
be regulated partly by valved 
sections and partly by means 
of a by-pass damper, which 
if possible, should be auto- 
matically controlled. When 
the methods above described 
are objectionable, it is some- 
times possible to make the 
main heater large enough to 
both heat and ventilate the 
room in zero weather, and 
divide it in two parts, placing one at each end of the 
basement near the bases of a pair of large flues. When 
both ventila- 



JJUCT 



J/XT/OAAL- 
-f±CyAT/ON 




PLtA/UM 
^PACtz 





FIG. VIII. 



FIG. I\. 



















/fOJ^ZCyVZAL 
<5£C770N 



tion and heat 
are required, 
air is forced 
through these 
two heaters, by 
means of a fan 
into the flues; 
but when heat 
only is r e - 
quired, the air 
is admitted to 
the heaters 
from the base- 
ment by rota- 
tion, and passes 
upward into 

the room above by gravity, as in the ordinary form of 
indirect heating. 

The method of air distribution differs from church 
heating because the floor must in general be kept clear, 
and all seats be removable. This makes it necessary to 
introduce the air in much the same manner as in gravity 

heating, that is, through a 
comparatively small number 
of large openings. Fig. II 
may also be used to illustrate 
a common method of locating 
the supply and vent registers 
for a fan system in which the 
heating is done by dlirect 
radiation (not shown). 

The supply registers should 
be of practically the same size 
as for gravity heating, unless 
provided with diffusers, to be 
described later. The ducts 
leading from the fan to the 
flues may be based on an air 
velocity of 800 to 1,000 feet 
per minute, the lower velocity being in the smaller 
branches. In the uptake flues, the velocity should drop 
to about 500 feet in uptakes leading to floor registers, 
and 700 feet in those leading to wall registers which are 
placed at an elevation of 7 or 8 feet above the floor. In 




fk; 



X. 



io6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



a 



w 



fiOR/Z(yVTAL (SUCTION 




the arrangement shown in Fig. II the vent flues may be 
made the same size as for gravity heating, but in general, 
no aspirating coils or vent fan will be required, as there 
will be sufficient pressure from the supply fan to force 
the air out. Exceptions to this would be in the case of 
large halls with deep galleries. 
When floor registers are supplied 
with air under pressure from a fan, 
it is well to place them in pairs and 
bring up the supply flue between 
them as shown in Fig. VII. This 
breaks the force of the current and 
causes the air to rise at a low and 
more uniform velocity over the 
entire surface of the register. In 
all cases adjustable dampers should 
be placed in the supply flues to 
equalize the flow of air to the dif- 
ferent registers. 

An arrangement which is used 
with good success in halls having a 
balcony upon two or more sides is shown in diagram in 
Fig. VIII. The air supply in this case is partly through 
wall registers placed about 7^ feet from the floor, and 
partly through registers in the front of the balcony. 
The lower registers tend to flush the space beneath the 
balcony with fresh air, while the body of the hall re- 
ceives its main supply from the balcony registers. The 
discharge ventilation, for the most part, is through 
registers near the floor at either end of the room. Ceil- 
ing vents are 
provided for 
use on special 
occasion, as 
already de- 
scribed. No 
particular pro- 
vision is made 
for the ventila- 
tion of the bal- 
cony. Where 
the hall is of 
good height 
the air currents 
induced by this 
arrangement 
of supply and 
vent registers 
will tend to 
change the air 
at frequent in- 
tervals in this 
portion of the 
room. 

The ducts 
supplying the 
registers '^'"'• 

shown in Fig. 

VIII are carried in special pilasters for the vertical por- 
tion, and in the floor space of the balcony. When the 
air is supplied in this manner it is necessary to warm the 
room by independent means, usually by cast-iron radi- 
ators placed along the outer walls beneath the windows. 



M 



W 



\ 



FIG. XI. 




A method sometimes employed with good success is to 
use rotation heaters of the general form shown in Fig. VI 
for warming, and then connect the supply ducts from the 
fan with the casings beneath the heaters. The air can 
then be forced into the room without the use of addi- 
tional floor registers. The effect 
on the heaters will be simply to in- 
crease their efficiency, and they 
may be shut ofl^ when their heat is 
no longer needed. Both registers 
become supply registers under 
these conditions and may be made 
of the same size. Sometimes the 
galleries of a hall, and even the 
main floor, in the case of lecture 
halls, are raised from the level; 
being in the form of a succession 
of broad stairs, each having one or 
more rows of seats. With this 
arrangement it is usually possible 
to utilize the space beneath as a 
plenum chamber and to introduce the air through slots 
in the risers as shown in section in Fig. IX. On account 
of keeping the floor free it is impossible to introduce 
the air in finely divided streams, as already stated. 
This makes it necessary to provide special means at the 
inlet registers to avoid unpleasant drafts, which are very 
likely to occur when air is introduced in large volumes 
at temperatures of 68 to 70 . A method of diff'using the 
entering air is shown in Fig. X. The vertical section at 

the right illus- 
trates a series 
of deflectors 
placed in the 
flue back of 
the outlet into 
the room. 
These equalize 
the flow in 
horizontal 
planes, and a 
second set of 
vertical blades 
in front of 
these spread it 
in a fan-shaped 
stream as it 
enters the 
room. An ar- 
rangement of 
deflectors and 
diffusers of 
this kind takes 
the place of the 
usual inlet 
register. 

^"- When regis- 

ters are already 
in place, drafts can often be done away with by placing 
a diffuser of the general form shown in Fig. XI over the 
register face. A system of ventilation, used more fre- 
quently abroad than in this country, is the i/ozvmcard 
system, where the air is introduced at the ceiling and 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



107 



withdrawn at the floor level. This system is based on 
the theory that the warm air first rises to the upper part 
of the room, wherever it is admitted, hence it might as 
well be introduced at this point in the first place. The 
practical difficulty with this arrangement is that after a 
hall is once heated and filled with people, the animal 
heat given off is usually sufficient to maintain the desired 
temperature, and sometimes the temperature of the room 
will continue to rise even though no other heat be sup- 
plied. Under these conditions it becomes necessary to 
introduce the air at a temperature of 66 to 70° to main- 
tain the proper conditions within the room. Air ad- 
mitted through the ceiling at this comparatively low 
temperature is liable to fall quite rapidly and produce 
unpleasant drafts in different parts of the room. 

Symphony Hall, Boston, an interior view of which is 
shown in Fig. XII, has a system operated on the method 
above described. Air is introduced through grille work 



shown in the panels of the ceiling and is removed through 
wall registers at the floor level and in the first balcony. 
Certain of these registers can be seen in the front of the 
stage and projecting above the back row of seats in the 
first balcony. The fresh air is drawn from the top of 
the building to the basement through a special shaft, 
where it passes through a heating coil, and is then forced 
by two 9 foot centrifugal fans, having a capacity of about 
70,000 cubic feet per minute, to the space above the audi- 
torium ceiling, where it is distributed to the various 
grilles by means of iron ducts. The air is removed from 
the building by means of two 7 foot centrifugal fans, 
also located in the basement. There is no direct radia- 
tion in this hall, except a small amount in the second 
balcony, and it is necessary to run the supply fans for 
warming the room at all times, although when once 
heated up it will retain the heat for a considerable length 
of time. 



Plate Illustrations — Description. 



Houses, Charles River Embankment, Boston. Plates 
57-59. This group of houses fronting the new Charles 
River embankment and the wide basin beyond pos- 
sesses something of the charm of the old Colonial 
homes of Boston and other New England towns. The 
houses have been designed not as an experiment in co- 
operative living, but rather to evade the apartment 
house and give to each occupant a distinctive and per- 
manent home. The lot originally purchased in 1909 was 
230 feet long and 152 feet wide, representing an assessed 
valuation of $113,800. The plan calls for a group of 21 
houses, a courtyard 52 by 190 feet with a central plant- 
ing space, a back alley 10 feet wide, an arched passage- 
way 20 feet for teaming, and an entrance 16 feet wide to 
the parkway for driving. All the houses are three stories 
high except those at the rear which have an extra story. 
The typical plan is 20 feet wide and 45 feet deep with 
story heights of 8 feet 6 inches; 9 feet 6 inches; and 8 
feet, respectively. The heating systems are hot air and 
hot water, suiting the wishes of the occupants. The 
typical plan shows a long, well-lighted library, a single 
flight of stairs, a small passageway or lobby leading to 
the dining room in the rear, and a serving room receiv- 
ing secondary light. The alternative plan has a small 
front room which gives space for back stairs and a serv- 
ing room lighted from the yard. The latter scheme is 
very satisfactory on the 18 foot lot No. 21 — which keeps 
the general character and accommodations of the adjoin- 
ing 20 foot lot with a saving of approximately $900 in the 
cost of construction. The back part of the roof is used 
for drying clothes, the front part being restricted by 
mutual agreement. The plan that varies most from the 
typical is No. 16 which has a section over the archway. 
This house has a front of 20 feet and the conventional 
arrangement of the three stories, but over the arched 
passage is a large studio two stories high with a gallery 
at one end. The floors may at any time be carried 
through the studio giving several extra rooms. The 
exterior is of red water struck brick with the sills, 
caps and trim around the windows and cornices of light 



buff concrete stone resembling limestone. The out- 
side woodwork is painted to match the stone trim- 
ming. The shutters are dark green and the doors 
white, green and mahogany. The site is made land 
with piling from 10 to 25 feet deep. The framing is 
all of hard pine, the floors of red birch, oak and hard 
pine and the wood finish generally white wood for 
painting. The houses cover 18,967 square feet out of 
a total area of 36,893 square feet, and cost approxi- 
mately $225,000. 

Yale Boat Cluh House, New Haven, Conn. Plates 
60, 61. This building is built of red brick laid in wide 
joints and trimmed in terra cotta the color of limestone. 
The window quoins project slightly and the ornament 
has been concentrated in the gables, under the balcony 
rail on the river front and at the main entrance. This 
entrance is reached by means of a stone and brick arched 
bridge extending to the one over the Quinnipiac River. 
The roof is of slate. The pile foundations are covered 
with heavy stringers and protected by creosoted plank 
sheathing and surface filling. On the first floor is the 
entrance hall finished in light brick with stairs leading 
to the second story. Opening from the hall is the large 
boat room, beyond which is the workshop and the boiler 
room. Each of the six doors on the front has a run 
leading to the float which extends the entire length of 
the boat house. Upon the second floor is a large hall on 
the land side with a trussed ceiling, furnishing space for 
rowing machines, etc. The shower and drying rooms 
have slate lining and asphalt floors, while the toilet 
rooms are finished in marble. The lounging room has a 
brick and terra cotta mantel and a beamed and plastered 
ceiling between trusses. Doors open from the lounging 
room to the balcony, which is 36 feet by 56 feet and over- 
looks the river. The building contains approximately 
410,000 cubic feet. 

Church for St. Joseph's Parish, Dayton, Ohio. 
Plates 62-64. The exterior of this church is finished in 
iron gray brick, containing considerable purple to soften 
the general effect. The trimmings throughout are of 



io8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



109 



glazed terra cotta richly modeled, while flanking the main 
door-ways of the fagade are tall columns of Vermont 
marble. A local stone of a very hard nature forms the 
base of the entire structure. The roof is of red tile and 
the exterior doors are of copper. The church is of 
Italian Byzantine design with a Basilican plan, the side 
aisles however being comparatively narrow and free of 
seatings. The nave which is 43 feet wide is ceiled by a 
barrel vault 45 feet from floor, with large semicircular 
windows in the clerestory and the apse semicircular in 
plan. The total seating capacity is 750. To the left of 
the wide vestibule in front is the baptistery with singing 
gallery overhead. Related to the aisles which are term- 
inated at the sanctuary by niches are the confessionals, 
naturally lighted and ventilated. A suggestion of a 
cross axis has been contrived by bringing the tower into 
relation with a great niche on the opposite side of the 
church in which a marble Pieta is installed. Opposite 
to this semicircular shrine and within the walls of the 
tower is placed a minor choir gallery accessible from the 
tower stairs. Upon the interior the walls of the aisles 
up to the bottom of the windows are lined with tile of a 
soft green shade striped with thin horizontal lines of a 
slightly varying tone. The entire floor of the auditor- 
ium is laid with marbleized fiber which is of the monolith 
type. This is a greenish-gray field and in the aisles is 
bordered by broad simple masses of black. The sanc- 
tuary and its approaches are of marble and mosaic. The 
vacuum system of heating has been employed. Warm 



air is brought in near the entrance and is taken out 
by gravity at the tower. The cubical contents of the 
building is 577,600 feet and the cost per cubic foot 
13 cents. 

Church at Newton Upper Falls, Mass. Plates 65- 
67. The exterior design of this church was influenced by 
the Italian work, the portico being modeled after the 
Temple D'Auguste at Pola in Dalmatie. The sculpture in 
the pediment represents the miraculous appearance of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary to a French peasant girl. The 
campanile is of brick and cast stone — 125 feet from 
grade to top of tile roof and 15 feet scjuare at base. The 
sides taper 4 inches in the entire height of the tower. 
There are four dial clocks with arrangements for chimes. 
Upon the interior is an open wood trussed ceiling. The 
decorations are in strong Pompeian colors. The stained 
glass panel over the vestibule doors and the twelve large 
windows are symbolical of Biblical scenes. The altar is 
of white marble with Numidian and Sienna columns and 
pilasters. The altar rail is of red Numidian marble on 
metal standards with gates ornamented in ecclesiastical 
symbols. The seating capacity of the basement is 450, 
the main church 800 and the gallery 100. The building, 
complete, cost approximately $80,000. There are 428,700 
cubic feet, making the cost 18^3 cents per cubic foot. 
The cubical contents were taken from the outside meas- 
urements of walls and 1 foot below floor to a point half 
way up pitch roof and includes portico, campanile, fin- 
ished basement, etc. 



New St. Paul Hotel, St. Paul, Minn. 



REED & STEM, ARCHITECTS. 



THE new million dollar St. Paul Hotel, at St. Paul, 
Minn., is the first building in this country to be 
built with exterior walls of interlocking machine-made 
terra cotta hollow blocks. All the stories between the 
second and ninth floors are built of this material. The 
blocks are of an old gold color, and are provided with 
projections which close 
the horizontal openings 
of the stretcher block, 
thereby making it im- 
possible for the mortar 
joint to fall out. Being 
of the interlocking type 
theyenormously increase 
the side pressure which 
a given wall will stand. 
This type of block de- 
mands a Flemish bond of 
one vertical and one hor- 
izontal alternating. The 
horizontal block is made 
from two to four times 

the length of the vertical. Large as well as small units 
can be made which enable the architect to carry out 
unique and original design. In combination with archi- 
tectural terra cotta, this material is capable of giving 
strikingly beautiful effects at a reasonable cost. The 
blocks being much lighter than bricks are particularly 
well adapted for use in high buildings, where the weight 




SECTION OF WALL SHOWING INTERLOCKING BLOCK 
CONSTRUCTION. 



of the walls is carried by steel or concrete piers — also 
for partition walls where great resistance against side 
pressure is wanted with a minimum weight. 

The distinctive feature in this work is in the alterna- 
ting use of a block with horizontal and vertical open- 
ings. The blocks with the vertical openings have locks 

on both sides which pro- 
ject into the horizontal 
openings of the stretcher 
block. 

The size of the block 
used in this hotel is S'/s 
by 16^ inches, with an 
interlocking block of 4 
by Hys inches for one 
course, and for the other 
course a 4 by 16-34^ inch 
stretcher, with a 4 by 4 
inch interlocking block. 
This 4 by 4 inch inter- 
locking block extends 8 
inches backwards, thus 
bonding with the backing brick or tile. This method of 
bonding is not absolutely necessary since ordinary wall 
ties will answer the purpose. 

The advantages of this material for large structures 
are obvious on account of the extreme lightness in 
weight. If a building is properly spaced no cutting is 
necessary, although the blocks cut easily. 



no 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 




WE WISH to call the attention of our readers to a 
series of three articles, the first of which appears 
in the present issue. They treat of certain fundamental 
considerations 
affecting the study 
of economical plan- 
ning and construc- 
tion of schools. 
Mr. Sturgis, who 
contributes the 
articles, served the 
city of Boston for 
some years on the 
commission which 
has charge of its 
school buildings, 
and during those 
years not only came 
in contact with 
others who were 
engaged in similar 
work in this country 
but also had oppor- 
tunity to see some- 
thing of the school 
work of other coun- 
tries. 

The subject is 
treated from a point 
of view that is 
somewhat novel as 
applied to schools, 
and yet is clearly 
fundamental, and is 

simply the application to school problems of what is a 
commonplace in the study of business problems. 

An owner planning an office building would study first 
the floor plan to assure himself that he had all the avail- 
able rentable area that was consistent with good service, 
elevators, stairs, corridors and toilets. These papers 
show the same study applied to schools to produce a 
compact plan, and for the purpose of eliminating space 
that is not necessary; on the broad ground that it is bet- 
ter to elimi- 
nate 30,000 
useless cubic 
feet costing 22 
cents a cubic 
foot than to 
save one cent 
per cubic foot 
by poorer ma- 
terial or con- 
struction in 
600,000 cubic 
feet of school 
building. 

The articles 
are largely 
suggestive 



EXTERIOR UK I All (II I I r/(,ERAl,l) i;riLI)ING, TIMES SgUARE, 

NEW YORK crrv. 

Executed entirely in white mat glaze terra cotta by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

Geo. Kei.ster, Architect. 



and do not pretend to bring such study to definite con- 
clusions, but they should lead the way to more thought- 
ful planning of schools, especially of those that are 

planned to meet the 
varied require- 
ments of secondary 
education. 

Economical 
school planning is 
often spoken of 
as if it were 
solely a matter of 
cost per cubic foot, 
without regard 
to what is contained 
within the walls. 
The present articles 
are intended to sug- 
gest the lines along 
which study might 
be made to deter- 
mine what should 
be contained within 
the walls of a mod- 
ern school. The 
first article treats 
of the requirements 
of elementary 
schools, the second 
of secondary 
schools, and the 
third treats of 
questions of hy- 
giene as bearing on 



construction, and the final tests of economy. 



T' 



I t<iK A^:- ,->/:; ;;. 4,-r>?':-;5-* 




DETAIL liY A. L. DORR, ARCHITECT. 
Made by American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Co. 



DOME OF ST. JOHN THE DIVINE, NEW YORK 

CITY. 
'HE large Guastavino tile dome which covers the 
nave of the Cathedral of vSt. John the Divine, New 
York City — an interior view of which is shown in this issue 
— is one of the four great domes of the world constructed 

of masonry. 

It is 135 feet 
in diameter, 
measured 
across the 
lower part of 
its spherical 
surface. The 
thickness of 
the dome is 
7}4 inches at 
the base and 
decreases to 
3^ inches at 
the crown. corbel to kutikkss panels, factory 

A P P r O X i - BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. 

. , Executed by the South Amboy Terra Cotta 

mately one ' ^ ' 

■' Company, 

hundred shire &■ Kaufman, Architects. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Ill 




thousand tiles were 
used, measuring 6 
inches by 1 inch with 
their length vary- 
ing from 15 to 18 
inches. The dome 
weighs approxi- 
mately 50 pounds 
per square foot, 
with a total weight 
of 500,000 pounds. 
All portions of the 
dome were at all 
times self-support- 
ing and no false 
work or centering 
was built to hold up 
the dome during its 
construction. 



of a commission to revise and codify the building laws 
of the State. The Association deplored the unsyste- 
matic and fragmentary character of the Acts of Assembly 



DETAIL FOR HEARST BUILDING. 

Executed in polychrome enamel terra cotta 

by Northwestern Terra Cotta 

Company. 

James C. Green, Architect. 



T" 



INTERLOCKING 
TERRA COTTA 
HOLLOW 
BLOCKS. 
^HIS material, 
which was 
used in the con- 
struction of the new 
St. Paul Hotel, at 
St. Paul, Minn., 
has been patented by F. Koch, President of the Twin 
City Brick Company, and a factory devoted entirely to 
its manufacture has recently been erected at St. Paul. 
The blocks are made in old gold, olive green, bronze 
brown, and mottled colors. Owing to the lightness of 
their weight, they can be delivered at a reasonable price 
in any part of the United States. The cost of laying is 
somewhat less than that of ordinary face brick. In ad- 
dition to the St. Paul Hotel, they have been used in 
several other types of buildings, including houses, both 

large and 
small. A 
special rose- 
tinted tile is 
now being 
made which is 
suitable for 
interior wains- 
coting. The 
interlock ing 
device gives 
a firm bed for 
the joint and 
streng t hens 
the partition 

wall. Spacing sheets showing dimensions of piers and 
openings enabling the architect to space his elevation 
will be furnished by the manufacturers on request. 




DETAIL BY J. N. PIERSON & SON, 
ARCHITECTS. 

Made by New Jersey Terra Cotta Company. 




PENNSYLVANIA BUILDING LAWS REVISED. 

AT THE annual meeting of the Pennsylvania State 
Association of Architects, held at Harrisburg, May 
2d, resolutions were adopted regarding the appointment 



INTERIOR OF DOME, CATHEDRAL OF ST. JOHN THE 
DIVINE, NEW YORK CITY. 

Showing dome of Guastavino construction. 
Heins & LaFarge, Architects. 

with reference to the construction of buildings and the 
safeguarding of life and property. They endorsed the 
Joint Resolution introduced into the Senate providing 
for the appointment of a commission to investigate the 



112 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




floors, tearing away parts of walls, probing ceilings, and 
scraping away plaster, to ascertain where partitions and 
stairways were erected as the building originally was 




E EE I i^fi^ 
SSS P 15:;.;,';; 
R II I » nil ill/ 





CIT^ INVESTING lillLDINc;, BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

Terra Cotta furnished by the New York Architectural Terra Cotta 

Company. 

F. H. Kimball, Architect. 

manner of construction of buildings in the Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania, and to determine the strength and char- 
acter of materials in order to safeguard the health and 
life of persons occupying the same, and to codify the 
laws in relation to 
buildings. 



BJSSC''/..'S*'... — .. 

WOODWARD BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Exterior of gray Norman " Craftsman " brick, laid in Flemish bond, 

furnished by the Pearl Clay Products Company. 

Harding and Upman, Architects. 

designed. In addition to this, historical accounts of 
how the interior was arranged have been examined. 



IN GENERAL. 



RESTORATION OF 
OLD CONGRESS 

HALL, 
PHILADELPHIA. 



O S 



X T Y THOU- 
SAND DOLLARS 
has been appropriated 
for the proper restora- 
tion of old Congress 
Hall, Philadelphia, and 
for erecting memorial 
lamps in Independence 
Square. The work will 
proceed at once with 
drawings from data 
collected by the Phila- 
delphia Chapter of the 
American Institute of 
Architects. In the 
absence of any original 
plans this data was ob- 
tained by digging up 




FIREPLACE OF "TAPESTRY BRICK. 



H. S. Bill, architect. New York Life Building, Kansas 
City, Mo., desires manufacturers' catalogues. 

Wheelwright & Haven have formed a partnership 
with Edward H. Hoyt and will continue the practice of 

architecture under the 
firm name of Wheel- 
wright, Haven & Hoyt; 
Offices, 220 Devonshire 
street, Boston. 

The new plant. 
Number 2, of the 
Western Brick Com- 
pany, at Danville, 111., 
is now in full operation, 
producing a line of mat 
faced and flashed brick. 

Fiske & Co., Inc., 
have removed their 
New York office to the 
Arena Building, 32d 
street, one door east of 
Broadway. Here they 
have installed a most 
remarkable exhibit of 
their full line of brick. 

The American Terra 
Cotta & Ceramic Co., 
of Chicago, have 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



"3 



removed their 
offices from the 
Chamber of Com- 
merce Biiilding, to 
Peoples Gas Build- 
ing, Michigan 
avenue. 

In a booklet re- 
cently isstied the 
Atlantic Terra 
Cotta Company 
show their new line 
of Garden Pottery, etc., including vases, window boxes, 
sun dials, pedestals, and bench legs. The booklet con- 
tains not only illustrations of a large variety of types, 
but the sizes, colors, and prices are also given. 




DETAIL FOR HOSPITAL. 
Executed by the Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company 




HOUSE AT DULUTH, MINN. 

Brick furnished by the Ironclay Brick Company. 

W. A. Hunt, Architect. 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 

TRADE MARK -REG. U.S. PATENT OFFICE 

BULLETIN 

RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

Two Houses at Pittsburg, Pa Plate 69 

MacClure & Spahr, Architects 

Fireplace of " Tapestry " Brick .... Page 112 

tz?iske 6r company inc 
Iace bricks/ establish 

llRE BRICKSl ED IN 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Flatiron Building, New York 



The New York 
office of the Hart- 
ford Faience Com- 
pany has been 
removed to 4 East 
42d street. 

The brick used in 
the two houses at 
Pittsburg, Pa., 
MacClure & Spahr, 
architects, illu- 
strated in this 
issue, was furnished by Fiske & Co., Inc. 

"SPECIFICATION BLANKS." by T. Robert Wieger. 
architect (formerly with F. E. Kidder). Forms for all classes 
of buildings, each trade separate. Complete set, 44 pages, 
25 cents. Reduction on quantities. Sample page upon 
request. 628- 1 4th street, Denver, Colo. 



r 



BOILERS AND RADIATORS 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Water Tube and Return Flue Boilers 

Plain and Ornamental Direct Radiators 
Direct-Indirect Radiators 
Indirect Radiators 

For Steam and Water Warming 

Send for complete illustrated catalog 

THE H. B. SMITH CO 



A 



Westfield, Mass. 
Philadelphia 



New York 
Boston 



Ideal Floor Covering 

FOR CEMENT FLOORS 



Lhiolenm secured by waterproof glue to cement floors 
can be furnished in plain colors or in inlaid effects. 

Cork Carpet in plain colors. 

Elastic, Noiseless, Durable. 

Is practical for rooms, halls, and particularly adapted 
to public buildings. 

Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing skilled workmen. 

I-'uIloiving examples of mir tcork : 

Brookline Public Library. R. Clipston .Sturgis, Esq., Architect. 
.Suffolk County Court House, Boston. George A. Clough, Esq., 

Architect. 
Registry of Deeds, .Salem, Mass. C. H. Blackall, Esq., Architect. 
We Solicit /nQuiries and Correspondence 

Quality samples specially prepared for architects and 
builders mailed on application. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 
646-658 WASHINGTON STREET - BOSTON, MASS. 

Have been continuously in this business fur 93 years 



114 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The tile used 
upon the interior 
of the Church for 
St. Joseph's Parish, 
Dayton, Ohio, illus- 
trated on Plates 
62-64 in this issue, 
was furnished by 
The Rook wood 
Pottery Company. 

The terra cotta 
used in the Church 
for St. Joseph's 
Parish, illustrated 
in this issue, was 
furnished by the 
Atlantic Terra 
Cotta Company. 

A. L. Dorr, Min- 
neapolis, has 
formed a copartner- 
ship with his son. 




HOUSE AT ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Exterior of red pressed brick, furnislied by the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company. 

Wm. A. Lucas, Architect. 



William Grey Dorr, 
for the practice of 
architecture, under 
the firm name of 
Dorr & Dorr, 
Offices 1132 
Lumber Exchange. 

Work has been 
started on the Hotel 
McAlpin, Broad- 
way, between 
Thirty-Third and 
Thirty -Fourth 
streets. New York 
City. This build- 
ing will be twenty- 
five stories high. 
F. M. Andrews, the 
architect, estimates 
that the total cost 
will be approxi- 
mately $14,000,000. 



COMPETITION FOR A SMALL HOUSE TO BE 
BUILT OF NATCO HOLLOW TILE. 

Cost of House not to Exceed $6,000. 



FIRST PRIZE, $300. SECOND PRIZE, $200. 

FOURTH PRIZE, $100. 



THIRD PRIZE, $150. 
MENTIONS. 



PROGRAM. 

THE problem is a small detdched house to accommodate a family of four with one maid. The outer walls and foundations of the house arc to be built of Natco 
Hollow Tile. 
The location may be assumed in any town, small city, or suburb of a large city. 

The cost of the house ^exclusive of the land — shall not exceed $b,ooo. The method of heating, the plumbing, other fixtures, and finish, tq be governed by 
the limit of cost. 

Many houses of this type of construction have recently been built in different sections of the country, and from the data wliicli has been gathered concerning the cost 
of a large number of these houses, an average price per cubic foot has been obtained. This cost is given as the basis upon which the size — figured in cubic feel — of each 
liouse submitted in this Competition must be approximated. The price is 20 cents per cubic foot. 

Measurements of the house proper must be taken from the outside face of exterior walls and from the level of the basement tloor to the average height of all roofs. 
Porches, verandas and other additions are to be figured separately at one-fourth (25 per cent) of their total cubage. The cost of porches, etc., is to be included in the total 
cost of the house f5'>,oo<>). 

On this basis of fii^uring — the number of cubic feet multiplied by the cost per cubic fool — the jury will not consider any designs which exceed the limit of cost. 
There are no restrictions as to the shape and style oi the house or the size and location of the lot. 

The particular object of this Competition is to encourage the study of the possibilities in the use of Natco Hollow Tile in the exterior walls of houses. Here is a 
durable material which will insure a house being warmer in winter, and cooler in summer ; easily meets in all respects the demands of the designer, and gives to the house 
that permanent value which is lacking in the more perishable materials. A house can be built of this material at very little more cost than one built of wood, or of plaster 
on wire lath and .stud. The walls are knit together as solidly as if built of stone. The cost for up-keep is nothing. Any mason of average ability can easily do the work. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

The following suggestions are offered as being practicable and admissible. 

First. Outside walls may be of Natco Hollow Tile .S inches thick (S inches by 12 inches by 12 inches). Foundation walls, below grade, should be not less than 
12 inches ihick. The blocks being heavily scored on two sides, stucco may be used for an outside finish and plaster applied direct to the block for interior finish. 

Second. The walls may be built double using In the outside wall a 4-inch hollow tile, and on the inside a r^vinch tile. The treatment of the face of such a wall, and 
the manner of bonding the outer and inner walls are left to the designer. 

The floors and roof need not be of fireprool construction. 

DRAWING REQUIRED (there is to be but one). 

On one sheet a pen and ink perspective, without wash or color, dr.iwn at a scale of 4 feet to the inch. Plans of the first and second floors at a scale of 8 feet to the 
inch. A section showing construction of exterior wall, with cornice. A sketch showing detail of front entrance. In connection with the plan of the first floor show as 
much of the arrangement of the lot in the immediate vicinity of the house as space will permit. The plans are to be blocked in solid. A graphic scale must accompany 
the plans. The character of the exterior finish must be clearly indicated on the perspective and detail. 

The size of the sheet is to be exactly 34 inches by 22 inches. Strong border lines are to be drawn on the sheet i inch from edges, giving a space inside the border 
lines 32 inches by 20 inches. The sheet is to be of white paper and is not to be mounted. 

The drawing is to be signed by a rtom de piume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the nom de plume on the exterior and contain- 
ing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawing is to be delivered flat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing), at the office of Thb Bbickhuilder, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., 
on or before June 26, lyi i. 

Drawings submitted in this Competition are at owner's risk from time they are sent until returned, although reasonable care will be exercised in their handling and 
keeping. 

The designs will be judged by three or five members of the architectural profession representing different sections of the country. 

First consideration will be given to the fitness of the design, in an .LSihetic sense, to the materials employed : Second —the adaptability of the design, as shown by 
the details, to the practical constructive requirements of the material. 

Drawings which do not meet the requirements of the pr*)gram will not be considered. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of The Brick buii.drk, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. The full name and 
address of the designer will be given in connection with each design published. Those who wish their drawings returned, except the prize drawings, may have them by 
enclosing in the sealed envelopes, containing their names, ten cents in stamps. 



For the design placed first there will be ffiven a prize of $300. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200. 

This Competition is open to everyone. 

The prize and mention drawings will be published in The Brick iuii.uer. 



For the design placed third a prize of $150. 
For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XX 



JUNE 1911 



Number 6 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second-Class Hail Hatter, Harcb 12, 1892. 



Copyrieht, 1911, by ROGERS i, MANSON 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ........ $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ..................... 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............... $5. so per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Onion ................. $6.oo per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

,, Terra Cotta 

Brick .... 



r.\GE 

II 

II 

II and III 

III 



Brick Enameled 
Brick Waterproofing 
Fireproofing 
Roofing Tile 



PACK 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

BEARDEN & FOREMAN AND McKIM, MEAD & WHITE; HOPPIN & KOEN; KURD & GORE; 

GEORGE HUNT INGRAHAM; EDGAR A. JOSSELYN; LITTLE & BROWNE; 

GEORGE F. NEWTON; REVELS & HALLENBECK. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

CHURCH — LAS RECOJIDAS, SAN LUIS POTOSI, MEXICO Frontispiece 

COMPTON WYNYATES Ar//n<r G. liyne 115 

SOME PROBLEMS IN SCHOOL PLANNING — SECONDARY SCHOOLS R. Clipston Sturgis 121 

THE HEATING AND VENTILATION OF THEATERS Charles L. Hubbard 127 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION 131 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 132 



»j.<»?.Httr.( 








CHURCH — LAS RECOJIDAS, 
SAN LUIS POTOSI, MEXICO. 



Polychrome decoration of dome is composed of 
green and yellow tiles ; the ribs are of stone. 



Compton Wynyates. 



BY ARTHUR G. BVNE. 



THE fact that Compton Wynyates lies eight miles 
from the nearest stations of Kineton or Banbury 
should not deter any architect from visiting it. It is 
England's finest brick manor house, and its being 
sequestered in the rural depths of Warwickshire adds 
much to its charm, if not to its accessibility. In the 
unbroken tranquillity that pervades the spot one can 
forget railroads, and lapse back into the atmosphere of 
the early sixteenth century days when Compton was built. 
Over the knolls that hide the house from view until 
you are almost atop of it, you can fancy the procession 
of donkeys coming that, according to tradition, brought 
in panniers much of the building material from the dis- 
mantled Fulbroke Castle fourteen miles away. Not far 
from the rising walls, you can picture the primitive kilns 
— for most of the present level was secured by convert- 
ing the nearby eminences into bricks. Then there were 
diggers digging the moat (filled up last century when 
the family thought Compton too damp in winter) ; 
and wood-carvers preparing the elaborate barge-boards 
(though their work has now worn almost flat); and stone- 
cutters fashioning the local yellow stone into the required 



was still cautious enough not to tempt Providence too 
far; and for that reason retained the moat, and the em- 
battled towers of earlier days, and besides, more secret 
hiding places and staircases for refuge and escape than 
any other house in England (seventeen complete flights 
of stairs and odd three and four steps everywhere). 
Driving down the slope from Kineton, the best means of 
approach, the house looks very domestic, owing to the 
immense roof expanse, most probably; but seen from 
the level, where its battlemented towers rise to a great 
height, it looks grim and formidable. 

Both inside and out everything is, as Mr. Gotch says, 
"as irregular and picturesque as the most romantic 
could desire." There are towers here and there, projec- 
tions and indentations, gables of different heights, few 
windows that are placed over others, and then the whole 
mass fitly surmounted by the most remarkable chimneys 
in the Kingdom ; from the highest point, as'I approached 
it, forty could be counted, and many more, no doubt, were 
hidden from view — forty chimneys of different designs, 
all of carved and moulded brick, fluted, zigzagged, cir- 
cular, octagonal, corkscrew and combined corkscrew and 




SOUTH W I 



mouldings and facings. It was all a busy, bustling scene 
then, and as for any inroads of modernity disfiguring 
their quaint work, Compton might have left the builders' 
hands but a decade ago. 

Besides its great beauty, for time could lend a certain 
beauty to even a commonplace structure, Compton 
possesses an unusual amount of architectural interest. 
Built after fortified keeps were no longer a necessity, it 



fluted ; most of them supposed to have already stood 
for a hundred years on John of Bedford's castle in Ful- 
broke Park, before being brought to Compton. If this 
story is true, it may easily be assumed that they de- 
termined the material for the newer structure — the 
same small red brick with wide mortar between ; un- 
less, as some local historians maintain, Sir William, 
Henry VIII's favorite, merely added to an earlier struc- 



ii6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ture. Whether this earlier rectangular structure was 
built in Henry VII's or Henry VIII's day, it was the 
nucleus of the whole — a plain square building around 
a similar courtyard (marked black in the plan). It was 
typical of houses of the period, and persisted somehow 
to assert itself through all the additions of successive 
owners. There was perhaps a second court with a 
drawbridge in front of the present house — a belief 
strong in the Compton family long ago, though there is 
now no trace of it. This original determining square- 
ness, along with the fact that one material, brick, pre- 
dominates throughout, from the plain underpinning to 
the top of the elaborate chimney stacks, make of 
Compton a most alluring and harmonious ensemble. 

Looking at the exterior in detail, the main entrance 
porch is to my mind the most striking motif, with its 
broad central archway with the arms of Henry VIII 
over it (for as we have said. Sir William, who if not 
actually the first builder of Compton, certainly consider- 
ably aggrandized it, was throughout his life a great 
favorite of that fitful monarch). The stone used here 
is subservient to the brick, and placed as it is with 
Gothic indifference to arrange- 
ment or structurability, it seems 
a part of the brickwork. Not 
only is this porch accentuated by 
its stone trimmings, but also by 
being made to project some dis- 
tance from the main fagade. The 
next important features of the 
front are the two gables unequal 
in plan and superstructure, and 
showing in their upper portions 
the most amusing specimens of 
brick nogging — every shape of 
brick laid up helterskelter. The 
primitive appearance of this 
nogging is enhanced by that of 
the much twisted and warped 
half-timber enclosing it, and by 
the now blackened bargeboard. 
Between the inner side of this 
board and the face of the gable, 

a distance of some 12 inches, can be seen the imder 
sides of the old slates and tiles held merely by being 
pegged to the roof battens. 

In spite of these interesting features of the facade, the 
front can hardly be deemed Compton's best viewpoint, 
such a rambling, unsymmetrical composition being better 
appreciated from an angle — the southwest, in this case, 
as that takes in the beautiful chapel window and Eliza- 
bethan sundial above. There are several marked incon- 
gruities in the front, such as the unstructurability of the 
great brick parapet " lapping " over onto the gable; also 
where it was found that the tall towers cut off the draft 
from the lower chimneys, the method of heightening 
these would hardly be approved of nowadays. But one 
would have to be an architectural crank to find fault with 
such small defects. At any point the house is unsually 
beautiful. The exquisite coloring of the brick, the 
lichen-covered roof, the broad lawns over the filled-in 
moat and the curious old-fashioned flagged paths in 




GROUND FLOOR PLAN. 
Solid walls indicate original work 
Dotted walls show later additions 



surrounding an old garden, the yew hedges, the roses, 
all make a picture that forbids fault-finding. 

Asa study in that artistic kind of brickwork that orig- 
inated in the Low Countries and came across the Chan- 
nel to Southern England, Compton Wynyates has no 
rival. The bricks are in texture very like our over-burnt 
bricks of to-day, warped and twisted. In color they 
resemble those of Sutton Place (previously described in 
The Rrickhuilder) — salmon fading to buff, or deepen- 
ing into sparkling bronzes with bluish patterning, 9X by 
2^ inches throughout, and the wide joints are of coarse 
cream-colored mortar. The diamond patterning is not 
all over, having been omitted in many parts — purposely 
I should say, since such parts show no traces of being 
later work. Curiously enough, the originally bluish dia- 
mond shows up a light yellow in most spots, as if the 
headers forming it were really lighter in color than the 
body brick. On close examination one discovers why: 
The bricks for the pattern had their ends dipped into 
some blue coloring matter before being burned, and this 
coloring substance has since caused the end to disinte- 
grate to the extent of a quarter of an inch, thus disclos- 
ing the light body. Of course, 
this has happened only in the 
most exposed surfaces, and 
though it would be considered a 
serious defect in present-day 
brickmaking, in the case in ques- 
tion it only adds one more charm 
to the walls. Wherever, as in 
the more sheltered places, the 
coloring matter has not played 
false, it is of a soft bluish tone 
that faintly suggests, rather than 
sharply outlines, the diamond. 
The rich mellow color of the 
house is the richer for the patches 
of deep green ivy that discreetly 
hide and reveal the right pro- 
portion of wall space. 

Beautiful though the entire 
surface is, it is the marvelous 
chimneys that are the brick- 
layers' triumph at Compton. Not only are they tours de 
force in the use of brick, but they play a most helpful 
part in the composition and the silhouette. They exhibit, 
as mentioned, an astonishing variety of shapes, a few are 
rectangular or circular, a few indescribably fantastic, and 
the majority octagonal, with their eight sides sometimes 
concaved or ribbed. In no instance has terra cotta been 
used in shaping the stacks, though in many places a terra 
cotta trefoil or rosette has been inlaid. This means that 
for all this elaborate shaping the bricks have been cut or 
moulded. In the case of the spiral stacks it is not un- 
likely that they were first built up as perfect cylinders, 
and afterwards chLseled out screw-fashion. Their mak- 
ing must remain, however, a matter of conjecture, for 
unfortunately, neither at Compton nor at Barsham Hall, 
where also the chimneys are famous, have any of the old 
building documents been discovered. The closest exam- 
ination will not reveal the secret, for the bricks are too 
weathered to exhibit any marks of the tool. The coupled 



front, the unfilled portion of the moat at the back nearly and tripled stacks are built up with 4 or 6 inches between 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



117 





WEST VIEW. 




SOUTHEAST VIEW. 
COMPTON WYNYATES, EN(;i,ANl). 



ii8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



the shafts, which makes, it is true, a more amusing sil- 
houette, but, as discovered long ago, it is very detrimen- 
tal to the chimneys' raison d' etrc — a perfect draft ; for 
the cold air thus enabled to completely encircle the stack, 
chills the flue and causes a downward or back draft. 
Such discomforts were so frequent in the Elizabethan 
days as to pass unnoticed, but in the following century, 
when the inmates were more particular, the pulling down 
of these separated flues was seriously considered, but, 
happily, abandoned. 

Passing under the arms of Henry VIII, and the Dom. 
Rex. Henricus Octav, one lingers in the archway, with 
its worn stone benches, to find out what all the doors 
and niches there were ever meant for. There are oak 
doors on each side that 
lead to the moat ; on the 
left another door to the 
porter's lodge and the 
niche through which he 
carried on communica- 
tion with the house; then 
a spy-hole, now blocked 
up, and a circular stair- 
case to the turret. This 
staircase is worth climb- 
ing to examine the splen- 
did split-oak panels of 
the turret guard-room, 
and the fine ceiling which 
Spencer the second earl 
had built, and which for- 
tunately was not dam- 
aged by the Puritan's 
fire, when they held the 
manor. The finely de- 
signed iron lamp holder 
that came from Fulbroke 
also deserves some atten- 
tion before passing on to 
the interior court. 

Of this quadrangle 
every feature is un- 
changed, except for the 
comparatively new flag 
stones. It is here that 
the old blue diamond 
patterning in the brick- 
work has been best pre- 
served. A closer view also of the chimneys and of the 
stone slab roof is obtained from here, and the chaiming 
little dormers that have weathered so many winters 
reveal all the frank unfinish of their roughly hewn oak 
frames, their stone roofs and their plaster tympan\gms. 
Owing to the protected situation of the windows giving 
on the court, the chief, of course, being the grand bay 
of the Hall, most of them still hold their original Tudor 
glass. Another attraction before leaving this spot is the 
lead conductors. They are plain save for a little decora- 
tion on the head ; the conductor, in 4 foot lengths, one 
wedged into the other, is fastened to the wall by a lead 
band, one end of which after being riveted to the brick- 
work, is passed over the pipe and riveted again, and finally 
folded back on itself, thus covering the rivet heads. 



On the opposite side of the court to the archway, but 
not on axis with it, is the entrance to the Hall through 
the screens. The door to this entrance is a fine old 
linen fold example, bearing marks of long service, but 
the low dark passage it leads into, having been roofed 
over for warmth, and being actually choked up with hat 
and umbrella stands, seems a most unfitting approach to 
the lofty spacious hall beyond. On the left of the pas- 
sage or " screens " are the buttery, the kitchen passage, 
and a staircase; on the right the Hall (from the upper 
end of which access is obtained to the family rooms), the 
chapel and the beautiful, spacious, Elizabethan staircase. 
The doors opening into kitchen and buttery are new, but 
all those with the linen-fold pattern are old; the one 

leading to the Hall, and 
having in addition to the 
linen panels, one illus- 
trating the deeds of an 
early Compton where 
knights are slaying and 
being slain in most ex- 
traordinary attitudes, is 
a most interesting piece 
of Gothic carving. 

The Hall is a plain 
room, but structurally 
very interesting. The 
walls are simply plastered 
and extend, like in all old 
halls, to the full height of 
the house. At the top is 
a richly carved cornice 
from which spring the 
finely moulded beams of 
an open timber roof. 
Roof and cornice are said 
to have been brought from 
Fulbroke and certainly 
show signs of having been 
reduced to fit the smaller 
Compton Hall. Severe 
though the plaster walls 
are, and unpretentious 
the fireplace, the magnifi- 
cent bay and the carved 
oak screen with the mel- 
GATEWAY. low half-timbered walls 

of the minstrel gallery 
rising above and back of it, form enough enrichment to 
make any English hall suflficiently impressive. It makes 
one shudder to think that this entire end of the apart- 
ment had been plastered up and painted white from 
Georgian days until a few years ago. Whether the so- 
called minstrel gallery ever held many musicians or not 
may be questioned, but certainly it off'ered an excellent 
opportunity for the repressed ladies of bygone days to 
witness the revelry going on below. 

Another instance of special consideration shown them 
by the Gothic architects is in the drawing-room. This is 
over the present dining-room (which adjoins the Hall and 
holds, en passant, a very fine Chippendale mantelpiece 
put in by the fourth earl, and a good plaster ceiling). 
The drawing-room in question is enriched by handsome 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



tt9 




OUMOn/IHCLB. B 



QUADRANGLE. 




BANQUETING HALL. 
COMPTON WYNYATES, ENGLAND. 



I20 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



oak paneling (including an over-mantel brought by the 
Spencer heiress who married Sir William's son from her 
father's place, Canonbury Tower) and as the lower 
panels open like doors, the ladies of the family could sit 
comfortably by the fire, and hear the service going on in 
the unheated chapel below. This beautiful paneling was 
also recently cleared of its Georgian white paint. 

There are scores of rooms at Compton — far more 
than present-day needs would require. Most of them 
have never been refurnished since the days when the 
eighth earl was obliged to sell their contents. But that 
comparatively small portion of the house which has been 
rehabilitated shows a skilful and sympathetic under- 
standing of the atmosphere of an Elizabethan mansion. 

The personal side of Compton Wynyates' story is very 
interesting without being as shockingly tragic as the 
stories of many English manor houses. It has the rare 
distinction of having remained in the same family, by 
direct succession, from its erection until the present 
moment. Sir William is the first builder of whom we 
have authentic record. He had been a ward of the 
Crown, and at his death in 1528 held manors in twenty- 
one different counties. Castle Ashby, in Northampton- 
shire, was the richest of these. As we have seen, he 
received early in Henry's reign, permission to pull down 
a royal castle at Fulbroke, and to use the materials for 
his own house (whether new or enlarged we are not told) 
at Compton Wynyates; but we know that the building 
must have been of considerable dignity by 1519, for in 
that year he was allowed to enclose his "lordly house " 
in 2,000 acres of good English farm land. 

The Compton wealth was greatly added to when in the 
next reign the heir of the family eloped with the greatest 
heiress of her day — the only child of the merchant 
prince, Sir John Spencer. He long refused to forgive 
young Compton, who had in the guise of a baker deliv- 
ered the rolls one morning at Spencer's house and went 
off with the dainty little lady in his baker's basket. But 
when Queen Elizabeth next year invited Sir John to 
stand sponsor along with herself to the Compton baby, 
he could not refuse. Like a proper grandfather he grew 
inordinately fond of his grandson, who had been wisely 
named Spencer, and left him his entire fortune of 
^300,000, a colossal sum in those days. Sir John's beau- 
tiful country house at Islington was also part of the 
inheritance, and from its gatehouse, Canonbury Tower, 
came some of the fine carving arid paneling that later 
adorned Compton Wynyates. 

Not parental adulation, nor royal favor, nor enormous 
wealth seemed to have spoiled this exemplary young 
Spencer Compton, for his contemporaries agree in pro- 
nouncing him "a most brilliant scholar, and a most accom- 
plished gentleman." What is still more convincing, his 
enemy, Oliver Cromwell, used even nicer adjectives, and 
a man had to be a man indeed before Oliver admitted it. 

Spencer's father had been created Earl of Northampton 
by James I, whom he entertained at Compton, and so 
when a " people's party " was formed, Spencer was nat- 
urally a royalist, and his house became a battleground 
of opposing factions. In 1644 the Cromwellians, with 
400 foot and 300 horse, took the old brick manor and kept 
it until 1646. In the meanwhile they removed eighteen 
loads of furniture, all the horses, sheep and cattle, and 



p{^5,000 in money. Spencer was at this time off with his 
regiment (in which were his three sons) aiding King 
Charles; but the fourth son, who had wept because he 
was too young to accompany the others, helped his mother 
to hide, up under the roof, a number of wounded royal- 
ists who had taken refuge at Compton ; under the very 
nose of the Puritans these refugees were secretly nursed 
and cared for by Lady Northampton, until they could 
escape by one of the many underground exits known 
only to the family. Over the fireplace in the guard- 
room of the entrance porch, they will still show you the 
wood all blackened by a fire started by careless Puritan 
soldiers. 

This guard-room they never thoroughly investigated 
during two years' occupancy, for they never discovered 
the door in the chimneys, nor the one in the paneling 
that leads to a tiny room with a trap door over a well 
hole, nor the one to the "Priest's hiding-hole" under 
the roof. 

Spencer Compton was killed at the battle of Hopton 
Heath. Oliver allowed James, Lord Northampton, to 
retain his father's estates on payment of heavy fine; but 
James seems to have still had wealth enough to make 
many alterations as well as to repair the ravages of war. 
He changed the original pointed arched windows into 
square tops with plain mouldings, and a transom of 
darker stone. George, the fourth earl, replaced some 
of these windows by the sashes of his day, but these were 
recently reconverted into casements. George was suc- 
ceeded in 1727 by another James, who added a number 
of good rain-water heads; but, to his discredit, he also 
prepared the walls for papering, and hid all the fine 
Gothic chimney-pieces under slabs of classic marble. 
What woodwork he did not hide, was painted white. 

But it was Spencer the eighth earl who nearly ruined 
Compton Wynyates, and for a reason so idiotic as to be 
incomprehensible — at least to an enthusiastic architect. 
This was in 1768. He and Lord Halifax, having sworn 
that their candidate for the county should be elected at 
any cost, spent every penny in election eating and drink- 
ing for their constituents. Lord Halifax was ruined. 
Lord Northampton, after paying out ^130,000, was still 
in debt, and had to cut down acres of timber, sell most 
of the furniture at Castle Ashby and all at Compton, and 
to spend the rest of his life in a cheap inn in Switzerland. 
As he could not keep Compton in repair, he left orders 
that it should be torn down. But luckily, his faithful 
steward disobeyed. Instead he economized by renting 
out one wing as a farmhouse, and by bricking up, in 
order to lessen the window tax, all but thirty of the two 
hundred and seventy-five glazed windows. 

It was just a century before the family recovered from 
this blow and were able to again inhabit Compton Wyn- 
yates. It was then that Charles, the third marquis, em- 
ployed Sir Digby Wyatt to rebuild the great staircase, 
to restore the Tudor windows, and to remove the white 
Georgian paint from the oak carving, and to secure 
proper furniture. The present Lord and Lady North- 
ampton, who use it as their summer residence, continue 
the work of rehabilitation; though they do not aim to 
completely refurnish the interior, they will leave the 
exterior of Compton Wynyates what it was in the early 
Tudor days, the finest piece of brickwork in England. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



121 



r.-l • 



Some Problems in School Planning. 

SECOND PAPER — SECONDARY SCHOOLS. 



BY R. CLIPSTON STURGIS. 



IN THE first article the problem of school planning in 
large civic centers was briefly outlined and special 
consideration given to the problems connected with ele- 
mentary education. In this article it is proposed to 
consider in the same way the secondary schools. 

The problem of the secondary school, as has been said, 
is far more complicated than that of the elementary. It 
has the same broad divisions, be- 
ing partly preparatory and partly 
a finishing school. Under the 
former will be all children who are 
going to college, technical, com- 
mercial or professional schools. 
Under the latter all children who 
wish to fit themselves to take up 
work on graduation. The very 
first question is whether or not 
there should be divided and sepa- 
rate schools established, or whether 
all branches of work should be 
under one roof. There are advan- 
tages and disadvantages in 
either course. The boy 
preparing for college should 
have the opportunity for 
some work in the shops; 
the boy who is going to 
work needs the best train- 
ing in the humanities and 
sciences, for this is his last 
chance. Yet the rooms and equip- 
ment required for such varied ac- 
tivities are out of proportion for 
any school except one of a size 
that exists only in great cities; and 
when one has a building for three 
or four thousand students it is a 
question as to whether it is not too 
large a unit for good results educa- 
tionally. 

Where schools have been sepa- 
rated and differentiated one notices 
a tendency toward unification of 
equipment. The technical school 
finds its academic training defi- 
cient, and the classical school 
demands more scientific and tech- 
nical work. One is inclined to the view that in most 
communities the school that is equipped for all branches 
of study will serve best and prove most economical. It 
will not however be economical as long as elaborate 
equipment, suitable for advanced work, is demanded in 
these preparatory, secondary schools. They are not 
colleges, they are not professional schools nor are they 
even trade schools, but are merely preparatory. It 
would be profitable work to test results and assure our- 
selves that the outlay for any given course, say chemistry. 




" I. a O B PLAN 




was justified by the proficiency of the pupils. In the 
secondary schools the following are demanded and, to a 
greater or less degree provided in all modern buildings : 
(1) domestic science for the girls — cooking, housekeep- 
ing, sewing, dressmaking, millinery, pattern drawing, 
and design: (2) handicraft or industrial work for boys 
— covering various trades in wood and metal, machinery 

and engines: (3) commer- 
cial — covering not only the 
elementary subjects, book- 
keeping, typewriting and 
stenography, but commer- 
cial science and modern 
languages: (4) drawing — 
including mechanical, both 
engineering and architec- 
tural, free-hand, life : (5) 
science — laboratories and 
lecture rooms for chemis- 
try, physics, botany and 
zoology : (6) a hall for ex- 
ercises, singing, etc. : a 
gymnasium with baths: (7) 
a lunch room, and, added 
to these, accommodations 
for the corps of masters 
and teachers necessary for 
all these departments. 

To cover all these 
branches, where in the ele- 
mentary school the hall, 
kitchen and shop may rep- 
resent twenty per cent or 
twenty-five per cent of the 
total cubage, in the second- 
ary school one finds that the 
rooms accessory to the class 
rooms represent sixty per 
cent or eighty per cent of 
the total. It is little 
wonder if the housing of a 
secondary pupil should cost 
^500, where the elementary 
pupil is housed for $150. 
One cannot but believe that 
this enormous increase in 
expense is unnecessary and 
unjustifiable. The various divisions outlined above will 
now be taken up and considered in detail. 

Domestic science is generally represented by a suite 
of rooms like an apartment, and these are sometimes 
supplemented by rooms for more definite vocational 
(trade) work, dressmaking and millinery. This means 
a very large space which even if used by all the girls in 
the school, as it should be, is so expensive to build and 
equip as to deserve careful study. If the cooking forms 
part of the lunch room equipment and marketing is 



FIRST FLOOR P LAN 




THE CENTRAL SCHOOL, TROY, N. Y. 

R. Clipston .Sturgis, Architect. 
This is a mixed upper elementary and secondary school laid 
out with the idea of giving the children still in the ele- 
mentary grades an opportunity to start with definite 
trade education, to be carried further with the 
secondary pupils, and further still through 
evening work with those who are at work 
in the day time. 



122 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



done for this, and if the class room teaches house-cleaning, 
it would seem as if all rooms except those for trade work 
could be dispensed with. These latter are popular, and 
deservedly, because they not only teach the girls to dress 
themselves but give most valuable lessons in economy. 
Although the cost per pupil in a secondary school has 




BA^tnENT Plan 



occupations of men. The subject has been approached 
in so many different ways in different communities that 
one cannot make any statement of what is provided. In 
one case it is a division of the school, in another it is a 
whole building. In one, drafting, wood, and sheet metal 
work will be the limit; in another foundry and forging 




WESTPORT HICH SCHOOL, KANSAS CITV, MO. 

This is a standard type of plan for a large city hijjii school. 



Charles A. Smith, Architect. 



been stated to be $500, the actual class room may still 
be reckoned, as in the elementary, at about $7,500, and 
two or at the most three should provide the kitchen for 
the lunch room, and the dressmaking and millinery 
rooms, an expenditure of $15,000 to $22,500. 

The industrial work for boys is by no means so simple as 
that for the girls. With the girls, all centers about home- 
making; with the boys, all is spread over the innumerable 



machines and engines are provided. The question must 
inevitably come up as to whether the secondary school 
shall attempt to teach a trade or not. The answer has 
generally been given in the negative largely because the 
boy has not yet time to spare from academic studies to 
give the necessary undivided attention that learning a 
trade demands. For the boy who is going on to a techni- 
cal school where he will have ample opportunity in the 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



123 



shop it would seem better to devote the years in the 
secondary school to strictly academic work; but for 
the boy who is going to work it may be an advantage to 
have got the elements of his trade, if he knows what it 
is to be; or at the least some training of eye and hand 
supplementing what was 
done in the elementary 
school. The boys from the 
manual training room who 
have had a year or so of 
practical repair work in the 
school will be a useful corps 
of mechanics in the secon- 
dary school. A fairly well 
equipped repair shop would 
seem to offer a pretty wide 
range of trade training 
without occupying very ex- 
pensive space. Abasement 
shop, or even an outside 
independent Iniilding, 
would hardly represent 
more than one or, at most, 
two class rooms, or $15,000. 
The more proficient boys 
in the repair shop might 
well be utilized to supple- 
ment or replace the teach- 
ers in the elementary 
school. There are no better 
teachers than a capable en- 
thusiastic scholar. As 
housekeeping is of direct 
practical value to every 
girl, whether she become a 
teacher or a mother, so is 
the shop work of value to 
every boy. This point is 
emphasized because one 
should spend freely for the 
divisions which are of gen- 
eral service, and economize 
on those which are for a 
special class. 

The commercial course 
comes partly under the 
latter heading. There is 
no reason why all should 
take it ; on the other hand 
it includes both boys and 
girls and is therefore im- 
portant. The accommoda- 
tions provided are generally 
one or more rooms with 
desks, a banking room, and 
a room for typewriting. 

The rooms with desks represent definite accommodation 
for pupils. If the sample bank room is omitted, and 
banking and bookkeeping and stenography taught in the 
class and recitation rooms, the only room which adds 
expense would be that for typewriting, a unit of $7,500. 

Nearly all secondary schools make a considerable fea- 
ture of drawing, and emphasis is placed on free-hand, or 




a 



'V^ >», «f Ai«94i/ I 



ttrn, ir.%^ K„,lt" IPO C 
flre^l Cfiui *»• B«t1- II SOD f 



T«ta( trot'ArmaJHM ' 




TYPE:> or HIGH SCHOOL PLAN 

ADAPTED TO A CITY LOT 400" SQUARE 

_ aCALl. AC ritT TO TH'- ""-" ■- l£2_ 



Two types of high school plan on a large suburban lot arranged with a 

view to give outside playing fields. First, an open court plan and 

a two story building ; second, a compact plan and three story 

building resulting in more available space for athletics. 



mechanical more or less according to the tendency of the 
teacher. One is inclined to think that the best training is 
that which leads directly to expression in some other 
division of work. Designing, for the girls to execute in 
dresses, hats, embroidery, for the boys to execute in 

wood or metal in the shop, 
and the careful lettering of 
all such designs would 
prove valuable training. 

Architectural and engi- 
neering drafting, and draw- 
ing from life belong to 
advanced professional work 
and seem out of place in a 
preparatory scho!ol. If 
drawing were thus limited 
the drafting rooms would 
fall naturally into place 
with the sewing room and 
the shop, and would rep- 
resent perhaps two rooms, 
or $15,000. 

The science laboratories 
come very distinctly in the 
class of studies that are for 
the few rather than for the 
many. The laboratories 
are singled out because it 
is here that individual work 
is done, and done by a 
small number of pupils. 
The lecture room with its 
demonstration table and 
stereopticon is thegenerally 
useful room, and here the 
instruction is given which 
has direct bearing on the 
kitchen and shop. One 
finds usually in the science 
department of a modern 
secondary school two or 
three rooms devoted to 
chemistry, a working lab- 
oratory for twenty or 
twenty-four, preparation, 
storeroom and office; a 
working laboratory for phy- 
sics, one for botany and one 
for zoology, and one and 
sometimes two lecture 
rooms to supplement these. 
It would be well to have 
figures showing just how 
much the laboratory tables 
are used and how much is 
gained there which the 
pupil could not gain in the lecture room, for it is in the 
science laboratories that one of the great features of cost 
lies. The rooms listed above represent the area of at 
least six rooms, or $45,000. These rooms add nothing 
to the accommodation of scholars and are not generally 
useful. It would seem as if more might be done in the 
lecture room and that the laboratories might be cut 



•v ^' ftorftii /Wair • 



124 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



down to a smaller accommodation in chemistry and phy- is necessary if even five hundred are to be fed in a very 

sics, and botany and zoology combined, making the space short space of time. An area of three or four class rooms 

of three instead of six class rooms. would be the least possible and this is a considerable 

As has been suggested for the elementary schools expenditure. It would seem feasible however to divide 




TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL, NEWTON, MASS. 
A very carefully studied technical school with complete equipment. For plans see Plate 71. 

there seems no reason for taking two large expensive the school and so provide for but a portion at a time, 
areas where one will serve both purposes. If more use With system and discipline and a corps of trained girls 
were made of outside recreation grounds, which is the to serve, a space of two class rooms would probably 



best place for 
exercise, the 
use of the hall 
for a gymna- 
sium would be 
almost rele- 
gated to wet 
days. Baths 
are of little use 
except in con- 
nection with 
well defined 
periods of exer- 
cise where a 
complete 
change of 
clothing is pos- 
sible. The ex- 
ercises should 
be of that de- 
s c r i p t i o n 
wherever it is 
possible and 
under these cir- 
cumstances 
baths are most 
necessary. 

Even with baths the hall should not represent more than 
six class jooms, or $45,000. 

The only item left to consider is the lunch room. 
Generally the school lunches all at once and a great space 




LECTURE HALL, FRANKLIN UNION, BOSTON, MASS 



answer. 

The system 
in high schools 
requires a cer- 
tain number of 
recitation 
rooms and these 
as a rule are not 
considered as 
adding to the 
seating accom- 
modation of the 
school. As a 
matter of fact 
they frequently 
do so serve 
when a school is 
pressed for 
room, and with- 
out any great 
inconvenience. 
If the above al- 
lotments of 
space are ap- 
plied to a school 
of twenty class 
rooms, seating 
forty each, and if we add ten recitation rooms each half 
the size of a class room we should get the following: 
Twenty-five rooms for class and recitations; two for 
domestic science; two for shops; one for commercial; 



i 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 6. PLATE 7L 






-,-^ 






I 



■3 u 



iStHtzrk^irSll: 



j^,.. 




ij Ljuu n. — — M ui i_ur 



I 3 BmrnjLai| 



I 



if U 



_W K . 3C. _ W ^H 



HHiMiururcl 



if 

. " I 






r5" 




-Ul ' . 












fill U 1.1 J 

■a 



PUKCf .xcao-ruxQ 



PLAN'Cr-THlOOn .'C 




TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL, NEWTON, MASS. 
George F. Newton, Architect. 




PLAN-Cr-C0CXH)-n.O00 



THE B RIC K BU I LDP:r. 

VOL. 20. NO. 6. PLATE 12. 




in 
< 

< . 

- u 

^^ - 

2 X 

CQ < 

—1 z 

< 5 
/-. q: 

o ^ 

< ^ 

z t 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 6. PLATE 73. 




r/KpT rLOOIc FLAN c>'Tt±Lm(Mc ^Z\d-^vi/jco dcm^/^o^i 



MERCHANTS NATIONAL BANK, SALEM, MASS. 
Little & Browne, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 6. PLATE 74. 




GYMNASIUM AT SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY, SYRACUSE, N. Y. 
Revels & hallenbeck, Architects. 



THE BRICKB UILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 6. PLATE 75. 




W 
CO 

D 
O 
< 

- ui 

L " 
t— ' 111 

— (- 

> ^- 

UJ 

UJ d 
w < 

< « 

> > 

< 

< 
2 

O 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 6. PLATE 76. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 6. PLATE 77. 




h 

3 

a: 
o 
>- 

UJ 

z 

u 

I 

u 

_) 
< 
z 

o 

< 

o 

UJ 

a: 
o 
z 

o 
o 

H 

5 

X 
'O 



THE B RICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 6. PLATE 78, 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 6. PLATE 79. 




JtawD rtooz. fian 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AT CHATTANOOGA, TENN. 

Bearden &. Foreman and McKim, Mead & White, 

Associated Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 6. PLATE HO. 




IFfeiiJTS 



rJ!i:^- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 

AT 

CHATTANOOGA, TENN. 

Bearden & Foreman 

AND 

McKiM, Mead & White, 
Associated Architects. 




SECTION THROUGH AUDITORIUM 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



VOL. 20. NO. 6. 



PLATE 81. 





<^^=\ 



w r:co^D i-Loo?_ Fua^ 



tXC/\ V >\T tj> 





TniBD t-Looc_FL/ 




_J)/\-/^ t:/*\C/»{T Fl./v/< 



f'IKVT f-LOc?!! PlA/< 



HOUSE AT DETROIT, MJCH. 
George Hunt Ingraham, Architect 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 6. PLATE 82. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 6. PLATE 83. 




•Second •Floor- Plan • 



■TlIIHK ■ h'l.iiUU- l'l.APf • 




•BASr.AML/IT ■ F*l-AN • 



•FlRST'Fl.OOB'Pl.AN' • 



TOWN HALL, WESTWOOD, MASS. 
HuRD & Gore, Architects. 



*> 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 6. PLATE 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



125 





HICH SCHOOL, CHARLESTOWN, MASS. 



m^rnooppiA/v 



Stickney & Austin, Architects. 



A standard modern high school of a small size having the complete equipment demanded by modern methods, which makes a high cost 

per pupil necessary. 





SECOND FLOOR I'LAN. 



THIRD AND FOURTH FLOOR PLANS. 








FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



THE 
A definite 



BASEMENT PLAN. 

FRANKLIN UNION, BOSTON, MASS. Sturgis & Barton, Architects, 

trade school, intended primarily for evening instruction of mechanics already engaged in their trades. School established by 
the Franklin foundation, the gift of Benjamin Franklin and endowed by Andrew Carnegie. 



126 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




SECOND FLOOO PLAN 



two for drawing; three for science; six for the hall; two 

for lunch room; twenty-five for classes and eighteen for 

other work — forty-three in all — which at $7,500 would 

be $322,500, or for eight hundred pupils — twenty rooms 

with forty pupils each — about $400 per pupil. 

Footnote : The elementan- class room rated at fifty is the same size as 
that of the high school which is rated at forty. 

With a somewhat larger school no more equipment 
would be necessary and the showing would be better. 
Compare this showing with that made in a modern high 
school. The Charlestown High vSchool, Boston, quoted 
by so eminent an authority as Dr. Chancellor as an ideal 
modern high school, has sev- 
enty-four per cent of its cube 
devoted to uses accessory to 
the class rooms. In the theo- 
retical plan outlined above it 
would appear that by the 
simple method of eliminating 
unnecessary space the seventy- 
four per cent of the Charles- 
town High has been reduced 
to forty per cent and the cost 
per pupil dropped from $500 
to $400. 

The Boston elementary 
schools were brought down to 
a standard by just this method 
of testing space; class rooms 
reduced to the area necessary 
for the number of desks, and 
the height fixed by the re- 
quirements of light; rooms for 
cooking and manual training 
made of a size to take the 
number of benches required, 
and placed, for economy, in 
well lighted basements; the 
hall limited in size and simple 
in character; all other rooms 
such as drawing, sewing, li- 
brary, etc., entirely elimi- 
nated as unnecessary for 
elementary work. 

The first step in this process 
of economical planning of ele- 
mentary schools was taken by 
the school authorities. The 
first step in reducing the cost 
of secondary schools must also 
come from those who lay out 
the courses of study; when 

this is done they can be planned and executed as econom- 
ically for effective work as are the elementary schools. 

This furnishes what is at best but a very rough survey 
of the problem of housing secondary schools with economy 
and yet with due regard for the requirements of the 
present day. 

Except for a passing reference to the assembly hall 
used as a gymnasium hardly any mention has been made 
of exercise and out of door sports, and yet basket ball and 
hockey, baseball and football form part of the life of 




WINSOR SCHOOL, BROOKLINE, MASS. 

R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 
An upper elementary and high school for girls 
planned for a suburban site with all the 
class rooms, recitation rooms and lab- 
oratories on first and second floors, 
the play rooms and studies in 
the attic. 



athletics are encouraged. Notwithstanding this, few city 
high schools provide playing fields for the pupils, but 
most cities do provide playing fields. A great deal has 
been said and written about school playgrounds and at- 
tempts have been made to determine the number of 
square feet which should be provided for each pupil. 
Thirty square feet has been stated as the minimum. The 
question, the vital question is, what is this area for, 
does it serve the purpose, is it worth the price paid ? 

Take an average elementary school in a large city of 
six hundred pupils. The school should have 18,000 
square feet of playground, say 150 by 120. Just what 

can six hundred children do in 
that space ? Very little except 
rough-house with each other, 
— no great harm but not much 
good. One or two hundred 
might possibly play some organized game 
suitable for children on that space, but to 
have only a portion of the school out at a 
time means a difficult schedule. The games 
suitable for little children would not serve 
the older ones in the secondary schools. All 
the games played by high school pupils re- 
quire space, and so much as to be generally 
prohibitive around the school building. It 
is then for the school authorities to deter- 
mine what use is to be made of the play- 
grounds and then see if that 
space can be provided without 
undue cost. 

Let us suppose that organ- 
ized sports are to be conducted 
on the playgrounds. If the field is to be 
a class room for exercises out of doors its 
size like the size of any other class room 
would be determined by the size of the class. 
A hundred can exercise on a gymnasium 
floor of 3,000 square feet. One could afford 
to give them more space outside. The first 
question to determine is whether one is try- 
ing to provide a playground for six hundred, 
or ail out of doors gymnasium for one hun- 
dred. There seems to be nothing in the 
curriculum of either elementary or second- 
ary schools that would demand a school 
playing field. There seems to be every 
reason for providing an exercising ground. 
If to this could be added space for such out 
of school hour sports as tennis, hand ball or 
basket ball, swings, bars, etc., this would be 
so much clear gain. 
In direct connection with the study of the grounds would 
come the study of locker rooms, wash rooms, wardrobes. 
Thus far however only school accommodation has been 
considered, — that is class rooms and the rooms connected 
directly with instruction. Lockers, toilets, etc., are the 
accessories of administration and these will be considered 
in the next article with the other matters that belong pri- 
marily in the province of the architect. Here also will be 
considered the plan of the building to provide economically 
for circulation and administration, and the question of 



every high school, and gymnasium exercises and track wardrobe and lockers, especially in the secondary schools. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



127 



The Heating and Ventilation of Theaters. 



BY CHARLES L. HUBBARD. 



' I "HE conditions to be met in the heating and ventila- main auditorium and the balconies, and to pass the air 



1. tion of theaters differ from those in the auditoriums 
previously described chiefly in the greater number of 
occupants per cubic foot of space, and also the longer 
periods during which they are continuously occupied. In 
the case of chiirch auditoriums the 
audience is seldom assembled for 
more than an hour at a time, the 
cubic contents is large compared 
with the number of occupants, so 
that by starting with a room full of 
fresh air the conditions will not be 
seriously affected by temporary 
lapses in the action of the ventila- 
ting system. This makes it possible 
to use systems like furnaces and in- 
direct steam, which, while giving 
good results under ordinary condi- 
tions, are liable to be affected to a 
greater or lesser degree by changes 
in wind and outside temperature. 
In case of a theater the conditions 
are changed; not only is the floor 
closely packed but there are usually 

two or three deep balconies, which not only add to the 
number of occupants, but also by their construction, 
form pockets where the air is likely to become stagnant 
and overheated. It is evident that an auditorium of this 
kind cannot depend upon gravity systems of heating 
where the efficiency varies with the weather. A theater 
auditorium is usually surrounded with other buildings 
or rooms so that it has but little, if any, outside expo- 
sure; and again, the animal heat given off by a closely 
packed audience is sufficient to raise the temperature 
from 5 to 10°. This often makes 
the problem one of cooling rather 
than of heating, and it would be 
impossible to get anything like 
the required amount of air into 
the room by gravity flow under 
these conditions. It is therefore 
evident that the only system of 
ventilation adapted to theaters is 
one employing fans, both for 
supply and discharge. As the 
volume of air supplied must be 
large, compared with the cubic 
contents of the room, care must 
be taken to introduce it in such 
a manner as to avoid drafts. This 
is especially important, because, 
as already stated, much of the 

time the air must be delivered at a temperature below 
that of the room, and if introduced in any considerable 
quantity through openings above the heads of the people, 
unpleasant results will be sure to follow. The most 
satisfactory way of supplying air to a theater, and the 
one most generally followed at the present time, is to 




rj?£dH AlR'SHAf-T 



^aiuMGr * ^ — 



t 



from here into the room through a large number of 
small openings. This system of distribution may be 
supplemented by flues and registers in the side walls at 
such points as may seem necessary, and by special flues 
to boxes, foyers, etc. The discharge 
ventilation should be through open- 
ings either in or near the ceiling. 
A portion of the air should be re- 
moved from a point near the center 
of the main ceiling, and the re- 
mainder at the rear of the balconies. 
It is very important that this venti- 
lation be particularly strong, as the 
first complaints of bad air and over- 
heating usually come from these 
quarters. 

It is generally advisable to main- 
tain a slight pressure in the audi- 
torium, so that the air leakage will 
be outward into the corridors and 
foyers, rather than inward, both on 
KiG. I. account of cool drafts and possible 

admission of odors from smoking 
and toilet rooms. On the other hand, if the pressure is 
too great, it will cause a bulging of the curtain outward 
toward the stage. In practice a very careful adjustment 
of the supply and vent fans is necessary to produce the 
required pressure for the best results. Foyers, public 
dressing rooms, smoking rooms, and toilets, should be 
thoroughly ventilated; the first two having both supply 
and discharge ventilation, while smoking room and 
toilets should always be maintained under a slight suc- 
tion to prevent the outward leakage of any air which 

may carry odors to other parts 
of the building. Private dress- 
ing rooms, rehearsal rooms, 
etc., should, if possible, be 
provided with some form of 
ventilation, although this is 
not always done. Having out- 
lined the general methods to be 
followed, the different parts 
will now be taken up in some 
detail. 

The air supply to a theater 

should be generous, and the 

apparatus should be designed 

to furnish at least 30 cubic feet 

per minute per occupant. The 

different parts of the system 

may usually be proportioned 

on the " unit " system, taking one hundred occupants as 

a basis, the same as in church heating. This applies 

especially to cases where the auditorium has no outside 

wall exposure. Under other conditions the methods 

given for halls, in a previous article, may be used. In 

the case of an enclosed auditorium, if the main heater is 



''j^f-^mct . 



\^NT<3' 




FIG. II. 



provide plenum spaces beneath the floors, both of the made of sufficient size to raise the temperature of the 



128 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




maximum air supply from to 80' it will usually answer 
all purposes for both heating and ventilation. Assum- 
ing an air supply of 30 cubic feet per minute per occu- 
pant, this will call for about 200 square feet of heating 

surface in the main coil 
for each one hundred oc- 
cupants. It is generally 
usual, in the best practice, 
to furnish a certain 
amount of fresh air to the 
foyers. This, under aver- 
age conditions, may be 
taken as three to four 
complete changes per 
hour. This amount may 
be taken from the main 
supply and the fan and 
heater proportioned accordingly. The size and speed 
of fan and power of motor may be taken the same as for 
church heating where a given volume of air is to be 
moved. The power of the boilers may be based on one 
horse-power for each 25 square feet of heating surface 
at the fan, or its equivalent, eight horse-power for each 
one hundred occupants. To this must be added the 
necessary capacity for supplying the direct radiation, 
based on one horse-power for each 130 square feet. The 
basement arrangement for a typical layout is shown in 
Fig. I. In this case the fresh air is brought from the 
roof level through a brick shaft, then passed through a 

heater and delivered into a 
plenum space beneath the 
main floor by means of a 
fan. The air passes from 
the annular space into the 
circular chamber beneath the 
orchestra through a series of 
openings and from here up- 
ward through the floor in a 
manner to be described 
later. 

Uptake flues leading to the 
boxes and to the side-wall 
registers are indicated on the 
plan. The supply to the 
balconies is through two 
flues near the center, which 
''"^- '^'- are carried up inside of large 

columns to connect with 
plenum spaces shown on another plan. The vent or 
exhaust fan shown, is for the purpose of providing a 
strong discharge ventilation from the toilets and smok- 
ing room, the flues from these rooms being brought 
downward to the basement, as shown. This fan dis- 
charges into a brick or galvanized iron uptake leading to 
the top of the building; care being taken to locate it so 
the foul air cannot be drawn into the supply intake. A 
longitudinal section through the auditorium and foyers 
is shown in section in Fig. II. 

This illustrates the method of air supply and exhaust, 
the former being indicated by straight arrows and the 
latter by spiral arrows. The plenum space beneath the 
floor of the orchestra connects directly with the fan room 
as shown. One of the large columns carrying a flue to 




SlMNOAtSmCt 





the first and second balconies is seen at the center. 
There should be two or three openings from this into the 
plenum space of the first balcony, in order to secure a 
good distribution. It is also a good plan to provide a 
deflector at the top of this flue, in the second balcony 
space, for the same purpose. The flow of air to the two 
balconies should be equalized by the use of adjusting 
dampers at the outlets. 

Sometimes the building construction is such that these 
uptake flues 
are best 
carried up 
in the side 
walls, from 
which they 
are c o n - 
nected with 
the balcony 
plenum 
spaces as m;. v. 

before. 

There should be at least two of these uptakes, and in 
theaters of large size four will give a better distribution. 
Air to the foyers is carried up through flues in the hollow 
partition at the back of the auditorium, as shown. These 
connect with the fan room in the basement and are pro- 
vided with regulating dampers the same as the main 
balcony flues. The side-wall registers are not always 
employed, but may be used if the building arrangement 
is such as to form a pocket at this point which will not 
be easily reached by air currents from the floor. Again, 
if there is a strong exhaust beneath the balconies, the 
air from these registers will be drawn in that direction 
and so aid in the general air supply. In the arrange- 
ment shown, each box is provided with a separate supply 
register. Another method sometimes used is to deliver 
the air into the narrow corridors at the rear of the boxes 
and allow it to enter through special grilles or spaces 

beneath the doors pro- 
vided for that particular 
purpose. There are two 
common methods of 
admitting the air from 
the plenum chambers 
into the room. One of 
these, the older method, 
is shown in Fig. III. 
This consists of a special 
design of chair leg, 
which forms an air 
chamber connected with 
the plenum space below 
by means of suitable 
openings in the floor. 
A side view of one of 
•■'" ■ ^'- these ventilating chair 

legs is shown at "A," 
and a front view at "B." The air is admitted to the 
room through a large number of small perforations in 
both sides of the leg. Although the air passes through 
the floor opening into the chair leg at a comparatively 
high velocity, this is so reduced by the large number 
of perforations, that it issues into the room without 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



129 



HA -ttOTAII^ CA-OOLOA/JZ 



//.A 



HA. 



BA 



s^£AT£]^ 



CA. 



CA 



perceptible drafts. These chairs are so constructed that 
each leg is common to two chairs, that is, there is one 
ventilating chamber to each occupant. If an air supply 
of 30 cubic feet per minute per 
occupant is to be provided, and 
a velocity of 600 feet per min- 
ute is allowed through the floor 
openings, the area under each 
leg should be about 7 square 
inches. With wooden floors it 
is customary to bore two 2^ 
inch holes under each leg, 
which gives practically the re- 
quired area. In the latest 
work, the " mushroom " venti- 
lator, so called, has been quite 
extensively used, and its gen- 
eral form is shown in plan and 
section in Fig. IV. It is com- 
monly made of cast-iron, and 

one is placed in the floor beneath each seat. Air from 
the plenum space passes upward through the central 
tube and striking the hood, its velocity is checked, and 
it .flows outward into the room as indicated by the 
arrows without producing appre- 
ciable drafts. 

When the air is delivered into 
a plenum space at a high velocity 
from one or more supply ducts or 
flues, the pressure is apt to vary 
in different parts of the chamber, 
and to result in an uneven flow 
through the different chair or 
mushroom openings. This makes 
it desirable to provide each outlet 
with an adjustable damper for 
equalizing the flow. Such a 
damper is shown in Fig. V. The 
position and appearance of the 
mushrooms beneath the chairs are 
shown in Fig. VI. 

A typical arrangement for the supply fan and heater 
in a theater is shown in Fig. VII. In this case two fans 
of smaller diameter are used on account of limited head 
room. Even when there is sufficient space it is not cus- 
tomary to use fans above 9 or 10 feet in diameter for 
this class of work. In the lay- 
out shown, two fans are used, 
coupled together as indicated, 
and driven by a direct-con- 
nected electric motor. The 
larger part of the air is dis- 
charged directly into a main 
plenum space which supplies 
the chairs on the first floor and 
also connects with the flues 
leading to the balconies. Air 
distribution within the 
plenum space is secured by 
means of a special form of 

mouthpiece having three outlets as shown. The distrib- 
uting effect of this may be still further increased by 
flaring each outlet and providing it with a number of 



PltNO^ <J/91C£ 




FIG. VII. 



JT": 



'/TAK^^V^ 



WLZ^A/^J^OAl 



<J£CT/OA/y\ 




fk;. VIII. 




diffusing blades or deflectors. The side ducts supply air 
to the foyers and certain other rooms which are not 
easily reached from the main plenum space. 

The arrangement of the fresh 
air supply and the heater is 
best shown in sections " A " and 
"B" in Fig. VIII. The fresh 
air is brought from the top of 
the building through a brick 
shaft which connects with the 
cold air room at the bottom. 
From here it flows into the heat- 
ing chamber beneath the heater, 
part of it passing to the fan 
room by way of the heater and 
the upper or hot air openings, 
and part through the cold air 
openings, depending upon the 
position of the mixing dampers. 
The method of regulating the 
temperature of the air is best illustrated in section " B." 
The dampers are arranged in pairs as shown, one being 
above the heater and admitting hot air to the fan room, 
and the other below and admitting cold air. These are 
so connected by means of levers 
that as one opens the other closes 
a like amount, thus varying the 
proportions of hot and cold air 
admitted to the fans. A common 
arrangement for the discharge 
ventilation is shown by the spiral 
arrows in Fig. II. This is in 
part through ceiling vents into 
the roof space and partly through 
vents near the ceiling at the rear 
of the spaces beneath the balcon- 
ies. These latter registers usually 
open into spaces shut off from the 
plenum or fresh air spaces as 
shown, and are connected with the 
main roof space by means of up- 
take flues concealed in the wall or in pilasters constructed 
especially for this purpose. From the roof space the air 
is discharged outboard by means of exhaust fans, usually 
of the disk or propeller type. The principal objection 
against allowing the air to pass from the room directly 

into the roof spkce is that the 
full suction force of the ex- 
haust fan is not realized be- 
cause of the inleakage of 
outside air through the roof. 
In addition to this, when the 
fans are not running, the air 
in this space is likely to be 
cooled by contact with the 
cold roof and tends to fall 
through the ceiling vents into 
the room below. Both of 
these objectionable features 
can be avoided, to a lai^e 
extent, by connecting the various vent registers with 
the fan by means of iron ducts, as shown in diagram 
in Fig. IX. This arrangement produces a stronger 



MO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




JJUCT 



I Aoro/z - 



/^LAN 



kk; 



X. 



suction at the registers, for a given size and speed of 
fan, and lessens the falling of cold air into the room 
below. The latter, however, may be still further re- 
duced by 
covering 
the ducts 
with 
some 
cheap 
form of 
insula- 
tion. 

A n - 
other 
arrange- 
ment of 
ceiling 
vent and 
exhaust 
fans is 
shown in 
plan and elevation in Fig. X. In this case a circular or 
oval dome is constructed in the ceiling, with openings in 
the side as indicated in the section. This is surrounded 
by a circular duct connected with a double fan chamber, 
shown more clearly in the plan. The two exhaust fans 
discharge toward each other, but are separated by a curved 
deflector which throws the air upward into the roof vent. 
Ducts from balconies and 
other portions of the 
building are brought into 
the fan chambers as 
shown on the plan. Thus 
far only the main audito- 
rium has been consid- 
ered, except for a brief 
mention of the foyer 
ventilation. The heat- 
ing of foyers, corridors, 
toilet and smoking 
rooms, dressing rooms, 
etc., is best done by 
some form of direct 
radiation, entirely inde- 
pendent of the ventila- 
ting system. In the 
foyers, where exposed 
radiators would be ob- 
jectionable, it is usually 
possible to conceal them 
by ornamental screens, 
care being taken to pro- 
vide sufficient opening 
for a good circulation of 
air over the radiators. 
A strong discharge 
ventilation should be 
provided for smoking 
room and toilets by ^w, 

nfeans of direct connec- 
tion with a special exhaust fan. The entire contents 
of these rooms should be changed every three to five 
minutes to prevent any possibility of odors escaping 





into other parts of the building. If possible, some 
form of ventilation should be furnished for the small 
dressing rooms. If an abundance of fresh air is deliv- 
ered into the corridors with which they connect, and 
gril les 
or louv- 
ers pro- 
V i d e d 
in the 
lower 
part of 
the 
doors, 
very 
good 
results 
will 
be ob - 

tained by using a small vent register connecting with 
the general ventilation from the building. 

Fig XI shows an interior view of a portion of the 
Boston Opera House, which contains some of the most 
advanced ideas in the heating and ventilation of this 
type of building. The ventilating system of this build- 
ing has a capacity of about 80,000 cubic feet of air per 
minute, which is supplied by two 8 foot centrifugal 
fans. The main exhaust fans, two in number, are of 
the propeller type, 7 feet in diameter. A special fan, 

.?0 inches in diameter, 
is provided for toilet 
and smoking rooms. 
The building is heated 
by approximately 8,400 
square feet of direct 
radiation, and the main 
heater at the fans con- 
tains .?,330 square feet 
of surface. 

The air supply to the 
main floor and balconies 
is accomplished by the 
use of plenum spaces 
beneath the floors, with 
mushroom openings 
under the chairs. A 
special feature of this 
auditorium is a separate 
air supply to each 
private box, as illus- 
trated in diagram in 
Fig. XII. The general 
arrangement of the 
main supply fans and 
heater in the basement 
is similar to that shown 
in F"ig. VII. Discharge 
ventilation is through 
ceiling vents, partly in 
XI. the main ceiling and 

partly in the spaces 
under the balconies. The exhaust fans are located in 
the roof space, the general scheme employed being 
similar to Fig. X. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Plate Illustrations — Description. 



131 



Technical High School, Newton, Mass. Plate 71. 
The building is of light gray brick with limestone trim- 
mings. The pupil's entrance is in the center of the 
two wings, while the public entrance is through the front 
court which is raised 6 steps above the general grade, 
forming a terrace with wide central steps and balustrade 
connecting the two wings of the front. This court is 
88 feet in width while the total frontage of the school is 
233 feet. An independent entrance gives access to the 
various offices. The ten class rooms on the first floor seat 
48 pupils each. The lunch rooms, with kitchen, for the 
boys and girls are located on the sunny side of the 
building. The central lecture hall on the third floor 
seats 416. The walls and ceilings have a gray tint, ex- 
cept in the library where a green tone has been used. 
The woodwork is of brown ash and the floors of maple, 
with the exception of the halls and toilets which have 
terrazzo flooring. The total cost of the building exclu- 
sive of the furnishings and architect's fee was $345,506. 
This gives approximately 17.9 cents per cubic foot, there 
being 1,929,159 cubic feet in the building. 

Gymnasium at Syracuse University, vSyracuse, N. Y. 
Plates 74 -76. The exterior of the building is of pressed 
iron spot bricks with cream terra cotta trimmings and 
granite base. In the basement is provided a swimming 
pool 29 by 90 feet, graduated in depth from 4 feet 6 
inches to 7 feet, with a specially designed curb and scum 
trough which also serves as a life rail. Directly oppo- 
site and of corresponding size is the rowing room which 
contains the rowing tank and space for necessary appa- 
ratus. The team rooms are fully equipped with toilets, 
showers, steel lockers, rubbing rooms, etc., aijd adjoin 
the stairway which gives access to the subway that leads 
to the stadium arena. The main stairs ascend to the 
trophy and social hall on the main floor. The large 
locker room, which occupies the entire rear of this floor, 
has outside light on three sides. The gymnasium room 
proper is reached by iron and marble stairs from the 
social hall as well as the locker room direct. The gymna- 
sium room, 100 by 210 feet, has three great steel hinged 
trusses supporting the glass dome. The running track, 
eleven laps to the mile, is 10 feet wide on the straight- 
away and 12 feet on the turns, and is banked and coved 
with }4 inch of cork carpet. The dome over the gymna- 
sium is of steel, copper, and glass. The floors of en- 
trance vestibule, entrance hall, racing room, swimming 
room, pool shower room, drying room, and all toilets 
are covered with tile. vSubways and conduits for the 
plumbing, heating, and lighting systems extend under 
the entire building with free access. The water of the 
swimming pool is heated by circulation to and from the 
central heating and power plant. The water of the row- 
ing tank is so moved by mechanical means that the 
rowing conditions approximate very closely the actual 
conditions. The building, which is absolutely fireproof, 
is heated and lighted from the central plant. The over 
all dimensions are 149 by 222 feet 8 inches. The total 
cost exclusive of equipment was $349,825, and the 
cost per cubic foot I834; cents. The cost of apparatus 
and equipment, which includes 1,650 specially designed 
steel lockers, was $18,600. 



Christ Congregational Church, New York City. 
Plate 77. The problem of this building was to design 
on an irregular plot facing two streets a church contain- 
ing an auditorium, gymnasium, meeting rooms, and par- 
sonage. No projections were permitted beyond the lot 
line on the main thoroughfare. The exterior walls are 
built of red brick with raked joints; the keys, window 
sills, water table, etc., of limestone; the main steps of 
bluestone, and the portico, cornices, windows, and spires 
of wood, painted white. The roofs are of tin, painted 
green. Upon the interior the walls of the auditorium 
are of white plaster. The woodwork, such as wainscots, 
doors, pulpit, etc., is painted white. The pews are of 
birch, stained to imitate mahogany. The seating ca- 
pacity of the main auditorium including the balcony is 
370, which will be increased to 527 when the contem- 
plated galleries at each side have been built. Steam 
heating is used except in the parsonage where the hot air 
furnace has been installed. The lighting throughout is 
by electricity. The total cubical contents of the main-^ 
building and the two wings are 271,744 cubic feet. The 
cost of the building was about $50,000 or approximately 
18>^ cents per cubic foot. The measurements in cubing 
the main auditorium building were taken from basement 
floor to the level line at finished ceiling of upper part 
of dome. The measurements in cubing the parsonage 
and gymnasium wings were taken from the basement 
floor to level line about 2 feet 6 inches above the 
ceiling of these wings. The total cubage of the attic 
room in parsonage wing and of the entire spire was 
included. 

Town Hai.l, Westwooo, Mass. Plate 83. The ex- 
terior of this building is treated in red brick with trim- 
mings of stone. Upon the interior the floors are of 
maple. The woodwork in the town offices is quartered 
oak, in the auditorium and other rooms North Carolina 
pine. The cost of the building exclusive of furnishings 
and architects' fee was $25,500. The cubage, taken from 
the bottom of the foundation to one-half the pitch of the 
roof, is 142,674 cubic feet, making a cost of approximately 
18 cents per cubic -foot. 

Town Hall and Offices, New Canaan, Conn. Plate 
84. The exterior of this building is faced in dark red 
Harvard brick with trimmings of stone. The broad en- 
trance steps are of bluestone leading to a terrace paved 
with brick. The auditorium occupies the entire rear 
portion of the building above the basement, measuring 
44 feet by 57 feet. A stairway connects the court room 
with the lock-up in the basement. The lock-up, which is 
equipped with four steel cells, is entered from the out- 
side by an area doorway at the foot of an inclined walk. 
In the front portion of the basement a polling station has 
been provided for all elections. The remainder of the 
basement is occupied by a boiler room, a fireproof stor- 
age vault, a storeroom, a general toilet room, stage 
dressing rooms, and a future police room. The building 
is heated by steam and lighted by electricity. The in- 
terior woodwork is of oak. The total cost including 
lighting fixtures was $38,074. The cubage is 195,000 
feet, making the cost per cubic foot approximately 19^ 
cents. 



132 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 




DETAIL FOR THKATER. 

Made by Conkling-Armstrong 

Terra Cotta Company. 
Harrv E. Westover, Architect. 



CITY PLANNING CON- 
FERENCE. 

THE third annual meeting 
of the City Planning 
Conference was held in Phila- 
delphia, May 13, 16, and 17. 
Over two hundred and fifty 
representatives were present 
from all the cities of impor- 
tance in the United States as 
well as from many of the for- 
eign countries. 

The first session was spent 
in the reading of a paper on 
German Municipal Real 
Estate Policies by Frederick 
C. Howe, together with its 
discussion. Mr. Howe showed 
how the German cities were 
able to accjuire large areas and 
protect themselves by adop- 
ting the policy of " Excess 
Condemnation. " By this plan 
the extra land is sold with 
considerable profit after the 
improvements have been 
made. Other papers were 
read during the conference by 
Ernest Hogg on The Proper 
Distribution of Public Build- 
ings; by F. M. Day on Parks as Building Sites; by Law- 
rence Veiller on the National Housing Problem ; by 
Lawson Purdy on Taxes, Assessment, and Condemna- 
tion; by Calvin Tomkins on the Dock Problem ; by C. M. 
Robinson and John Nolen on Street Widths and their 
Subdivision; and by A. W. Crawford on the Principles 
of a Uniform City Planning Code. 

Mr. Day in his address on Parks as Building Sites said 

that those who 
advocate the 
erection of a 
building upon 
any open 
space within 
the city should 
prove: First — 
That the serv- 
i c e to the 
public of the 
proposed 
building will 
be greater 
than the serv- 
i c e of the 
open ground 
plus the use to 
which that 
ground may 
-That the in- 
creased public service due to the erection of the building 




DETAIL KV SHIRE & KAIFMAN, 

ARCHITECTS. 

Executed by South Amboy Terra Cotta Company. 

be put without building on it. Sccond- 



shall be an affair not only of the immediate future but 
of the distant future, for it is quite conceivable that the 
utility of the ground as mere open space may advance 
much more 
rapidly than 
the utility of 
the intended 
building. 
77//r./— That 
it is impossi- 
ble to obtain 
any other site 
suitable for 
the proposed 
building. 

Mr. Veiller 
in his discus- 
sion stated 
that the city 
planning 
would be the 
means of solv- 
ing the hous- 
ing problem. 
He urged the 
abandonment 
of back yards 
and alleys, and 
recommended 
in their stead 

large open spaces for light and ventilation. He ad- 
vanced the point that no buildings in the city should 
exceed 60 feet in height. 

The banquet which closed the conference was held at 
the Bellevue Stratford. Toasts were given by Mayor 
Reyburn, Count J. H. von Bernstoff, and Senator 
F. G. Newlands. Mr. Newlands talked on the benefits 
that would' accrue from the establishment of a new 




DETAIL BY V. J. KLUTHO, ARCHITECT. 
Executed by Winkle Terra Cotta Company. 




DETAIL FOR HEARST BUILDING. 

Executed in polychrome enamel terra cotta by Northwestern Terra 

Cotta Company. 

James C. Green, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



133 




in the States of New York, New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, Massachiisetts and Ohio, prior to 1911. 

Plans are to be received up to Sept. 1, 1911. 

A professional adviser of recognized ability will 
be employed to assist in making the award. 

Four prizes are offered as follows; For the best 
design $750; second best, $500; third best, $350; 
fourth best, $250. 

In case of abandonment of the project for erecting 
the building contemplated herein, the above awards 
to constitute payment in full of all claims against the 
city by reason of this competition. If, however, it 
is subsequently decided to proceed with the building 
of a Vocational High School, the city of Syracuse 
agrees not to make use of any design or portion 
thereof without arrangement for additional compen- 
sation, or else to institute a further competition be- 
tween the four successful plans of this competition. 



DETAIL, STATE EDUCATIONAL KUILDING, ALBANY, N. Y. 

Executed by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

Palmer & Hornbostel, Architects. 

Department of Art and City Planning by the Federal 
government. 



WOOLWORTH 
BUILDING. 



T 




DETAIL, STATE EDUCATIONAL KUILDINil, ALBANY 
Executed by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 
Palmer & Hornbostel, Architects. 



HE tallest sky- 
scraper in the 
world will be the Wool- 
worth building now be- 
ing erected on the west 
side of Broadway be- 
tween Park place and 

Barclay street. New York City. It will rise to a height 
of 750 feet above the sidewalk, exceeding all other 
structures excepting Eiffel Tower. The main building 
will be 31 stories high, while the tower, which is 86 by 
84 feet, will have 24 additional stories. There will be 
installed in the very top of the tower a powerful 
electric light which will be visible 100 miles out to 
sea. The exterior of the building will be treated in 
terra cotta and stone. The total contents of the 
building, measured from the top of the caissons, will 
be 13,200,000 cubic feet. The caissons will extend 
down to rock bottom some 130 feet below the level of 
the sidewalk. There will be 34 elevators installed in 
addition to outside fireproof stairways in the court, 
which will be entirely separated by fireproof walls. 
The cost, including the site, will be approximately 
$9,000,000, one-ninth of which will be used in the 
excavation. The architect of the building is Cass 
Gilbert. 



pin 



NATIONAL THEATER, MEXICO. 

THE new National Theater of Mexico, constructed 
entirely of white marble, will cost approxi- 
mately $8,000,000. The design calls for a seating 
capacity of 3,000. The special feature of this building 

will be the glass drop 
curtain, which contains 
more than 2,500 square 
feet of glass mosaic and 
weighs 27 tons. It is 
divided into 200 panels, 
3 feet square. The 
whole curtain consists 
' of 1,000,000 separate 
pieces of Favrille glass 
set in a composition im- 
pervious alike to heat and moisture. The glass itself is 
Vk; of an inch in thickness with a backing of 10 inches. 
The curtain, which will be raised and lowered by hy- 
draulic pressure, shows a view of the mountains in 



COMPETITION FOR PLANS FOR A VOCA- 
TIONAL HIGH SCHOOL IN THE CITY 
OF SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

APPLICATIONS for the program will be received 
up to July 15, 1911, by E. E. MacCready, De- 
partment of Public Instruction, Syracuse, N. Y. , from 
architects practising and who have maintained offices 




DETAIL, STATE EDUCATIONAL BUILDINC, ALBANY, 
Executed by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 
Palmer & Hornbostel, Architects. 



134 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Mexico and lends a decorative character in harmony and painting. It will face the National Museum of An- 
with the design of the other interior finishings. tiquities on the Patisia Road and will preserve to posterity 




HI.OCK. OK NEW HOUSES, BAY STATE ROAD, BOSTON. 

Fronts of "Tapestry " brick, manufactured by Fiske & Cd., Inc. 

E. B. Stratton, Architect. 



MADISON SQUARE GARDEN SOLD. 

AT LAST this famous structure has been turned over 
to a syndicate for $3,500,000. Repeated efforts 
have been made to sell the (harden, which, from a finan- 
cial standpoint, has 
proven a failure 
from its opening. 
It is considered by 
many critics as the 
masterpiece of the 
late Stanford 
White. It will 
soon be demolished 
and in its place will 
be erected a twenty- 
five-story office 
building, which will 
represent an invest- 
ment of $12,000,000. 
The architects for 
the new structure 
are Warren & Wet- 
more. 



Af 



BUILDING 
s being 
erected in Athens 
which will become 
the Greek National 
Gallery for the pres- 
ervation of their 
works in sculpture 




POLICE HEAUgUAKTERS BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. 

Terra cotta furnished by the New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company. 

Hoppin, Koen & Huntingdon, Architects. 



the works of art which have been scattered throughout the 
country as well as injured by not being properly housed. 

IN GENERAL. 
The Spokane Architectural Club, which has been in 

existence since 
1899, has filed arti- 
cles of incorpora- 
tion and elected the 
following as officers 
for the ensuing 
year: President, 
Julius A. Zittel; 
V i c e-pr e s i d e n t, 
C. Hubbell; secre- 
tary, H. C. White- 
"t^vi^m^^^^^^^^^^^^BB house; treasurer, 

F. P. Rooney. The 
club has established 
a bureau of employ- 
ment for draftsmen 
and will give a 
series of lectures 
primarily for the 
education of the 
public. 

At the annual 
meeting of the 
Southern Pennsyl- 
vania Chapter A. 
I. A. held at York, 
Pa., in May, the 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



135 



following ofificers were elected: President, 
J. A. Dempwolf; vice-president, M. I. 
Kast; secretary, B. F. Willis; treasurer, 
C. E. Urban. 

Hugh Tallant, formerly a member of 
the firm of Herts & Tallant, architects, 
has been admitted to the firm of Lord & 
Hewlett, New York, the new name of the 
firm being Lord, Hewlett & Tallant. 

J. E. Heimerl has been admitted to the 
firm of Brust & Philipp. The new name 
of the firm is Brust, Philipp & Heimerl; 
offices, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Alfred L. Darrow, architect, has removed 
his offices to 8 Beacon street, Boston. 



The two hundred or more new houses 
which have been built at Long Beach, 
L. L — about an hour out of New York — 
offer a splendid display of the various types of roofing 
tile which are manufactured by the Ludowici-Celadon 




MOUSE AT CHICAdO. 

Roofed with Ludowici-Celadon tile. 

W. C. Zimmerman, Architect. 




The Atlantic Terra Cotta Company supplied the archi- 
tectural terra cotta for the new gymnasium at Syracuse 
University, which is illustrated in 
the plate forms of this issue. 



Harvard Brick, supplied by Carter, 
Black & Ayers, will be used in the 
new Ladd residence at Far Hills, New 
Jersey, Guy Lowell, architect. Also 
for the Cravath residence at Locust 
Valley, L. I., Guy Lowell, architect. 



cow BARN, STATE HOSPITAL FOR INSANE, NORRISTOWN, PA. 

The e.xterior walls are constructed of 10 inch " Natco " hollow tiles, making a damp-proof, 

cool-in-summer, warm-in-winter, wall. 

Baker & Dallett, Architects. 



Company. Every building in the place has a tile roof. 

Edward Shepard Hewitt and William Lawrence Bot- 
tomley have formed a copartnership for 
the practice of architecture under the firm 
name of Hewitt & Bottomley; offices, 527 
Fifth avenue. New York. 



The South Amboy Terra Cotta 
Company will fvirnish the architec- 
tural terra cotta on the following new 
buildings: Masonic Temple, Jersey 
City, N. J., Rowland & Eurich, architects; business 
building. New York City, Renwick, Aspinwall & 
Tucker, architects; School of Ascension, New York City, 



Tobias Bearwald and Albert J. Fabre 
have formed a copartnership for the prac- 
tice of architecture under the firm name 
of Fabre & Bearwald ; offices. Western 
Metropolis Bank building, San Francisco. 

The Ohio Mining and Manufacturing 
Company supplied the bricks which were 
used in the new gymnasium building for 
the University of Syracuse, illustrated in 
the plate forms of this issue. 

The Atlanta Terra Cotta Company sup- 
plied the architectural terra cotta for the 
Presbyterian Church at Chattanooga, 
which is illustrated in the plate forms of 
this issue. 




MAYBURY SCHOOL, DETROIT, MICH. 

Light gray brick manufactured by Ohio Mining & Manufacturing Co. 

Malcomson & Higginsbotham, Architects. 



136 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



F. A. De Meuron, architects; building, 20th street and 
Fourth avenue, New York City, Rouse & Goldstone, 






DETAIL BV SCHWARTZ AND GROSS, ARCHITECTS. 
Made by New Jersey Terra Cotta Company. 

architects; group of College Buildings, I. E. Ditmars, 
architect. 



The Liverpool Architectural Sketch 
Book 

being the annual of the School of Architecture of the 
University of Liverpool 

Edited by PROF. C. H. REILLY 

PART 1. Measured Drawings : Examples from Oxford. Liverpool. Cambridge. 
Manchester. Dublin, Verona, Florence, Venice and Genoa. 

PART II. Designs for a Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, a Casino, Art Gal- 
lery, School of Architecture. Villa. Ball Room. Small House. 
Country Hotel, Alms House, a Campo Santo, Scheme for laying 
out of the Central Portion of Port Sunlight also Compositions in 
the Orders. Triumphal Arch, etc. 

One volume, bound in heavy paper, large quarto. $LO0 Doslpaid 

THE BRUNO HESSLING COMPANY 

Books on Architecture and the Decorative Arts 

64 East 12th Street, NEW YORK, N. Y. 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 

TRADE MARK - REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 

BULLETIN 



RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

Block of New Houses, Boston, Mass. Page 134 

E. B. Stratton, Architect 



ti?iske 6- company inc 
Iace bricks; establish 

llRE BRICKSl ED IN 1664 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Flatiron Building, New York 



"SPECIFICATION BLANKS." by T. Robert Wieger, 
architect (formerly with F. E. Kidder). Forms for all classes 
of buildings, each trade separate. Complete set, 44 pages, 
25 cents. Reduction on quantities. Sample page upon 
request. 628- 1 4th street, Denver, Colo. 



University of Pennsylvania 

School of Architecture 

FOUR YEAR COURSE. (Degne B.S. In Arch.) Options in design and 
architectural construction. 

GRADUATE YEAR. (.Degree M.S. in Arch.) Allowing specialization in 
advanced work. Fellowships. 

SPECIAL COURSE of two years. (Pro/etiional Certificate.) For qualified 
draftsmen. 

ADVANCED STANDING granted for equivalents completed elsewhere, 

SUMMER SCHOOL in architecture and allied subjects. Special circular. 

YEAR BOOK illustrating wrorlc in design, drawing, etc.. mailed without 
charge. 

FULL INFORMATION will be sent on application to the Dean of the College 
Department. Dr. George E. Fisher, University of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 



r 



BOILERS AND RADIATORS 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Water Tube and Return Flue Boilers 

Plain and Ornamental Direct Radiators 
Direct-Indirect Radiators 
Indirect Radiators 

For Steam and Water Warming 

Send for complete illustrated catalog 

THE H. B. SMITH CO. 



Westfield, Mass. 
Philadelphia 



New York 
Boston 



Ideal Floor Covering 

FOR CEMENT FLOORS 



Linoleum .secured b\" waterproof glue to cement floors 
can be furni.shed in plain colors or in inlaid effects. 

Cork Carpet in plain colors. 

Elastic, Noiseless, Durable. 

Is practical for rooms, halls, and particularly adapted 
to public buildings. 

.Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing skilled workmen. 

Follouing e.ramples of our -work : 

Brookline Public Library, R. Clipston Sturgis, Esq., Architect. 
.Suffolk County Court House, Boston. George A, Clough, Esq., 

Architect. 
Registrj- of Deeds, .Salem, Mass. C. H. Blackall, Esq., Architect. 
W« Solicit inquiri€» and Correapondenee 

Quality samples specially prepared for architects and 
builders mailed on application. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 
646-658 WASHINGTON STREET - BOSTON, MASS. 

Have been continuously in this business for 93 years 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XX JULY 1911 Number 7 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, I'JU, by ROGERS * MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ........ $5.ou per year 

Single numbers ..................... 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............... $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ................. $6.oo per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



II 



Agencies — Clay Products 

Architectural Faience II 

Terra Cotta II and III 

Brick Ill 



I'.ACK 

Brick Enameled Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ....... IV 

Fireproofing ........ IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

ALFRED S. ALSCHULER; COPE & STEWARDSON ; CASS GILBERT; JANSSEN & ABBOTT; 
CHARLES BARTON KEEN; PARKER, THOMAS t^ RICE. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

TOWER OF CHURCH SAN FERNANDO, MEXICO CITY, MEXICO Frontispiece 

SOME PROBLEMS IN SCHOOL PLANNING — THIRD PAPER Ji. Clipslon Sliirgis 137 

LEC.AL HINTS FOR ARCHITECTS — PART I William I.. liowman 139 

SECOND PRECINCT POLICE STATION, NEW YORK CITY .■■ 1« 

THE PRINCIPLES OF ARCHITECTURE — PART III , William L. Mou-ll 14,S 

THE NEW CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN STATION 1^7 

COMPETITION FOR A SMALL HOUSE BUILT OF NATCO HOLLOW TILE-REPORT OF JURY H9 

COMPETITION FOR A SMALL HOUSE BUILT OF NATCO HOLLOW TILE — PRIZE AND MENTION 

DESIGNS • '^" 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS-DESCRIPTION l"^-' 



EDITORIAL 



COMMENT AND MISCELLANY l^-^ 





TOWER OF THE CHURCH OK SAN 
FERNANDO, MEXICO CITY, MEXICO. 



The dome is covered with colored glazed tiles. 



Some Problems in School Planning. 

Third Paper — Supplementary Requirements for Elementary and Secondary Schools. 



BY R. CLIPSTON STURCIS. 



IN the preceding articles an attempt has been made to 
analyze the teaching requirements of modern schools, 
both elementary and secondary, as far as their equip- 
ment is concerned. It is now proposed to take up the 
study of what may be called supplementary requirements 
— first, the necessary space and equipment for care of 
clothing; second, the space and equipment for ad- 
ministration and teaching force, entrances, stairs and 
corridors. 

The architect now has before him this definite prob- 
lem: a certain number of rooms of a fixed size and for a 
definite use which are to be so placed as to be light, con- 
venient and compact, with all conveniences for adminis- 
tration both as regards teachers and children, in addition 
to corridors, stairs and exits arranged to insure the safety 
of the children. 

When all this has been economically planned it is then 
the architect's further duty to build of materials which 
will insure permanency and healthy conditions, especially 
cleanliness, and to heat, light and ventilate so as to pro- 
tect rather than endanger the health of the children. 

One of the important features of all schools is the dis- 
position of clothing and the location and number of 
toilets. In elementary schools the pupils' work is all 
done in one room and it is therefore more convenient to 
have their outside clothing at the same point. As to the 
location of toilets there is considerable difference of 
opinion. vSome, looking to the orderly handling of a 
large number of pupils, have them enter the basement 
where the toilets are located, so that they may be used 
before going to class, and so avoid needless leaving of 
the room during school hours. The toilets in such a 
system must be sufficient in number to accommodate the 
children during a brief period. Others prefer toiletc 
located on each floor, do not mass the children on enter- 
ing, do not dismiss them all at once, and do not require 
so much toilet accommodation. To concentrate the toi- 
lets and provide a large number, or to separate and pro- 
vide a small number, probably differs little in economy of 
construction. It is rather a question of school manage- 
ment, and therefore one that the school authorities should 
study and determine. If the kitchen and shop are in the 
basement it is necessarily above ground with ample light. 
As the elementary school often has no gymnasium the 
rest of the basement is useful as rainy-day space for play. 

With the secondary schools it is all quite different. 
The children it is true assemble at the same hour, but 
after that it is a constant change from hour to hour. 
They have a gymnasium and perhaps baths, so there are 
other things beside outside clothing to be cared for. The 
constant change from room to room makes it even ques- 
tionable as to whether books should be in desks instead 
of in lockers; especially when evening work is to be con- 
sidered, is it desirable to have the desks clear. It may be 
that even school desks are undesirable and that a simple 
light table would serve all purposes best. There is 
therefore a many-sided problem, the solution of which 
does not appear to have been found. Metal lockers are 



expensive, take much space, and both keys and combi- 
nation locks give constant trouble. If the lockers are 
conveniently placed for outside clothes they may be 
inconvenient for books or for gymnasium outfits. 

A three-fold equipment may .seem extravagant but 
offers certain advantages: 

('?) For clothing, one large room with toilets adjacent. 
If necessary for safety, the wardrobe locked up at nine 
and opened only by the attendant. Clothing hung in 
this way takes much less space and is an economical 
arrangement as compared with clothing hung in lockers. 

(/') For gymnasium provide small pigeon-holes, 12- 
inch cubes, numbered for each pupil, and have all cloth- 
ing, towels, etc., similarly numbered. Provide a hot 
room where clothing can be aired and dried. It can then 
be folded and put in small compass. The attendant 
serving the gymnasium and the wardrobe would do this. 

{c) Provide pigeon-holes of proper capacity and num- 
ber in each class room or in convenient space near by for 
books. Each group of pigeon-holes closed and locked 
by one bar, to be in charge of the teacher. 

If the exercise is largely out of doors, as it should be, 
it might be well to have a locker building where ward- 
robe, toilets, baths, dressing rooms and lockers would be 
grouped together. If this were done there would be no 
need for a high well-lighted basement, for the kitchen of 
a secondary school should be near the lunch room, prob- 
ably on top floor. The gymnasium would serve for a 
rainy-day play-space, and only the workshop would re- 
main to be provided. This latter would go upstairs, or 
perhaps better be in a one-story building, hardly more 
than a shed, outside. Nothing but the heating would 
then be in the basement, so that the first floor could be 
nearly at grade. 

The question of lockers and their uses raises the whole 
matter of ordered exercise, and what has been suggested 
above is in the line of economy. If by proper and justi- 
fiable economies in the high school building we can 
reduce the cost per pupil from $500 to $400, or perhaps 
even $300 {i.e. double the cost of the elementary), let us 
use a part of the saving in giving the children plenty of 
play and exercise space. Encourage the use of this space 
not only in connection with school work, but also outside 
of school hours; not only by the pupils of that school, but 
by any other child to whom it is convenient. 

This is merely in line with the now recognized fact that 
our school buildings are too valuable a public asset to lie 
idle half the time. The halls should be available, when 
not required for the school, for other public and beneficial 
purposes; the class room, the shops and the laboratories 
should be thrown open at night for those who cannot use 
them by day; and so we justify our expenditure for 
schools by making the largest possible use of them. 
Three or four acres of land is none too much for a 
secondary school which is to serve the community in the 
best way. If the land cannot be had except by going some 
distance, is it not worth while to go that necessary dis- 
tance and get it? The children it cares for are no longer 



138 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



infants. If the cars do not serve, a bicycle or a pair of legs 
will. A brisk walk to school hurt none of those who had 
to take it a generation or two back and will not now. 
Moreover the school so located will not stay long iso- 
lated; houses will spring up about it and it will become 
a new center. 

In a group of buildings for the Normal and Girls' Latin 
School in Boston an intermediate building served both 
schools for gymnasium lockers, baths, etc., and it would 
seem therefore entirely feasible and probably not ex- 
pensive to have locker buildings adjoining the school, 
and the playing field or exercise ground serving both. 
Here would be the place for outer clothing, gymnasium 
clothes, dressing rooms and baths, and perhaps also the 
repair shop. 

The administration in the elementary schools is very 
simple. Where it is a lower elementary school and the 
assistant in charge has a regular class room, no room is 
needed except one where the teachers can gather at 
noon. Where there is a headmaster, one small room is 
ample as an office, for the corridor can serve as a wait- 
ing room. In the secondary schools, where the staff is 
generally larger, the principal would recjuire an outer 
and inner room, and rooms would be required for both 
men and women teachers, but neither the space allotted 
nor the equipment should be other than what a business 
man would have for his business office. 

Entrance stairs and corridors are a fruitful source of 
extravagance. Often a false idea of the requirements 
for safety leads to corridors of unnecessary width and to 
stairs that are actually dangerous because they permit 
too many children in line. A corridor that will permit 
two double files of children to pass (about 10 feet) appears 
to be ample, and stairs that comfortably take one double 
file (about 4>^ or 5 feet), are better than wider ones. 
Staircases should be placed well apart, so as to give two 
or more distinct means of exit. Rooms can be planned 
so that they can be served by the smallest possible 
amount of corridor, and the stairs so placed that every 
room will have fairly direct access to either of the two 
staircases. A plan that does not fulfil these simple 
requirements ought not to be accepted. Experience 
would seem to show that as few doors as possible should 
be between the child in the class room and the stairs, 
preferably only one, the class room door, placed near 
the teacher and under her control. These are the chief 
accessories to the rooms, which must be studied to make 
the economical plan complete. 

In selecting materials for city schools there is but one 
class that should be considered, the simplest and cheap- 
est of durable, fireproof materials. For finished floors 
in corridors terrazzo has proven inexpensive and dura- 
ble and is easily cleaned. For stair treads North River 
stone seems the most permanent of all inexpensive mate- 
rials available in the East. A good grade of linoleum 
glued to a cement surface or to a cast-iron tread has 
much to recommend it. F"or class room floors wood is 
still the best material where desks must be fastened 
down, but elsewhere linoleum on concrete is better, for 
it is more durable, cleaner, and more easily taken care of. 
Everything under foot should be of a material that will 
not readily create dust by attrition. Removing the dust 
is an expense, as is also the renewing of surfaces so 



worn, but the serious evil is the dust in the air, which is 
injurious to health. As far as possible one may avoid 
materials that readily create dust, but it is more funda- 
mental to remove the conditions that make material 
friable. 

The heating of our schools is based on the supposi- 
tion that the only important thing is to take outside 
air, heat it, introduce it in sufficient quantity and then 
remove a similar quantity of air that has been vitiated 
by having been breathed. If it seems worth while to 
follow up any particular branch of school curriculum 
and find out if it is producing results, it is certainly 
worth while to follow up the theories of heating and ven- 
tilating and find out what we expect to happen. It is 
easy to prove that a certain number of cubic feet of air- 
at a certain temperature is being delivered and that a 
certain number of cubic feet are being withdrawn. It 
would be valuable for us to prove that the air being 
delivered is really good to breathe, and that the air we 
are throwing away has really served its purpose and is 
no longer valuable. As a rule the heated fresh air has 
been deprived of all its moisture, and in this condition is 
not good to breathe. It is the dry air which shrinks the 
wood, makes floors rub to dust, makes everything brittle 
and friable and so loads the air with 4ust. This fresh 
air is not only dry but dusty, and the dust is often not 
merely an irritant but an active poison. It is easy to 
stand a high temperature when the air is dry — conversely 
a low temperature is comfortable if it be moist. As we 
provide dry air, a high temperature is demanded. If 
the air in a class room shows 70", 6 feet from the floor, 
it is a matter of conjecture whether the breathed air goes 
up or down, and it is certainly open to question whether 
it makes for the outlet and leaves the room as directed. 

Until this matter of keeping moisture in the air is 
solved much money is being wasted in heating plants 
which are furnishing air dangerous to health and injuri- 
ous to the building. It is little wonder that there has 
been such enthusiasm and so great a demand for fresh 
air rooms, and that children have stood exposure to cold 
and thriven on it, for they have been breathing air that 
is naturally moist. If we could give our schools moist 
air in winter there would be no demand for rooms at 70°, 
and fewer children would be found who required open air 
or fresh air treatment. Incidentally the building would 
benefit and there would be smaller bills for repairs on 
floors, doors, sashes and window cords. This is one of the 
important fields for study. Here the knowledge of the 
physician and the physicist should supplement the study 
by the architect and the results of each experiment 
should be tested until there is reasonable assurance that 
the object aimed for has been attained. 

Economical school planning is then a joint affair where 
all those interested must work together. The teachers 
and school authorities must determine what is essential 
and what is non-essential, and how much of the latter they 
can afford. Physicians and teachers of hygiene and ath- 
letics must determine what is necessary for that physical 
condition of the child which will enable him to take advan- 
tage of the mental training offered him. ' The architect 
must enter sympathetically and intelligently into all these 
problems, share in the study and bring to a final solution 
his knowledge and experience as a true master builder. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Legal Hints for Architects. — Part I, 



139 



BY WILLIAM L. BOWMAN, C.K., LL.H. 



THE architect is primarily an artist, and, as Ferguson, 
the historian of Architecture, asserts, " his object is 
to arrange the -material of the engineer not so much with 
regard to economical as artistic definiteness, and by light 
and shade and outline to produce a form that in itself 
shall be permanent and beautiful." The artistic tem- 
perament required to produce " frozen music," as archi- 
tecture is so aptly termed by Schilling, has no time and 
little use for the sordid details and requirements of busi- 
ness. Architecture and business are truly antitheses, 
and in this respect history is replete with the calamities 
of genius. As our scientific knowledge has grown apace, 
so the requirements and demands upon the architect 
have increased, and yet, notwithstanding these changes 
and the fact that we live in a very material age, many 
an architect to-day, as of old, is essentially an artist and 
dreamer. His inability to comprehend and care for 
business details or to protect himself from the guile or 
imposition of his fellow-men is a phase of life with which 
the lawyer is especially familiar. The writer's experi- 
ence with such situations and the righteous indignation 
and pity thereby aroused accounts in a large measure 
for these articles, in which an attempt will be made to 
present the most common pitfalls of the profession as are 
shown by everyday examples and to suggest possible 
ways and methods of overcoming such difficulties. 
While most of the important legal questions with which 
the architect should be familiar will be considered, natu- 
rally such considerations must be very general and brief. 
It is hoped, however, that these general considerations 
(which must not, of course, be relied implicitly upon for 
any specific case) will not only be of benefit and aid to 
architects, but that with such knowledge the architect 
will in turn minimize the difficulties and disagreements 
which are bound to arise between architects, owners, 
builders and contractors. 

Before Employment. 

Statutes. Consideration of situations arising before 
employment involves the preliminary questions as to 
whether one is an architect and whether he is legally 
entitled to practise. The law requires that an architect 
shall have at least the ordinary skill, knowledge and 
judgment possessed by men of his profession. Since 
the possession of such qualifications is a condition prece- 
dent to the recovery of remuneration for any services, it 
is incumbent upon the architect-to-be that he believe and 
know that he possesses the recjuisite skill and experience. 

Although the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitu- 
tion of the United States provides that no state shall 
make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privi- 
leges or immunities of citizens of the United States, yet 
it has been judicially decided that the right to practise 
a profession does not come within the Constitutional 
equality of privilege; hence it is that the various states 
are able to pass the now familiar laws for the protection 
of the general public, requiring the examination, regis- 
tration and licensing of doctors, lawyers, dentists, etc. 
Upon the same principle, Hlinois, in 1897, passed an act 



which provided for a State Board of Examiners, and 
compelled all practising architects, and all persons there- 
after intending to become architects, to comply with 
certain conditions or be guilty of a misdemeanor, which 
carried as a penalty a fine of not less than $50 nor more 
than $500 for each and every week during which the 
offense was continued. Thereafter two other states. 
New Jersey and California, followed suit, but as the 
provisions of their laws are based largely upon the 
Illinois statute, we will only consider briefly some of 
the details of the original statute. 

In Illinois, a person desiring to become an architect 
must be over 21 years of age; must pay a fee of $15 to 
take an examination with "special reference to the con- 
struction of buildings and a test of the knowledge of the 
candidate of the strength of materials, and of his or her 
ability to make practical application of such knowledge 
in the ordinary professional work of an architect and of 
the duties of supervision of mechanical work on buildings, 
and should also seek to determine his or her knowledge 
of the laws of sanitation as applied to buildings " After 
the examination is passed satisfactorily, then the Secre- 
tary of the State Board of Examiners issues a certificate 
and upon the payment of $25 a license is issued permit- 
ting the person to practise architecture. Regarding 
practising architects, the act provides as follows: "Any 
person who shall by affidavit show to the satis/action of 
the State Board of Examiners of architects that he or she 
was engaged in the practice of the profession of archi- 
tecture on the date of the passage of this act, shall be 
entitled to a license without examination, provided such 
application shall be made within six (6) months after the 
passage of the act," etc. The " satisfaction " required by 
this law makes it discretionary with the Board of Exam- 
ers as to whether or not they will grant a license, and it 
has been held that in the absence of a wrongful abuse of 
such power amounting to fraud against the rights of the 
applicant, the Board could not be mandamused and com- 
pelled to issue a license. In this connection, and as it is 
human for a person to enlarge upon the work which he 
has dofie in the past, practising architects should be very 
careful that an affidavit made for this purpose is ab- 
solutely and unqualifiedly truthful, because there have 
been instances where a license has been refused solely 
upon the ground that the applicant in his affidavit had 
prevaricated. 

One of the most important provisions of this law is 
that each licensed architect shall have his or her license 
recorded in the office of the County Clerk in each and 
every county of the state in which the holder thereof 
shall practise, and failure so to do shall be deemed suffi- 
cient cause for the revocation of the license. 

Said law further provides that licenses may be revoked 
by the unanimous vote of the State Board of Examiners 
for gross incompetence or recklessness in the work of 
construction or for dishonest practice. It is also required 
that an annual fee of $5 be paid to the Secretary of the 
Board, who shall thereupon issue a certificate of renewal, 
and any licensed architect who shall fail to have his or 



140 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



her license renewed at the proper time shall have his or 
her license revoked at the discretion of the Board. 

So far we have considered only individuals. The law 
further provides that in the case of copartnership of 
architects each member whose name appears must be 
licensed to practise. No stock company or corporation 
will be licensed to practise architecture, though they 
may employ licensed architects. The above are the im- 
portant requirements of the Illinois statute, which are 
more onerous than the later laws on the subject. 

It should be noted that the Illinois statute does not 
contain any provisions regarding the practice in Illinois 
by architects of other states; hence, it is to be assumed 
that if an architect desires to practise even temporarily 
in that state he would have to comply with the provi- 
sions of the law. Under the California law this situation is 
covered by a provision permitting a temporary certificate 
to be issued upon the presentation of satisfactory evidence 
to the Board of the District in which the structure is to be 
erected, that the architect is a competent architect, etc. 

The New Jersey laws in addition to a fine for failure to 
comply with the law, permits also imprisonment in the 
county jail for a period of not less than one month. 

It is very probable that other states will follow with 
similar statutes and it therefore behooves all architects 
and those intending to practise architecture to consult 
the state laws or some attorney in this regard and thus 
save themselves possible expense, time and mortification. 

There is still another class of legislation which archi- 
tects must beware of, and that is municipal or town 
taxes upon their profession; for example, the following 
is such an ordinance: "No person, firm, etc., shall be 
engaged in prosecuting or carrying on any business or 
profession hereinafter mentioned without having first 
paid a special license tax therefor, as follows, to wit, 
architect, civil engineer, surveyor, for either $15." It 
is often a serious question whether an architect is carry- 
ing on his profession within the scope of such an ordi- 
nance. The following facts show how far this tax is 
upheld. A certain firm of architects resided and had 
offices at A. They solicited and superintended certain 
work at B. The town of B had such an ordinance and 
compelled the architects to pay the license tax. Said 
tax was paid under protest, and the architects thereafter 
sued to recover their money, on the grotmd that all of 
the plans and details had been drawn at their offices at 
A, hence they were not liable for "carrying on busi- 
ness " in B. It was decided, however, that it was appar- 
ently their intention to carry on part of their business at 
B and that they must pay the tax. 

The above considerations call for the following recom- 
mendations: 

First. That no person should consider practising 
architecture unless he knows that he has the requisite 
skill and experience. 

Second. Practising architects and would-be architects 
should annually ascertain whether any state laws have 
been passed governing their profession, and, if so, care- 
fully follow each and every provision of said law. 

Third. Ascertaining whether or not there is any 
municipal or town license tax required by any of the 
municipalities or towns where the office or any of the 
jobs are situated. 



h'ourtlt. Before taking employment in another state 
to be sure and ascertain the statute requirements of such 
state. 

Employment Classified. Assuming that the architect 
has complied with the state and municipal requirements 
which are conditions precedent to his practising his pro- 
fession, it will be found important definitely to consider 
his possible employment under the following headings: 
(1) By an individual ; (2) by a business corporation ; (3) by 
a municipal corporation; (4) by a state or the United 
States; (5) by competitions. 

There are a few general preliminary rules which apply 
to all employments. The first one and the most impor- 
tant is to always have the terms of employment in writ- 
ing, as this safeguard will obviate many disputes as to 
whether there has been an employment, and further diffi- 
culties in recovering compensation where it is necessary 
to resort to law. A convenient, though of course not 
absolutely binding method, is to write a letter of confir- 
mation of an oral employment. In this connection, it 
should be noted that the Statute of Frauds in most 
states retjuires that any agreement not to be performed 
within one year from the making of the agreement must 
be in writing, otherwise said agreement will be void and 
unenforceable. 

(1) Employment by an individual is the least danger- 
ous of any of the classes to be considered. The chief 
things to keep in mind and have clearly understood are, 
who is your employer, what you are to do, and how 
much and when the employer is to pay. 

A few illustrations will show the importance of know- 
ing by whom you are employed. In one case the archi- 
tect was visited by A, whom the architect knew was not 
financially responsible. Upon being asked to prepare 
plans for an apartment house he assumed and supposed 
that A represented his wife (B) and her father (C). 
Rough sketches were drawn in accordance with A's sug- 
gestions and they were marked "A cS: C." Later A told 
the architect that C did not want his name to appear. 
At a still later conference, A showed the architect a plot, 
stating that C owned one half and that he (A) controlled 
the rest. The plans were completed and the building 
put up upon the plot and the architect received a pay- 
ment from A, who later refused to make any further 
payments. The architect thereupon sued the wife, B, 
and the father, C. Upon this evidence he had to dis- 
continue his action as to B, and his recovery against C 
was reversed on appeal because the Court held, that if 
there was any obligation on C's part, it was joint with 
A. In another case, the architect went to A, who was a 
large real-estate dealer interested personally and as direc- 
tor and officer of several corporations in the promotion 
and sale of real estate. The architect was employed to 
draw up a scheme for the general improvement of a large 
tract including buildings, and to assist him he was given 
a map of the property. Nothing was said as to the owner- 
ship of the property and the architect assumed that he was 
personally employed by A, whom he knew to be respon- 
sible. After the plans were completed and submitted, 
nothing was done, nor could the architect secure any 
further information regarding them or the contemplated 
work. Upon a suit being brought against A to recover 
for the services, immediately upon the map being put in 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



141 



evidence the Court dismissed the case, since on the back 
of the map it appeared that the property belonged to a 
corporation, and it was held that such information was 
notice to the architect that the property belonged to the 
corporation, and there being no evidence, of an absolute 
promise on the part of A to pay for the plans, there could 
not be a recovery from him personally. Of course, as 
usual in such cases, by the time the case got to trial and 
was dismissed, the corporation was bankrupt. 

In another instance a town committee of which A was 
spokesman were raising money to put up a building to 
induce a manufacturer to locate there. A and some 
other committeemen called upon the architect, telling 
him their purpose and suggesting that he get up some 
plans for the building. He did so and after they were 
completed then took up the question regarding payment 
for the same. Upon the trial there was a conflict of evi- 
dence as to whether or not the defendant A promised to 
pay the architect subsequent to the completion of the 
plans. A judgment was recovered by the architect, but 
upon appeal it was reversed on the ground that there 
was no fair preponderance of evidence of any express 
promise to pay for the plans on the defendant's part, and 
if the work was not done on the defendant's credit, but 
for some other person or party, any subsequent express 
parol promise of the defendant to pay the same would 
be void as a promise to pay the debt of a third party. 

Another common case was where certain promoters 
acquired property for speculative purposes, which prop- 
erty was later turned over to a syndicate in which the 
promoters held a half interest. A trustee was appointed 
by the syndicate to develop, manage and sell the same. 
The promoters had an architect do certain work, includ- 
ing the designing and drawing of plans for a hotel to be 
erected upon the property. After the work was done, 
the syndicate refused to pay for the same, and upon suit 
being brought it was held that the authority of the pro- 
moters to bind the syndicate did not extend beyond the 
purposes of the enterprise, namely, the development, 
management and sale of the land, and that the construc- 
tion of such a hotel as planned was not presumably one 
of the purposes of a speculative acquisition of suburban 
real estate and hence the syndicate were not liable. 

As is shown by these few examples, it frequently hap- 
pens that if the architect fails to recover against the 
party sued, he still has his rights against some other 
party, but it is almost the invariable rule that in such 
instances the other party is either financially irresponsi- 
ble or has, during the time consumed waiting for the 
trial, appeals, etc., so arranged matters that the result 
of an action against such party would be very question- 
able. Of course, the chief reasons for this difficulty are 
the delays of the law and the expenses involved in carry- 
ing on litigation, with the possible chance of the running 
of the Statute of Limitations, especially where the attor- 
neys for the defendant do everything to delay matters. 

The most serious question, namely, as to whether or 
not you are employed, always involves the question as 
to whether or not the contract for employment is condi- 
tional. Without a doubt, the bane of the architect is the 
conditional job. Young architects especially are prone 
to waste valuable time and money in drawing plans for 
irresponsible parties or promoters in the hope of secur- 



ing employment. Except on careful consideration, no 
architect should make his compensation conditional upon 
suiting the client's taste or until the sketches meet with 
the client's approval, since that condition involves a per- 
sonal equation which is sometimes impossible to over- 
come. In a written proposal an architect agreed that 
the client would be under no obligation until the sketches 
met his approval, and should the architect at any time 
before said approval become in any way unsatisfactory 
he would retire upon return of all the sketches, without 
claim for any services performed. Of course, notwith- 
standing this agreement, the architect, after spending 
several thousand dollars' worth of time and materials, 
etc., considered that he should be compensated, and 
sued accordingly, but of course with no success. If 
there is no written evidence of the employment suffi- 
ciently exact in its terms to make a complete contract, 
you can always count upon the employer finding some 
condition which was a precedent to the architect's 
employment or receipt of remuneration. The usual 
conditions concocted to cover disagreements as to the 
question of employment are that the plans were to be 
satisfactory to or approved by the employer; or that the 
plans were to have been for a building of a certain cost; 
or that the architect was to procure contracts for erec- 
tion within or near his estimates of cost; or that his 
employment was conditional upon the acquisition of a 
certain lot or tract of land, or upon the use of certain 
property for certain purposes. Of course, if the client 
can prove to the satisfaction of a jury that any of these 
conditions were conditions of employment or of the 
right to remuneration, the architect naturally loses not 
only his time, labor and expense, but he is further bur- 
dened ordinarily with the costs given against him in the 
action, in addition to his own expense for witnesses and 
attorney. A few examples of how these conditions have 
worked will very quickly show the importance of this 
matter. Upon a trial the evidence showed that the archi- 
tect had prepared preliminary sketches for the erection 
upon premises owned by A of a building costing over a 
million dollars. These sketches or plans were prepared 
in order that they should be submitted for consideration 
and selection. A kept them in his possession for several 
months, and upon five or six occasions the architect 
visited him in regard to the same. The evidence further 
showed that A, who had died before the action came to 
trial, had told another witness that he had had plans 
prepared for a building by the architect, that he liked 
them very much and approved of them, and that accord- 
ing to the plans it would pay him to make the invest- 
ment and put up the building. Later the plans were 
returned and the property sold, and A refused to pay 
the architect. The court held, and it was sustained on 
appeal, that there was lack of proof of an employment of 
the architect, upon the ground that from this evidence 
and from the fact that no use was ever made of the 
plans and no building ever erected, there was no accept- 
ance of the services proven from which either an employ- 
ment or an acceptance of the services could be inferred. 
It was further held that there being no employment 
proven, there could be no recovery of the value of the 
services on quantum meruit or reasonable value. 

Probably the most usual and popular condition attached 



142 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



to an architect's employment is the condition that he 
shall give his employer a building which shall cost within 
a certain fixed sum. On account of the fact that the 
architect's remuneration is some percentage of the actual 
cost of construction, the general public immediately 
assume that which sometimes is the fact, that the archi- 
tect tries to make a building cost as much as possible to 
increase his compensation. The law as regards employ- 
ment by others than municipal or governmental bodies 
is well settled, that where the owner stipulates that the 
plans and specifications shall be for a building not to 
cost over a specified amount, the architect must draw the 
plans and specifications for a building to cost reasonably 
near that amount, otherwise he fails to live up to his 
contract and cannot recover for his services. For ex- 
ample, it has been held that an employment to prepare 
plans for a house to cost $100,000 where the contractor's 
estimate, including architect's fee and superintendence, 
was $107,500, and also in another case where the plans 
were to be within $50,000 and the estimate was $52,500, 
and in a further case where the plans were not to exceed 
$2,500 and the estimate was $3,100, that in each case 
there was a substantial performance and the architect 
could recover his compensation for such plans and speci- 
fications. The following are cases where recovery was 
not permitted, namely, where the contract called for a 
building to cost $4,300 and the lowest bid was $7,000; 
where the cost was to be $18,000 and the lowest contract 
offer was $35,000; and where the cost was not to exceed 
$4,500 and the estimate was $8,000. 

These considerations show that even when dealing 
with individuals an architect should have the contem- 
plated cost of the proposed building for which he is to 
draw plans in writing and he should further know and 
have a contractor willing to undertake the construction 
according to the plans and specifications prepared for a 
price not to exceed such cost. 

This raises another serious problem for the architect 
since primarily he is employed to furnish plans and 
specifications for the erection of a building and is only 
entitled to remuneration therefor if they are made in 



accordance with the direction of the owner. When the 
owner wants gold trimmings for his bath tub, it is very 
difficult to plan a suitable house and include such a fix- 
ture for $5,000. This question becomes of such serious 
importance in employment by municipal and oilier 
governmental bodies that further discussion will be tem- 
porarily deferred. 

The following illustration shows that ine(iuitable re- 
sults are often reached by a conditional contract. A was 
the owner of a large tract of land. He entered into an 
agreement with B, an architect, that the latter should lay 
out A's land, have it surveyed, make plans, etc., as to 
where houses should be constructed and determine their 
style as required by the natural situation ; that B was to 
make no charge whatever for such services, but that in 
the event of any of the land being disposed or let for 
building purposes that then B would be appointed archi- 
tect on A's behalf to see that the building construction, 
etc., was proper, etc., and that parties building on the land 
should pay B one and one-fourth per cent of the outlay, 
provided they did not employ B as their own architect. 
The agreement further provided that in the event of A 
or his executors wishing to dispense with B's services at 
any time he, or they, should be at liberty to do so, with 
the understanding that he or they should remunerate B 
for the time, trouble and expense he had been put to in 
making his preparations. Thereupon B went ahead, had 
the land surveyed, expended large sums of money and 
time in making plans, etc. A then died and his execu- 
tors sold the land, but not for building purposes, and 
also dismissed B without any remuneration. Upon suit 
being brought, the Court held that there should be no 
recovery for the work done, because the only event upon 
which the architect was entitled to remuneration had not 
happened, namely, the disposal of the land for building 
purposes. The theory of the Court was that under the 
circumstances, the land not having been disposed of for 
building purposes, the services of the architect were 
not necessary, and since he had contracted with that 
contingency he should be held to the strict terms of his 
contract. 




GREENHOUSE AT TUXEDO PARK, N. V. 
Donn Barber, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Second Precinct Police Station, New York. 

STOCKTON BEEKMAN COLT AND THORNTON CHARD, ASSOCIATED ARCHITECTS. 



143 



etyjjifjcerm 



MUSTC£COOM 




Jl 








THE new Second Precinct Police Station, which has 
been completed recently, is situated at 156-158 
Greenwich street, running through some 250 feet to 
Washington street. This is one of the four new police 
stations planned under the administration of Gen. Theo- 
dore A. Bingham, Police Commissioner of the City of 
New York, to replace old buildings which are poorly 
equipped for patrolmen, prisoners and administration. 

The first and mezzanine stories are of granite with 
wrought-iron window guards, gates and lamps; while 
the superstructure is of impervious red brick. .Steel 
floor beams and girders 
with terra cotta floor 
arches and partitions of 
fireproof blocks are used 
throughout. The public 
floors and corridors are 
finished in cement and 
terrazzo, while the vesti- 
bule and muster room 
are wainscoted in marble. 
In addition to the two 
main staircases of iron 
and slate provision has 
been made for an ele- 
vator, which will give 
ample and ready access 
to all parts of the build- 
ing. 

The interior arrange- 
ment, especially on the 
first floor, is a departure 
from the stereotype New 
York City police station. 
The idea is to give as 
much privacy as possible 
to the muster room con- 
taining the lieutenant's 
desk, as well as to the 
entrance where the patrol 
wagon discharges pris- 
oners. To this end the 
main entrance is situated 
in a central court, acces- 
sible by a driveway from 
both Greenwich and 

Washington streets. This feature serves the double pur- 
pose of privacy and security. Heavy iron grille gates 
guard the driveway entrances, which may be closed in 
case of riot or to prevent curious persons from entering 
the court. All the undesirable excitement and interfer- 
ences attendant on the arrival of a patrol wagon at the 
door of the old type of police station with its muster- 
room entrance and windows on the street is here avoided. 

Directly off the court is the entrance to the stable 
which is separately ventilated and equipped with open stalls 
and quick-hitching apparatus. These quarters are also 
prepared for the storage and care of automobiles. Acces- 
sible from the court are two isolated rooms with special 



ne5T rw(F FLAy^ 

PLANS OF SECOND 




arrangement for sanitation and ventilation, one is the 
morgue and the other a gasoline pump-house for the auto- 
mobile service. The latter room is separately ventilated 
on account of gasoline fumes while an electric fixture is 
especially provided with a double-glazed electric lamp. 

At the (rreenwich street front is a separate entrance 
for reporters, admitting them by private corridor direct 
to the muster room. The ground floor provides for a 
reading room and recreation room for the patrolmen, 
with toilet adjoining. In the rear of the building, on 
Washington street, are the cell rooms. These cells are 

of the most recent pat- 
tern, and e-xtend three 
tiers in height. They 
are equipped with mod- 
ern devices for sanitation 
and ventilation. There 
are two departments, one 
of thirty cells for men, 
and another of fifteen 
cells for women. The 
cells and window bars 
are of tool-proof steel 
with interlocking connec- 
tions. Adjoining the 
women's department are 
the quarters for a 
matron. 

The upper stories of 
the building are arranged 
for sleeping quarters, 
with twelve private 
rooms and toilets for the 
officers and nine dormi- 
tories, accommodating 
some one hundred and 
sixty men. There is also 
a separate dormitory for 
detectives. All these 
quarters are equipped 
with comforts consistent 
with discipline and econ- 
omy, each dormitory 
having numerous venti- 
lated lockers in addition 
to ample lavatories, 
showers, and drier rooms for wet garments and boots. 

The sleeping quarters have been planned inexpensively 
with the sanitary and hygienic principles carefully con- 
sidered, the air space allotted to each bed being equiv- 
alent to that prescribed for hospitals. Hospital finish 
has been used throughout and ample window space fur- 
nished. On the roof is a large deck-house which may be 
used ordinarily for a gymnasium and in time of riot for a 
kitchen and mess hall. In the cellar are located the 
boilers, coal storage, pumps and repair shop, with ample 
storage rooms for ballot boxes, proceeds of raids, etc. 

The contract price for the entire building, complete, 
amounted to approximately $183,000, 





-8 



O 01 l/t-yU'L. . 



gjiu y ' * i =rt. —T 1 imii ^^^ /n/lrl/ rKXF PLAy^ 
PRECINCT POLICE STATION. 



144 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




^ : '■■• ■■" z_i 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

The Principles of Architecture. — III. 



H5 



by w ili.iam i.. mowli.. 

Classical Profiles. 

THE two elements of visual effect of which mould- be illustrated in connection with the other profiles which 

ings are made up are contrast and gradation, follow. 

Mouldings are seen by the effects of light and shade on The half-round section, Fig. II.l, has a surface which 

their surfaces. The degree of these effects varies with presents a full gradation and two contrasts only less 

every change in the amount of light, so that it may be strong than those of Fig. I.l. The surfaces are similar 



said that the contrasts and gradations characteristic of 
each are contrasts or gradations of surfaces. It is a 
matter of common observation that the relative effects 
of mouldings and their parts are the same in all lights. 
Strong and weak, bril- 
liant or flat, they are 
always seen to be the 
same kind of surfaces. 

Analysis of the sur- 
face contrasts of each 
moulding explains the 
origin of the feeling of 
its character. 

The fillet, Fig. I is 
formed by the intersec- 
tion of three planes, two 
parallel and perpendic- 
ular to a third, and is 
symmetrical. It pre- 
sents the maximum of 
contrast in a single 
moulding form. It sel- 
dom appears without 
modification, or in large 
dimensions, because the 
abruptness of its con- 
trasts are such as to 
withdraw attention from 
other neighboring ob- 
jects. On account of 
its absolute balance it 
can be used unmodified 
only where a vigorous 
check to movement is 
required. 

The fillet as used at 
the intersection of major 

planes or planes and curves is formed by the intersection 
of two planes perpendicular to each other. It is again 
practically symmetr'cal when the two faces are equal. 
It is in this form an arrest, and since in few instances is 
a pause desired in a set of mouldings, it is seldom so 
used. In the form shown at Fig. 1.5 the vertical face 
makes a more emphatic contrast at (a) than at (/') be- 
cause the vertical face is broader than the horizontal. 
The general effect is unbalanced with a suggestion of 
movement upward and outward. The form at Fig 1.6 
is rare as its suggestion of movement is not that gen- 
erally sought. This most "contrasly" moulding is 
rarely used as a principal section but is very fre- 
quently found as a minor moulding where, used at a 
relatively small size, its function in diminishing a con- 
trast by breaking it up into small areas or strips will 



FIGYL 



in their hold on the attention. The torus is never used 
in the ascending portions of any arrangement because 
the vigorous hold of its symmetry is destructive of 
movement. Even when the astragal is so used it is 

invariably with the ac- 
companiment of a fillet 
below the main portion 
of the moulding. In 
Fig. II. 2 the mass is 
evenly divided. In Fig. 
1 1.3 the larger portion 
is above. In this re- 
spect the effect would 
be similar if the shape 
were as at Fig. 1 1.4. 
The latter example has 
however no definition, 
and consequently little 
interest. The sharp 
contrasts in Fig. 1 1. .3 
contribute much better 
to the purpose of the 
moulding. Then in- 
stead of softening off 
below, the fillet at (a) 
Fig. II. 3, not only dis- 
turbs the balance but 
breaks up and dimin- 
ishes the contrast below 
by making the surfaces 
which intersect with 
each other narrower. 
That this is the inten- 
tion is shown where this 
feature, commonly iised 
for the neckings of col- 
umns, is completed as 
at Fig. 1 1. 5. The ([uarter-hollow below still further 
diminishes the contrast, .vhile allowing in many exam- 
ples the formation of an actual plane surface at (a), on 
the top to increase the contrast at that point. 

The torus placed at the base of a surface as in Fig. 1 1.6, 
gives no special sense of direction when unaccompanied 
or unmodified. In this arrangement commonly used, the 
contrast above at (a), although different from that below 
at (/?) is more or less its equivalent. Both are secondary 
in interest to the symmetry of the torus. A fillet placed 
above the torus again performs the office of disturbing 
the balance and breaking up the contrast as in the case 
just cited, permitting the combination to convey an im- 
pression of pressure downward which is, in common 
with other bases in all styles, the only exception to the 
general rule that throughout architecture all movement 




146 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



is upward. When the half-round is used in capitals it is 
deformed so as to make the major contrast or interest 
fall in the upper portion, so as to cause the form to be 
unbalanced upward. Compare Fig. 1 1.8, the type usu- 
ally occurring with Figs. 1 1.9 and 11.10, in which the 
contrasts or form masses fall lower down. 

The "quarter-round," shown in Fig. III.l is never 
effectively used in the form which the term signifies. 
That section is as dead and characterless as the fillet with 
equal faces. A preponderance of one dimension of its 
section over the other at once removes the immobility of 
the quarter-round. The curve at (a) leaves its tangency 
to the vertical plane more slowly than at (^) so that the 
contrast at (a) is more marked. There is more of the 
mass of the moulding at the side {(7). The suggestion of 
the movement is upward. This is the more marked if 
the angle at (l>) is broken up by a fillet. This has the 
further effect of actually disturbing the balance or ap- 
proximate balance of the ovolo. The surface Fig. III.l 
is nearly a balance, practically a quarter circle, and the 
eye fiuds little reason for seeking one edge rather than 
the other. In Fig. Ill J there is presented a larger 
mass at one side and a smaller at the other. 

These angular and convex mouldings together with 
those of the group about to be described are frecjuently 
distinguished from all others as mouldings of support or 
footing because of their stronger effect. This character 
is attributable to two causes, one structural and the 
other due to visual effect. The convex mouldings permit 
the forming or construction of projecting parts with less 
prejudice to the security of the material of which the 
parts are made, both while the material is being formed 
and while it is subjected to the stresses which it must 
resist in the structure. The larger factor however is the 
superior attractiveness of the angular and convex forms 
which they owe to the strong contrasts and gradations 
formed on their surfaces. In illustration of this idea the 
modillions or brackets of the Corinthian order are excel- 
lent examples. This well known form which has been 
repeated myriads of times may have had its origin in the 
adornment of the end of a projecting beam, but in its 
shape it has not the slightest suggestion of structure. 
Its lines are such, in fact, as to ignore connection either 
with the wall or the under side of the cornice. Their 
value is purely optical. Interesting objects of form con- 
trasting with that of other parts of the entablature in 
the upper portion of which they are placed, they serve con- 
tinually to distract attention from its lower to its upper 
portion and thus to contribute to that intangible current 
of movement in which ideas of support and lightness are 
confounded. 

The next moulding forms to be considered are those of 
double curvature, which naturally in characteristics stand 
between the convex and the concave surfaces and vary 
in force according to the degree in which the convexity 
or concavity predominates. 

The cyma reversa. Fig. IV. 1 has always a definite 
direction because it has a major contrast, [a), placed 
uumistakably at one side of the form. Because of the 
certainty of the direction of these mouldings they con- 
tribute to a lighter or "quicker" general effect than 
those just considered. The cyma reversa makes one 
contrasted junction with the adjacent surfaces at {a) like 



that which the ovolo makes, and at the other edge (d) 
is prevented from gliding unmarked into the surface 
below by a fillet of two contrasts. The degree of 
movement across the surface depends upon the relative 
amount of hollow. As the hollow increases in rela- 
tive size as in Figs. IV. 2, and IV. 3, the amount of 
convexity and the contrast at that edge are diminished 
until their effect is seriously rivaled by the fillet on the 
other edge. 

Fig. IV. 1 is "stronger" in support than Fig. IV. 3 
because its effect of the asymmetry is stronger. There 
is more difference between the mass (c) and (</) in Fig. 
IV. 2 than the similar masses in Fig. IV. 3, thus produc- 
ing a more marked asymmetry. Movement may be said 
to have two characteristics which are represented by 
the ovolo and cavetto — volume and rate. The ovolo 
is stronger and more sluggish, the cyma reversa has less 
force and more vivacity. 

The cyma recta is not at all adapted to the suggestion 
of support as are the preceding sections in varying de- 
grees. Its main masses, contrasts or interests are not 
unquestionably unbalanced. In the form shown at Fig. 
V. 1 the larger contrast is at (a). This contrast is gener- 
ally diminished by placing a fillet at {a) as in Fig. V.2. 
The main contrast is even then not clearly shown at (d). 
The upshot of this hesitation is that the moulding is not 
adapted for suggestion of support but rather for an 
arrest, without marked balance, in positions where that 
suggestion is required. It is, consequently, most used 
for crowning sets of mouldings or divisions of a com- 
position. 

Moulded surfaces which are altogether concave in sec- 
tion are less capable of variety of interest than other 
sections. They have, on the whole, less light on their 
surfaces so that less striking gradations are formed with 
less brilliance. This contrast which they form with the 
surface upon which they are placed is their chief charac- 
teristic. The " (juarter-hollow " forms continuous junc- 
tions with each of the adjacent surfaces, {a and d), Fig. 
\'I 1. This surface is balanced. There is possibly a 
suggestion of movement across the surface. Fig. VI. 2, 
upward. The hesitation is due to the slight lack of bal- 
ance. The conge shown in Fig. VI.3 is slightly more 
emphatic because of the absence of one of its fillets, leav- 
ing to the other more unquestioned supremacy. This is 
the only common example of the use of a moulding with 
an unmarked " gliding " junction. 

The cavetto shown in Fig. VII gives a strong line of 
shade, less strongly marked by gradations because of the 
exclusion of light. It is in this form strongly symmetri- 
cal. The symmetrical hollow is generally used vertically 
to serve as a guide as in the Doric columns discussed in 
a preceding chapter. In bases it is used unsymmetri- 
cally, its departure from balance agreeing with the move- 
ment of the base downward. 

The channel shown in Fig. VIII is a harsh and " con- 
trasty " moulding form comparable to the fillet of which 
it is the inverse. It should probably be placed with 
the fillet in grading the sections in the order of their 
force. 

The comprehension of these visual effects is the key to 
much hitherto unexplained in this art. They are a part 
of the pure or inorganic design of architecture. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 7. PLATE 85. 




SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS, TRENTON, N, J. 
Cass Gilbert, Architect 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 7. PLATE 86. 




THE BRIC KBU I LDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 7. PLATE 87. 




NORTH CHICAGO HEBREW 

CONGREGATION TEMPLE. 

CHICAGO. ILL. 




FIRST 

FLOOR 

PLAN. 



Alfred S alschuler, 
Architect, 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 7. PLATE 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 7. PLATE 89. 




_J 






II3u~,1"1JtI 




r/nti nme fui/y 




rmonoaenAA 




iwc£ »fr r cyn't4yut 



:ji^™L- 



' I- 






□- 



J 






If i 






■* T 



^q 



^1 ■ 



^ 



rinnriwecMtfrayi/v 




U.l.^4. 



.JM, J* ■ktf'- J^ -r^ 



mem noQP/'iyi/Y 



_^ i i lYx JT^ "" p~ 




Ltiili-i 



r 



1 r T r „ ^ 



ciP 



4&^^4iP.eiiP 






iccAiff ncce /lA^,' 



iE3— I 



i<^ j 



Tt|T;p7rr 



=rl 



13 






Pil^ 



\^l f^ 



r^L^ 




i^XA-^-rZ/Z-;^. 



CLUB HOUSE 

FOR THE 

PITTSBURGH ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION. 

PITTSBURG, PA. 

Janssen & Abbott, Architects. 



THE BRICKB UILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 7. PLATE 90. 




SWIMMING POOL 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 7. PLATE 9L 




LOUNGING ROOM. 




MAIN LOBBY 

CLUB HOUSE FOR THE PITTSBURGH ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION. PITTSBURG, PA. 

JANSSEN & ABBOTT, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 7. PLATE 92. 




< 

d 

cc 

D 
OQ 

CO 

H 
H 

a! 

z 

o 

h 
< 

u 
o 

w 

CO 

<; i/j 

H 

(J HI 

— . H 

H £ 
J < 

X H 

H 5 
< S 



O 
DC 

;=> 
oa 

CO 
h 

h 

CL 

w 

H 

o: 

O 

u 

c/5 

D 
O 
PC 

m 
D 

o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 7. PLATE 93. 





HOUSE AT ROSLYN HEIGHTS, PA. 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20,* NO. 7. PLATE 94. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 7. PLATE 95. 





HOUSE AT HAVRE DE GRACE, MARYLAND. 
Parker, Thomas & Rice, Architects 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 7. PLATE 96. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 7. PLATE 97. 




THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 7. PLATE 




1^ 




HOUSE AT OVERBROOK, PENNSYLVANIA. 
Charles Barton Keen, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



147 




148 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Burned Clay in the New Chicago and Northwestern Station. 



WITH the opening of the new terminal station at 
Chicago, of the Chicago and Northwestern Rail- 
road, a worthy gateway is flung wide to the golden west. 
The thought and care of years have been crystallized 
and built into tan- 
gible form, and the 
crowding throng of 
suburbanites and 




beamed ceiling of enameled terra cotta. Here again the 
walls are of the soft green tile. Adjoining this con- 
course and on the same floor is the main waiting room 
with a high vaulted ceiling spanned by big ribs of terra 

cotta in tints of 
green and cream. 
The decorations in 
the ribbed terra 




general traveling 
public have rushed 
in, with their wide 
variety of wants, 
and have found 
them anticipated 
and provided for. 

Five years of 
construction have 
followicd on after 
many years of care- 
ful study and plan- 
ninig; $23,000,000 
expended; four 
hundred and fifty- 
five buildings 

wrecked to make place for the new structure covering 
twenty acres; two hundred and twenty-six caissons ex- 
tending to bed rock more than 100 feet below ; forty- 
three thousand separate piles; thirty-seven thousand tons 
of riveted steel; five different switch towers operating 
six hundred levers; all manner of electric elevators for 
handling passengers, baggage, etc. ; rest rooms with 
toilets for passengers and employes; and a smooth run- 
ning arrangement for shunting one lot of passengers in 
and another out 
without mixing. 

In entering this 
station at the street 
level one finds him- 
self in a room a 
block long through 
which are vistas 
between forests of 
fluted enameled 
terra cotta columns 
each of which is 
joined to four 
others by elliptical 
soffit arches of en- 
ameled terra cotta. 
Over this and filling 
in between are the 
groined ceiling 
arches of tiling of 
a lighter tint, while 
the wall surfaces 
are of a cool green 
enamel tiling. 

The traveler, ticketed and checked, passes up the main 
stairway into the concourse, another room a block long 
and as clean and bright as the one below, but with a high 






DETAIL IN TIA KdOM. 




TE.\ ROOM. 



cotta vault over- 
head are done in 
drive wheels, 
engine bells, 
wrenches, head- 
lights and ham- 
mers. Out of this 
room on the differ- 
ent floors are dining 
room s, barber shops, 
bath rooms, dress- 
ing rooms, rest 
rooms, smoking 
rooms, and a fully 
equipped hospital. 
Particularly nota- 
ble is the tea room in green-enameled tile, around which 
is a frieze of country landscape executed in tile. 

In this new station burned clay in its various forms 
has been used extensively for constructive and decora- 
tive purposes. The architects and railroad officials have 
here paid tribute to its value in a work of this character. 
Its brightness, which is easily maintained, gives a feel- 
ing of cleanliness, its colors add a cheerful note to the 
ensemble, and the fire-resisting qualities of the material 

insure perma- 
nency. 

The exterior of 
the main building 
is mainly granite, 
although terracotta 
has been used on 
the high parts, 
which, while match- 
ing the granite in 
effect, is lighter for 
the steel to carry 
and at the same 
time has a fire re- 
sistance much 
greater than the 
granite. The bal- 
ance of the building 
stretching down 
three entire blocks 
is of brick and 
terra cotta, while 
the endless array 
of rooms for all 
the multitude of uses are in enameled clay finish clear 
down to and ending in the enameled walls of the big 
power station. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



149 



Competition for a Small House to be Built of Natco 

Hollow Tile. 



Report of Jury. 



THE jury selected to award the prizes in The Brick- 
builder competition for a small house to be built 
of Natco Hollow Tile, at a cost not exceeding $6,000, 
have examined the two hundred and fifteen designs sub- 
mitted and find that a very large number were of a high 
order of merit and demonstrated the possibility of adapt- 
ing the material specified to a great variety of style and 
construction. 

The jury regrets that a number of the best designs, 
from both an artistic standpoint and from the standpoint 
of adaptabil- 
ity, were ex- 
cluded from 
competition 
owing to ex- 
cessive cu- 
bage, as the 
limit placed 
upon the size 
of the build- 
i n g in the 
program was 
made manda- 
tor y . The 
jury feels that 
several of 
these designs 
were of the 
type which 
should be 
most encour- 
aged in work 
of this nature 
and express 
the hope that 
in future com- 
petitions 
greater care 

will be exercised by those men who undoubtedly had 
offered the most pleasing solution of the problem. 

In making the award, the jury finds that the design 
submitted by Mr. Walter is a charming example of the 
style chosen and is developed from an excellent plan. 
The plan contains all the essentials of a house of this 
size, arranged in a most convenient relation. The de- 
sign, however, is handicapped by a poor presentation 
which prevents the full possibility of the house being 
apparent on first examination. 

The second prize was awarded to the design submitted 
by Mr. Lehti. This design presents a house of great sim- 
plicity and charm of proportion and composition, but 
upon analysis it is apparent that this charm of composi- 
tion has been obtained at the expense of a practical inte- 
rior — -all of the second floor rooms being badl}?^ cut into 
by the roof. The detail employed is restrained and in 
sympathy with the simple lines and surfaces of the com- 
position. 







r^ COnPETITION FOR A SHALL MOVSE 
1 '/ TO BE BVILT OF NATCO HOLLOW TILE 

■& TO COST SIX TflOVSAND DOLLARS 



Submitted by L. E. Varian, Denver, Colo. 
TWO DRAWINGS IN THE COMPETITION 



W 1 1 

if I t ■■I' I .. t. , >.-■.. -i:^ L I jjM 




In the design placed third Mr. Bohacher presents a 
house of a distinctly different type. The design of the 
exterior is particularly well suited to the material speci- 
fied. The fenestration together with the large unbroken 
surfaces of wall, while pleasing in execution and making 
possible an economic use of tile in the walls, is not an 
expression of the plan or a logical and sincere develop- 
ment of the house as planned. 

The fourth prize has been awarded to Mr. Bulman, 
who shows a compact type of building of formal design, 

which formal- 
ity, however, 
is attained by 
an extremely 
simple use of 
the material 
required. 
The character 
of detail em- 
ployed is com- 
mended as 
being in strict 
harmony with 
the simple 
dignity of the 
whole compo- 
sition. This 
house would 
be well 
adapted to a 
small lot de- 
veloped as a 
formal 
garden. 

Equal Hon- 
orable Men- 
tion has been 
awarded to 
Messrs. Schneider, Weihe, Keefer, Hazen, Roberts & 
Hallaren, and Aegerter, whose designs present a 
number of pleasing suggestions ranging from the highly 
picturesque to the strictly formal. The majority of 
these designs lean, perhaps too much, toward the pic- 
turesque; and it is regretted by the jury that there 
have not been more designs presented which would 
express the simple dignity which could so excellently 
have resulted from a logical and straightforward use of 
the material specified. 

Benno Janssen, Pittsburgh (Janssen & Abbott). 

Harrie T. Lindeberg, New York (Albro & Lindeberg). 

Milton B. Medary, Jr., Philadelphia 

(Zantzinger, Borie & Medary). -Mm 

Robert C. Spencer, Jr. (Chicago). ', 

William B. Stratton, Detroit (Stratton & Baldwin). 

/urf of Award. 




Gdiultition 



Nat 0.0 Tile. 

^^L ./ ID I. KCZ- 



Submitted by H. H. Wrenn, Norfolk, Va. 
kor a small house of natco hollow tile. 



ISO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 








1 " 



o >, 

w _ 






O 
■J 

o 

o 
u 






CO 



O 



W 
?. O 

ill ^ 







u. — 



2 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



151 





o 






00 

r) 






o 

o 

o 
o 

■I ° 

o 




X ffi 








P=^ 













Ph 






^ 













t-H 






H 






t-H 






H 







W 




.c 




PL, 




•a 
n 







a 


U 




<u 






> 


Di 




U 


W 




0) 


Q 


2; 


-o 


J 





i) 


kH 


Q 


a 


P 





CQ 




u 


M 


^4 



a 







b 


1 — ( 


H 


3 

in 






V 












a! 


H 




43 


W 




t>> 


H 



152 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




MENTION DESKIN. 
Submitted by H. S. Hazen, Jr., Boston. Mass. 







-BRiCKBuiL"m-coM- -, -^"i. --«%DBIIr«,^ 
PETITION -roa-A-six--j;'- . ' -^^^^^ ■ n '^^ 

-TnOUSAHD-DOU,*R" ^^t/ 
- HOUSE -- SUBMITttD -BY- 



MENTION DESIGN. 
Submitted by Wm. W. Keefer, 2d, Lansdowne, Pa. 

THE BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION FOR A 




.MENTION DESIGN. 
Submitted by Gustave W. Aegerter, St. Louis, Mo. 



^2?^ 


















'«," 



' >>«:_. 



BI13CX3U];L3'ER- COAVPETITIQ/I Sr»i. 





pm. '>" 



MENTION DESIGN. 
Submitted by Ernest E. Weihe, San Francisco, Cal. 

SMALL HOUSE OF NATCO HOLLOW TILE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



153 



Plate Illustrations — Description. 



School op' Industrial Arts, Trenton, N. J. Plates 
85, 86. The purpose of this school is to offer free in- 
struction in all the practical and fine arts courses. The 
exterior is of " Tapestry " brick with trimmings of poly- 
chrome terra cotta. The base of the building is of a 
local granite and the clock over the main entrance is of 
carved wood, gilded and colored. The auditorium will 
seat four hundred. The fourth floor provides for ma- 
chine and architectural drawing together with class 
rooms and toilets; the fifth floor takes care of designing, 
antique, free hand, painting, life-class, storage and toi- 
lets. The building, which is strictly fireproof, is equipped 
with a steam heating plant and modern plumbing. The 
contents of the building are 452,000 cubic feet, estimated 
from the basement floor level to the top of the flat roof. 
The total cost was $91,000, making $.201 per cubic foot. 

North Chicago Hebrew Congregation Temi>le, Chi- 
cago. Plate 87. The exterior of the temple is of a 
rich brown Oriental brick with slight variation in colors, 
and trimmings of stone. The first floor is constructed 
directly on the ground. Steel trusses support the wood 
roof joists which are protected below by a plaster ceiling 
suspended on expanded metal. In order that the main 
auditorium can be used during the daytime without artifi- 
cial light, large windows are provided with semi-translu- 
cent glass The electric lighting is entirely concealed by 
placing the lights back of the projecting cornice, from 
where they are reflected downward by the curved ceil- 
ing. The seating capacity, including the balcony, is 
twelve hundred. The interior decoration consists of 
panels outlined with flat bands, tinted throughout in tan 
and ecru colors. The building adjoining has an assem- 
bly room on the first floor which seats three hundred and 
fifty, while the second floor is devoted to school pur- 
poses. The ground to the left of the auditorium will be 
treated as a sunken garden. The cubage estimated from 
the footings is 618,000 feet for both buildings. The total 



cost including the organ and architect's fee was $80,000, 
making the cost per cubic foot approximately 13 cents. 

Club House, Pittsburgh Athletic Association, Pitts- 
burg. Plates 88-92. The exterior of the building is 
of terra cotta and has for its prototype in design the 
Palazzo Sanmicheli, Venice. In order to avoid unusual 
story heights and large window treatments the swimming 
pool, gymnasium and squash courts have been placed in 
the center of the building. The women's department 
is independent of the rest of the building, while the 
entrances to the swimming pool and gymnasium are so 
arranged as to be entirely closed off from the men. The 
dressing rooms are arranged in groups of three with a 
lavatory in the center. The large lobby is entirely fin- 
ished in pink Tennessee marble; the dining room is cov- 
ered from floor to ceiling with landscape decoration; the 
grill room is paneled in finished oak throughout; and 
the billiard room has a latticed effect on the walls and 
cork tiling on the floor. The swimming pool, which is 25 
feet by 75 feet, is finished in green and white terra cotta. 
The special features are the scum gutters which run 
around the pool at different levels, the curb which pro- 
tects spectators from being splashed, and the rubber 
flooring at the ends. The pool is supported on steel col- 
umns which rest on piers that extend to solid rock 14 
feet below the cellar level. The tank itself is constructed 
of boiler iron, inside of which are consecutive layers 
of concrete 6 inches thick, lead with a total weight of 
twenty-two tons, concrete 3 inches thick, and white 
tile bricks 3 inches thick. The gymnasium, 48 feet by 
96 feet, has a permanent stage at one end and two gal- 
leries, one for pulley weights, etc., the other for the run- 
ning track which is covered with cork. The roof of the 
gymnasium is flat and tiled for outdoor games. Three 
floors accommodate fifty-nine bedrooms, so arranged as 
to be used with or without baths, en suite or separate. 
The cost of the building was approximately $700,000. 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



ACOUSTICS. 

MR. H. H. STATHAM, writing on the subject of 
"Buildings for Music" in TJie Arcliilecfs' and 
B II il d c r s' J u r ?i a I s a y s: 
" Acoustic effect is a most elu- 
sive problem ; buildings which 
ought not, theoretically, to be 
good for sound sometimes 
proving unexpectedly satisfac- 
tory, while those over which 
great pains have been taken 
turn out failures. But one 
general principle is undenia- 
ble : it should be the object of 
a concert-room to assist sound 
at its point of production, and 
to prevent any reflection or 
reduplication of it by echo 
when it has once been pro- 




detail for theater. 

E.xecuted by Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company. 

Albert Kahn, Architect. 



duced. In the construction of the orchestra and its sur- 
roundings nothing is so suitable as wood. Hard sub- 
stances on the walls will drive sound forward, but will 

give it a harsh clanging effect. 
Textiles, on the other hand, 
drink up sound without vibra- 
ting with it ; there should there- 
fore be no curtains or such 
things anywhere about the 
orchestra. In the auditorium 
they may sometimes be useful 
in choking an echo, but this is 
only when the building is 
wrong to begin with. Fibrous 
plaster is a good material for 
lining the walls of the auditor- 
ium ; it acts in sympathy with 
sound without producing much 
echo. As a general rule, all 



154 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 




panes with wooden bars. Then shape 
has to be considered as well as material. 
As a general rule, concave surfaces are 
bad, either in plan or section ; they tend 
to focus echo. The two best rooms I can 
remember for hearing music were the old 
Exeter Hall, a wide parallelogram with 
the seats going up in a slope from front 
to back (the plan adopted also by Wagner 
in his Bayreuth theatre), and the Liver- 
pool Philharmonic Hall, also a parallelo- 
gram, with a flat floor, and a flat ceiling 
with a cant at the walls, and the surface 
broken up by a cross rib pattern in 
relief. ..." 



A^ 






mia^ 



THE BRADLE\' .MK.Mi)KI,\l KmI NlAls. i ■ i : ' ■ r , 

McKini, Mead & White, Architects. 

substances which give sharp reflections of light will give 
sharp reflections of sound; polished marble and other 
such materials are therefore misplaced in a concert-room. 
Plate glass windows are equally bad ; they send sharp 
echoes back; windows should be broken up into small 




ANCIENT ROME. 
N EXHIBITION has just been 
opened in one of the vaults of the 
Baths of Diocletian, consisting of a re- 
construction of Rome 
in the time of Constan- 
tine, about a.d. 330. 
The model, executed in 
white plaster, is about 
ten yards in length and 
six in width, and shows 
the various buildings 
of the ancient city on a 
scale which makes them 
easily recognizable. 
The work is that of 
M. Bigot, formerly a 
pensionnaire of the 
French Academy in Rome, who has 
spent eight years in compiling the data 
and finishing the plans. The area of 
the city represented is from a little 
north of the Porta Flamina, now the 
Porta del Popolo, to a little south of 
the tomb of Cecilia Metella on the 
Appian way, and from the right bank 
of the Tiber to the line of the old 
Servian Wall. 








A DRUG STORE AT DETROIT. 
Baxter & O'Dell, Architects. 



THE EXPANSION OF THE CITY 
PLANNING MOVEMENT. 

NyOT the least of the educational 
S value of the recent City Plan- 
ning Exhibition at Philadelphia was 
the interesting and valuable series of 
half-hour talks given every day in 
the Mayor's Reception Room in the 
City Hall by experts on city planning 
subjects. These talks were nearly 
all of them illustrated by lantern slides, and all were 
well attended by audiences composed of men and 
women interested in the respective subjects and by a 
large proportion of persons who were in the building 
for the purpose of viewing the Exhibition and who 
were attracted by the posters and circulars announcing 
the lectures. So well conducted was the instructional 
campaign in connection with this Exhibition that it was 






DKTAIL bV BAR- 
NETT, HAYNES 
& BARNETT, 
ARCHITECTS. 
Executed by Ameri- 
can Terra Cotta 
Company. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



155 



a common occurrence for bodies of business men, im- is a graduate of I'Ecole des Beaux Arts, was "logiste" 
provement associations, graduating classes, and many three times and in 1907 secured the first second Grand 




other organizations and 
collections of individuals 
to be shown through the 
Exhibition and have its 
significance in one way 
or another applicable to 
themselves pointed out 
by competent authorities. 






GREEK TEMPLE 

UNEARTHED IN 

CORFU. 

DURING recent ex- 
cavations on the 
site of the ancient city of 
Corcyra the ruins of a temple to- 
gether with its schlptures were un- 
earthed. Complete drawings have 
been made of the pediment of the 
temple, which has been ascribed to 
Apollo, as well as of the statuary, 
which apparently belongs to the 
Western pediment. The work will 
be continued under the supervision 
of Dr. Dorpfeld, who has already 
met with such great success. 




DETAILS, BUILDING FOR THE PITTSBURGH ATHLETIC 
ASSOCIATION. 

Executed in terra cotta by the Atlantic Terra Cotta'Company. 
Janssen & Abbott, Architects. 



Prix de Rome. As a 
practitioner he won the 
competitions for the 
"Hotel de Ville d'Es- 
sones " and the "Home 
for the Insane. " For 
several years he has been 
associated with M. Ber- 
nier in the work of the 
Atelier Bernier. 
M. Abella will assume 
his duties at Washington 
University in September 
1911, and will take direct 
charge of the work of 
intermediate and advance design. 



UNIVERSITY CHAIR FOR 
FRENCH ARCHITECT. 

THE Directors of Washington 
University, St. Louis, an- 
nounce the appointment of 
M. Charles Abella of Paris, France, 
as Professor of Design in the 
School of Architecture. M. Abella 




w 



DETAIL BY SEYMOUR AND PAUL DAVIS, 

ARCHITECTS. 

Executed by the O. W. Ketchani Terra Cotta 

Works. 



MISSION CITY AT PANAMA 
— CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION. 
'ORK will soon be started on 
the Mission City in Balboa 
Park for the Panama-California 
Exposition, designs for which 
have been prepared by Bertram G. 
Goodhue, architect. The build- 
ings will be completed as rapidly 
as possible in order to give ample 
time for the remainder of the 
exposition work. The Mission 
City will be one of the salient 
features of the exposition and will 
follow in amplified form the archi- 
tecture which the " padres " of 
early California used for their 
edifices. 



^56 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




be erected at Potsdam. It has been found necessary to 
reconstruct the garden selected and to remove a marble 
fountain in order to give the Steuben memorial a place 
befitting its monumental character. 



THE foundations of the Bank of England, London, 
are being repaired on account of a slight subsi- 
dence. The original piles 
on which the bank has 
stood for nearly two 
hundred years are in an 
exceptionally good state 
of preservation. During 
the excavations consider- 
alile Roman pottery ware 
has been unearthed. 



T 



[JUi: 



CniCAOO ILL 

n.M.6vaNfi*« ICO. AfiCKiTCCTa, 
TIT JMMIfUlNil ItftUC«TXAC^ail0 



11^ 

rilE I'KOPI.KS GAS KLll.DlNc;, MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO. 

At the right is the Municipal Courts Huilding faced with white enameled 

terra cotta. At the left the Pullman Building, now .SO years old, 

with trim of red terra cotta. The architectural terra cotta 

used in the three buildings was furnished by the 

Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. 

I). H. Burnham A: Co., Architects. 

A RNOLL) W. BRUNNER, President of the New 



H i'^ administrators 

of Tulane Univer- 
sity, New Orleans, having 
decided to remove the 
H. Sophie Newcomb Me- 
morial College to another 
site, and to erect a group 
of buildings for its ac- 
commodation, have ap- 
pointed a committee to 
select an architect for the 
purpose. A program of 
competition, approved by 
the American Institute of 
Architects, has been pre- 
pared, and Prof. Warren 
P. Laird of the University 
of Pennsylvania has been 
selected as professional 
adviser. The terms of 
this program are exceedingly liberal, and it is expected 




DETAIL BV HARRY HOWELL, 

ARCHITECT. 

Executed by the New Jersey Terra 

Cotta Company. 



IJL York Society of Architects, is traveling abroad in to secure the interest of the most prominent architects 



quest of ideas to incorporate in the new building for 
the vState Department at Washington. Mr. Brunner is 
planning to have not only a large conference room, in 
which international meetings may be held, but also a 
monumental hall for 
state banquets. This 
is an entirely new 
departure, as 
hitherto America's 
foreign visitors have 
had to be enter- 
tained at hotels, etc. 



THE Emperor of 
Germany has 
decided that the 
statue of General 
von Steuben, the 
German hero of the 
American revolu- 
tion, which the 
United States Con- 
gress has presented 
to Germany, shall 




of the country on account of the large amount of work 
to be done and the exceptional architectural opportunity 
afforded. 

All architects interested in this competition can secure 

a preliminary an- 
nouncement by ad- 
dressing the request 
to the President of 
Tulane University, 
in which will be 
stated the terms 
under which this 
competition will be 
undertaken. 



ll.LEIilUNE BCILDINi., CINCINNATI, 
Roofed with American "S" tile. 
Hake & Kuck, Architects. 



IN GENERAL. 

William DeForest 
Crowell has been ad- 
mitted to the firm of 
Mauran & Russell, 
architects, St. Louis. 
The new style of the 
firm is Mauran, 
Russell & Crowell. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



157 



Gary Selden Rodman, of the firm of Butler & Rodman, 
architects, New York, died on the 12th of June. 

Harvard University has established a Department of 

Landscape Architec- 
ture. 



The Cleveland 
Architectural Club 
at its annual meet- 
ing elected the follow- 
ing officers: President, 
William R. Powell; 
Vice-President, Albert 
E. Skeel; Treasurer, 
William A. Bohnard ; 
Secretary, L. Few- 
smith, Jr. 

W. L. M e n z ie s, 
architect, has opened 
an office at Ziyi 
S. Western avenue, 
Oklahoma City. 
Manufacturers' cata- 
logues desired. 



The Atlantic Terra 
Cotta Company fur- 
nished the architec- 
tural terra cotta forthe 
School of Industrial 
Arts, Trenton, and 
the Pittsburgh Ath- 
letic Association Building, at Pittsburg. Both of these 
buildings are illustrated in the Plate Forms of this 
number. 

Fiske's " Tapestry " brick was used in the School of 
Industrial Arts at Trenton. 

The following named manufacturers of burned-clay 
supplied their materials for the new Chicago and North- 




DETAIL OF BUILDING, 150 

FIKTH AVE., NEW YORK. 

Work executed by the New York 

Architectural Terra Cotta 

Company. 

Milton See & Son, Architects. 




ftittlfiJ 








FACTOK\ liril.UING, CLEVELAND, 
J. Milton Dyer, Architect. 



OHIO. 




B 



HOUSE, LINDELL BOULEVARD, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Brick manufactured by the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company. 

Mauran & Russell, Architects. 



western Station, which is illustrated in this issue: 
American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Co. ; National Fire 
Proofing Company ; R. Guastavino Go. ; Grueby Faience 
& Tile Co. 

The Superintendent of Building and 
Grounds for the University of Chicago 
desires manufacturers' catalogues pertain- 
ing to the various branches of work which 
come under his department. 

A very interesting review of work re- 
cently executed by the Atlantic Terra 
Cotta Company has just been issued by 
them in brochure form. 

The memorial to (Jueen Victoria, just un- 
veiled, was designed by Sir Astor Webb. 



POSITION WANTED. 

First class draftsman and architect's assistant 
fully competent to take entire charge on high 
class work desires position upon expiration of 
present contract. Excellent reasons for making 
a change. Confidential correspondence invited. 

Address W^est, care The Brickbuilder. 



158 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 



WANTED. 

Specification writer with large experience, for architect's 
office in the Middle West. An excellent opportunity for a 
capable man w^ith plenty of energy. Write fully stating ex- 
perience, reference and salary. 

Address, Wolverine, care The Brickbuilder. 

BRICK AND TERRA COTTA PLANT WITH 
FIVE (5) KILNS AT RAILROAD STATION 
(WITH SIDING) FORTY-FIVE MILES FROM 
PHILADELPHIA. RENT FREE FOR TEN 
YEARS TO ANY RESPONSIBLE PARTY WHO 
WILL MAKE CLAY PRODUCTS; UNLIMITED 
SUPPLY OF CLAY ON PROPERTY HALF MILE 
FROM WORKS. ADDRESS EDWIN F. MORSE, 
S. W. CORNER 12TH & SANSOM STS., PHILA- 
DELPHIA. 

C . . N 

Information for Architects. 

We design, build and install three styles of tloor-to-floor 
conveying devices, viz. : 

OPEN GRAVITY FRICTION SPIRAL CHUTES, 

AUTOMATIC STRAIGHT-UFT ELEVATORS, 

DOUBLE ROLLER GRAVITY SPIRALS. 

N<i modern factory building complete without one of these 
labor- and time-saving devices permanently installed. 
Architects may become fully informed concerning these 
modern devices by addressing the home office or any of 
our branch offices listed below : 

Mathews Gravity Carrier Company, 

ST. PAUL, MINN., U. S. A. 

Boston, 164 Federal St. 
New York, 30 Church St., Room 337 
Philadelphia, 1002-3 Drexel Bldg. 
Chicago. 213 Roanoke Bldg. 
St. Louis, Box 568 
CANADIAN MATHEWS CO., Ltd., 28 Sheppard St., TORONTO 
BRITISH MATHEWS CO., Ltd., 147 Upper Thames St.. EC, LONDON 



V. 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 

TRADE MARK - REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 

BULLETIN 

RECENT WORK, Ulustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

School of Industrial Arts, Trenton, N. J. . Plates 85, 86 

C.^.ss GiLBicRT, Architect 



1Z?ISKE 6- COMPANY INC 
lACE BRICKS/ ESTABLISH 
llRE BRlCKSl ED IN 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Arena Building, New York 



"SPECIFICATION BLANKS." by T. Robert Wieger, 
architect (formerly with F. E. Kidder). Forms for all classes 
of buildings, each trade separate. Complete set, 44 pages, 
25 cents. Reduction on quantities. Sample page upon 
request. 628- 14th street. Denver. Colo, 



University of Pennsylvania 

School of Architecture 

FOUR YEAR COURSE. (Dtgnt B.S. in Arch.) Options in design and 
architectural construction. 

GRADUATE YEAR. (Degree M.S. in Arch.) Allowing specialization in 
advanced work. Fellowships. 

SPECIAL COURSE of two years. (.Pro/aional Cerlificale.) For qualified 
draftsmen. 

ADVANCED STANDING granted for equivalents completed elsewhere. 

SUMMER SCHOOL in architecture and allied subiects. Special circular. 

YEIAR BOOK illustrating work in design, drawing, etc., mailed without 
charge. 

FULL INFORMATIO.N will be sent on application to the Dean of the College 
Department, Dr. George E. Fisher, University of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia. Pa. 



BOILERS AND RADIATORS 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Water Tube and Return Flue Boilers 

Plain and Ornamental Direct Radiators 
Direct-Indirect Radiators 
Indirect Radiators 

For Steam and Water Warming 

Send for complete illustrated catalog 

THE H. B. SMITH CO. 



Westfield, Matt. 
Philadelphia 



New York 
Boston 



Ideal Floor Covering 

FOR CEMENT FLOORS 



Lino/cum secured by waterproof glue to cement floors 
can be furnished in plain colors or in inlaid eflfects. 

Cork Carpel in plain colors. 

Ivlastic, Noiseless, Durable. 

Is practical for rooms, halls, and particularly adapted 
to public buildings. 

.Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing skilled workmen. 

J-'ollouing c.vamplfs of our tcork : 

Brookline Public Library. R. Clipston .Sturgi.s, Esq.. Architect. 
Suffolk County Court House, Boston. George A. Clough, Esq., 

Architect. 
Registry of Deeds, Salem, Mass. C. H. Blackall, Esq., Architect. 
We Solicit InQuiriea and Correapondence 

Ouality samples specially prepared for architects and 

builders mailed on application. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 
646-658 WASHINGTON STREET - BOSTON, MASS. 

Have been continuously in this business for 93 years 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XX 



AUGUST 1911 



Number 8 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, 1411, by ROGERS * MANSON 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ....... 

Single numbers ..................... 

Subscription price, mailed Oat to subscribers in Canada ............... 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ................. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 
t 



$5.00 per year 

50 cents 

$5.50 per year 

$6.00 per year 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

,, Terra Cotta 

Brick .... 



II 
. II 

II and III 
III 



Brick Enameled 
Brick Waterproofing 
Fireproofing 
Roofing Tile 



I'.AGK 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

ALBRO & LINDEBERG; BRAINERD & LEEDS; FRANK'MILES DAY & BROTHER; FROST & 

GRANGER; H. E. HEWITT AND HEWITT & EMERSON; CLARENCE H. JOHNSTON; 

R. E. MITCHELL AND WOOD, DONN & DEMING; NEWHALL & BLEVINS; 

JOSEPH EVANS SPERRY; ARTHUR TRUSCOTT AND ARNOLD H. MOSES. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

CHURCH f)F SANTA CLARA, QUERETARA, MEXICO Frontispiece 

WORKING PLANTS FOR YOUNG MEN'.S CHRLSTIAN ASSOCIATION.S Ifallfr Maine ll-ooci 159 

LEGAL HINTS FOR ARCHITECTS — PART II William I.. lUraman 17.? 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 176 




< 


o 


Pi 


o 


< 


►— t 


J 


► > 


CJ 


»>i 




w 


< 


l^H 


H 


f^ 


^ 




< 

•s. 


< 




c^ 


o 


< 


ffi 


w 


U (i^ 


p^ 


w 


p 

E 


p 


u 


o^ 



E ° 



** tfc ^ 



V P. .a 
cu o .2 



Working Plants for Young Men's Christian Associations. 



BY WALTER MABIE WOOD. 

General Secretary, The Y. M. C. A. ok Philadeli'hia. 



PROBABLY no other class of semi-public buildings 
presents to the architect such an imperative demand 
for the blending of special types of institutional equip- 
ment into a composite unity as do buildings of Young 
Men's Christian Associations. 

Practically all the essential elements of a hotel, a social 
club, a school, a church and an athletic club with 
separate provision for boys and men are to be brought 
into a harmonious combination that while preserving 
the efficiency of each feature shall so interrelate them 
that a man's use of one shall lead him into the use of all. 

In recent years, with the rapid addition of new features 
and the employment of an increasing number of special 
supervisors for different phases of work, many Associa- 
tions have developed buildings that are more conspicu- 
ous for their segregation of so-called " departments " than 
for their contribution to the attractiveness and effect- 
iveness of the combination as a whole. 

SOME FUNDAMENTALS. 

There are certain fundamental principles that must 
be wrought into the plans of a modern Association 
building. 

1st. // must be iinnting, convenient and comfortable. 

The Association is a leisure-hour institution to which 
men and boys feel no obligation to come unless attracted 
by the fellowship and activities of the place. If the 
building of the Association be uninviting or ill suited to 
its intended activities, the Association will lose its con- 
stituency to competing leisure-hour attractions of less 
helpful influence. 

The good purposes and beneficial service of the Asso- 
ciation do not relieve it from the necessity of presenting 
to possible users a most attractive exterior and interior. 

While there is no call for extravagance, and certainly 
not for gaudiness, the character and tone of architectural 
finish and furnishings should bespeak the brighter and 
higher ideals and bear as far as possible the marks of 
simple elegance. To such the cultivated are attracted 
and the uncultivated are not without appreciation of 
them also. The high grade, not the cheap Association 
building furnishes the one common attraction to rich 
and poor, cultivated and uncultivated alike. 

2d. It must have considerable revenue-producing capacity. 

It is the common purpose of Young Men's Christian 
Associations to keep down to the minimum the cost of 
the privileges to members so as to make them accessible 
to the maximum number, then too much of the religious, 
social and service work of the Association involves a net 
expense. It is therefore necessary, in order to avoid 
the strain and hazard of depending largely upon contri- 
butions to cover the difference between the dues and 
fees and the cost of operation, to put portions of the 
Association building to such uses as shall produce a 
revenue. 

Formerly the lower portions of buildings were ar- 
ranged for stores, etc., with the Association activities 



provided for upstairs. The past decade has shown the 
superior advantages of dormitories or living rooms for 
men occupying the upper portion of the building and 
putting the other general activities down nearer to or on 
the street level. These dormitories return a larger and 
less fluctuating revenue while at the same time render- 
ing a real service to young men and aid in giving a home- 
like rather than a public institutional aspect to the 
building. 

Several common faults are the selection of a site 
where dormitories are not in demand, the provision of 
too small a number of dormitory rooms, the arrangement 
of too many large rooms for two or more occupants with 
too few comparatively small rooms for one occupant only 
at small rental, and the failure to anticipate additions to 
the dormitory section as the demand increases. 

In addition to this dormitory source of revenue to 
supplement the receipts from dues and fees, each of the 
other features should be so arranged that its use can be 
economically controlled and proper fees for its use col- 
lected. For instance, instead of one door admitting to 
gymnasium, natatorium, lockers, baths, games, etc., each 
feature should be capable of such control as would admit 
to its use those who may have purchased special privileges 
separately a la carte or instead of restricting the sale of 
privileges to those who are willing and able to purchase 
the whole combination on an annual basis. 

Another consideration is the arrangement of class, club 
and other rooms, so that when not used for their major 
purposes they may be converted to living rooms or other 
revenue-producing uses. 

3d. It must be capable of economical maintenance and 
control. 

An Association is used day and night for varied pur- 
poses by a considerable number of people and conse- 
quently must be able to stand rather hard usage. It is 
also true that the fees charged users are always scaled 
lower than the cost of operation. 

These two facts make it necessary to so plan and con- 
struct the building that a minimum current expense shall 
be incurred in repairs and maintenance, in janitor service 
and in supervisory force for the proper control of 
activities. 

It is much easier to secure enough money to construct 
a new building properly than it is to get current sub- 
scriptions to meet excessive expenses for up-keep. 
Architects, building committees and others should not 
readily consent to initial economies which involve abnor- 
mal maintenance and operation charges. 

Effective design, good materials and good workman- 
ship are even more needed in an Association building 
than in a store, factory or other building which houses 
a self-supporting enterprise. 

In planning the arrangement of features three test 
questions should be constantly applied: (A) Does this 
arrangement involve minimum travel of people in the 
building, especially elevator travel? (B) Does this 



i6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



arrangement avoid opening up more than the minimum clerical service and executive supervision. When direc- 

space actually required for the feature in operation at tors have occasion to be in other parts of the building 

the time? (C) Does this arrangement enable a minimum they should be among the members and not attempt to 

force to give efficient supervision of the space in use? do office work and lead activities at the same time. 

In arranging things for effective handling by a mini- 4th. // iinist be so desigucd and constructed as to facih- 




VOUNO MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BL'ILDING, RICHMOND, \ A. 
Davis & Davis, Architects. 



mum force there will be found considerable economy in 
coaceatrating all department executive offices as nearly 
as possible beside each other on the main floor adjoining 
the lobby. The scattering of offices for the various 
department directors over the building as at present 
arranged in many buildings entails excessive office 
expense for attendants or many useless trips of members 
and others to closed offices. The gathering to one con- 
trolling center of all offices also simplifies the matter of 



taie internal revtodcling and rearrangement of rooms for 
changing uses, also the attachment of additions or annexes. 
The variety of features conducted by an Association, 
the changing popular demand and the intent of the 
Association to supplement rather than supplant or dupli- 
cate other successful agencies serving men and boys, 
makes it expedient that the adaptation of the work to 
current needs may not be hampered by fixity of the 
building arrangement and equipment. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



i6i 



l^^^^^SL^ 






» i v -" - I' J- ^-1 „ — , , — d — I 




9- 




^m "^S 


ca.. -*■ Z"-" " ' '. W*^ l^B^SKB^T^^tBA 




^^M 




|p~~~' ^^\\\\^J|PH 





m 

z . 

o tl 

<: '^ 

< 

<: a 

5 S 

1 2 

u o 

"z 

w 




l62 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Not only the service rendered but the financial safety involving unnecessary expense or destroying the archi- 

of the Association depends largely upon its freedom to tectural harmony of the building plan, 

reshape its work to new ideals and demands. Since Association experience has shown that many 

Some building plans are meritorious not because the buildings are outgrown in a comparatively few years and 

original arrangement is final but because they permit of many others must be abandoned because of necessary 

changes without too great expense and without leaving removal to new community centers, it is well worth 



conspicuous marks of 
alteration. 

Any successful 
Association is a 
growing institution 
and will need chang- 
ing and enlarging 
equipment for vari- 
ous phases of its 
work, and while pass- 
ing judgment on 
the fitness of the 
plans for present 
uses the architect, 
and especially those 
supervising the As- 
sociation work, 
should constantly 
figure on the other 
possible uses to 
which each room 
might be put and 
how flexible the 




RAILROAD HRANCH VOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDING, 

ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Theo. C. Link & Son, Architects. 



keeping in m ind 
from the outset the 
possibility of trans- 
forming the building 
to adapt it to other 
than Association 
uses, thus avoiding 
an unnecessary 
shrinkage in value 
of the property when 
the Association 
leaves it. 

SUGGESTIONS 

FROM 
EXPERIENCE. 

The following sug- 
gestions growing out 
of personal experi- 
ence in making 
needed changes and 
additions in Associa- 
tion buildings bear 
upon matters which 




/iKof ftogic. FMyy 



xcQ^onooc PiA^ 



building will be for such 
changes. 

They should also antici- 
pate likely enlargement of 
the building and should 
make such provision in 
land space, foundations, 
strength of walls, hall- 
ways, light courts, ele- 
vators and space for 
enlarging mechanical 
plant as will make in- 
creases in the size of the 
building feasible without 
unduly disturbing current 
activities and without 




£/i:v:Mi:/vr FL/t,-v 



are frequently not prop- 
erly provided for and 
should have the attention 
of architects and building 
committees when plans 
are being prepared : 

Barher Shop. Ample 
space should be provided 
for those waiting for ser- 
vice, the line of traffic 
being sufficiently clear of 
the barbers' chairs not to 
involve interference with 
the barbers. 

Baths and Lavatories. 
Specially liberal provision 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



163 



THIRD FLOOR. 



YOUNG WOMEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

BUILDING, INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 

D. A. Bohlen & Son, Architects. 




FOURTH FLOOR. 








TRL"-tK. lioOP- 



Game "Roor- 



■ — t • ■ 




C5>r^M/vSK 




BASEMENT. 



FIRST FLOOR. 



SECOND FLOOR. 



164 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



should be made for heating water to care for the maxi- Buliet.ns. The design of the exterior of the building 
mum demand for the baths. Baths should be placed in should include provision for such bulletins and announce- 
other than the natatorium room to avoid steam nuisance ments as are likely to be displayed. The same provi- 
and to make possible the use of the natatorium for sion should be made in the lobby and other interior 
events without putting baths temporarily out of use. points to prevent the unsightly placing of signs and 
Lavatories and baths should be separated from toilet notices. Suitable racks for the holding of printed matter 



THIRD FLOOR. 




THE BEDFORD BRANCH VOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
Jackson & Rosencrans, Architects. 



rooms by double-swinging, close-fitting doors with high 
glass panel. Boys' baths should have several fixtures in 
one large stall rather than individual baths. If shower 
baths are arranged in two or three adjoining rooms or 
stalls with doors that can be locked between them, with the 
boys' locker room at one end of the series and the men's 
locker room at the other, by opening or closing proper 
doors the number of available baths for men and boys 
at definite hours may be increased or decreased at will. 



for distribution should be placed in the lobby near the 
office. 

Cabinets and Cases. Usually it is unwise to build in 
cabinets and cases; they should rather be movable so 
that changes may be made without defacing the interior 
finish. 

Check Room. The general check room should be 
larger than is usually provided and should have two 
separate windows to make possible the caring for two 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



1^=; 




THE SECOND FLOOR 




c Yinn-Ajiun 

JO • oo 



GYnnA/iun 
AKurx 

J5 • JO 



UI1W\ 



tii 



toon 

I.' 




THE FOURTH FLOOR 




IHE THIRD FLOOR 






' p -- 




- F ■„ T 




Ht -tH''"-- 




ll,,piy,.,-jv,.,"orrirr 




^1' R-w 


'- 


^"-1 




L 



L C. t Y 
© 



L 




THE BASEMENT PLAN 



THE FIRST I LOOK 



YOUN(; MENS CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION HU 1 1,1)1 N(;, CAMDEN, N. .1. 
Howes & Morse and J. C Jefferis, Associated Architects. 



1 66 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



lines of people at a time. Extra facilities for checking 
apparel should be provided near the main assembly hall. 

Class Rooms and Laboratories. These should be 
provided with ample blackboards. Class rooms should 
have connecting doors, preferably at point in partition 
wall farthest from hall doors. Several moderate sized 
rooms may be 
wisely connected 
with accordion 
doors. 

Class rooms 
should be in portion 
of building not dis- 
turbed by noises 
from the street or 
gymnasium. 

Club Rooms and 
Parlors. These 
may well be located 
near the lobby and 
the restaurant, and 
a small parlor for 
ladies, very accessi- 
ble to the lobby but 
retired from it, 
should be provided. 

Decorations. 




KISTIAN ASSOCIATIiiN n ;il)l\i 
Harding & Seaver, Architects. 



concentrated in large amply equipped rooms at a central 

point on each floor. 

No separate parlors or assembly places are advisable 

in the dormitory section of the building. 

Drinking Water. Drinking fountains, refrigerated if 

possible, should be placed on each floor, or at least places 

should be provided 
for water coolers. 

Electric Con- 
nections. Special 
openings with 
proper attachments 
should be provided 
for stereopticons, 
desk lamps, decora- 
tion lighting, fans, 
vacuum cleaners, 
etc. 

Elevators. At 
least one should run 
from the basement 
to the roof and be 
large enough to take 
a piano. Passenger 
elevators should 
have car indicators 
on each floor. 



ITII SI IKI.D, MASS. 




PLAN OF BASEMENT 



PLAN OF FIRST STOm' 



PLAN Of SfCOND STORV 



The flagstaff for flag or pennants should be provided 
together with other fastenings and fixtures for exterior 
and interior decorations. These should be included in 
the original plans to avoid later injury to woodwork and 
walls. Picture rails throughout the entire building and 
simple wall panels in numerous places facilitate decora- 
tions. 

Doors. Doors to rooms in which Association activities 
are conducted may well be solid except for narrow clear 
glass panel at least 4 feet 6 inches above the floor. 

Especially in the dormitories, good locks of the cylin- 
der type, if possible, should be used. 

Dormitories. With possibly few exceptions all lava- 
tories and bath facilities for dormitory men should be 



Engine Room. This should be given liberal space with 
careful provision for ventilation, should be accessible for 
the delivery of supplies and should have a building shop 
for repairs and light shop work adjoining it. 

Entrances and Exits. The number of those leading 
into and out of the building should be reduced to a 
minimum. All except the main entrance should be 
equipped with alarm indicating in the office. 

Special doors leading from the gymnasium and natato- 
rium to hallways and lobby should be provided for use 
in handling crowds. 

Two separate entrances to the building, equally at- 
tractive, are advisable, one for boys and one for men. 

Floors. Cement floors that require painting to be 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



167 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



MAIN I.OBHV. 



BASEMENT PLAN. 



1 68 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



presentable should be avoided. Waxed floors are very 
difficult to maintain. Special care should be given to 
insure a proper slope of floors to drains. Construction 
often fails at this point even when plans are right. 

Games. Pool and billiards may well be placed in room 
connecting with the bowling alleys, pins being set at the 
far end away from the billiard room. This arrangement 
enables one attendant to control both rooms. vSmall 
games should be placed in parlors and lobby, not in 
separate game room. In games where tournaments are 
held, as in equipment where athletic contests or meets 
are held, standard ecjuipment and standard measure- 
ments should be used. All games should be placed 
where constant oversight is possible. 

Gymnasium. If possible a portion of the gymnasium 
should be so that it can be opened to the sky. An auxil- 
iary gymnasium or special exercise room, both if possi- 
ble, should be provided. Windows and lights should be 
adequately screened. 

The running track should have safety rails near enough 
to floor of track to prevent a party who has fallen from 
slipping through, but high enough from the floor to let 
basket balls, etc., roll through if thrown on the track. 
Considerable apparatus should be placed so that its use 
will not interfere with classes using the main portion of 
the floor. 

Halls for Assembly. The large assembly hall should 
have a level floor with serving room adjoining which is 
connected with the restaurant kitchen. Individual mov- 
able chairs are desirable. The hall is then serviceable 
for banquets and social events where refreshments are 
served. A small hall about one-fifth the capacity of the 
large one may well be located across the hallway. The 
gymnasium with its entrances should be planned to make 
possible its occasional use for large gatherings. 

Hand Ball Courts. These require more ventilation 
than is usually given. They should be located near the 
gymnasium and have hard wood floors. 

Janitors' Quarters. Dressing rooms with locker and 
toilet facilities should be provided for men and women 
porters and cleaners. Supply closets should be located 
in different portions of the building. 

Ladies' Accommodations. Aside from the ladies' parlor 
there should be at a point accessible from the restaurant 
the ladies' parlor and assembly hall, a retiring room with 
lavatory and toilet facilities. 

Library. A small work room and storage room should 
adjoin the library and the library shelves should be of 
such height as to put all books within easy eye and hand 
reach. 

Lighting. If possible, the lobby should have ample 
daylight, preferably from the front of the building, 
which arrangement will make the artificial lighting at 
night increase the attractiveness of the building. Light- 
ing in class and club rooms should be capable of easy 
rearrangement to suit different uses. The lighting 
throughout the building should be in small unit circuits 
with numerous convenient switches. 

Lockers. Men's and boys' lockers should be separate. 
Special attention should be given to ventilation. A few 
lockers with keys should be put in a small room for 
use by special individuals or parties. The large sized 
lockers should be used whenever possible. The provision 



of boxes to contain each man's supplies which may be 
stored in pigeon holes near the porter's station and de- 
livered to the members to take to large lockers for tem- 
porary use while in the gymnasium or natatorium is an 
advantageous arrangement. 

Natatorium. Where possible a portion or all of the 
natatorium should be so placed that it may be opened to 
the sky. Partition walls or guard fence should be pro- 
vided to make the use of the pool impossible without 
passing the attendant. Ample filtering facilities should 
be provided, also facilities for flushing off the surface 
water. The latter maybe accomplished by having water 
flow from a perforated hand rail. 

Because of requirements in competitive work, the pool 
should be if possible exactly 60 feet in length or a simple 
fractional part of 60 in addition. 

Office. This should give ready control of the main 
entrance, should be easily accessible from it, but not 
obtrusive in the social lobby. Proper vault, mail boxes, 
etc., should be provided. 

Plans. It is due the architect that he shall be furnished 
on beginning his work a very detailed statement of the 
features to be provided in the building and the carefully 
thought out suggestions of the Association's officers as to 
desirable arrangements. If the Association officers and 
the building committee are required to prepare this 
matter in advance they will be able to give the architect 
more intelligent and sympathetic co-operation. 

In the preparation of plans the nature of furnishings 
to be used should be considered. Mounted copies of all 
plans should be preserved by the Association for 
reference. 

Plumbing. The hot water plumbing should be so 
arranged that little water need to be ri:n to waste to 
secure the hot. 

Special control valves should be placed on mains lead- 
ing to the shower baths. 

Receiving Room. A room near the rear or side 
entrance, if possible, should be set aside as a receiving 
room to which all things coming into the building will 
be delivered and where all things will be safely stored 
temporarily awaiting delivery from the building. In 
smaller places this may be wisely located near the office 
or check room. 

Restaurant. This feature proves most attractive and 
successful when on or near the main floor. In such loca- 
tion special care must be given to ventilation to keep 
odors out of the rest of the building. Dumb waiter 
service to every floor is desirable for serving club 
dinners, refreshments, etc. The restaurant should pref- 
erably consist of several connecting rooms. 

Roof. If possible provision should be made here for 
outdoor exercise, social gatherings and lounging. A 
section of the roof should be reserved for cleaning and 
sunning rugs, draperies and bedding. 

Sales Room. This should be equipped to handle sales 
of toilet, gymnasium, educational and other supplies, 
and should adjoin the office, check room or station of the 
porter who controls the locker room. 

Stairs. Hand rails should be provided; there should 
be frequent landings, and restrictions of width of stairs 
by column bases, pilasters or other obstructions should 
be avoided. 



THE BRICKB UILDER . 

VOL. 20, NO. 8. PLATE 99. 




CO 
OT 

< 

2 

Q 

< 
u 

I 
w 

_] 

CQ 

a: 
< 
2 

d 
z 

Q 

DQ I- 
<j 

-7 "J 
/-. I- 

25 
i— "= 

<:■ 

U 5 

O 

W 



(n 



CD 



<^ 

^ _ Ui 

a: 
I 
o 

2 

LjJ 

2 

O 
2 
D 
O 
>• 

u 

2 

W 
DC 
H 



THE BRICKBUI.LDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 8. PLATE 100. 



■N\nd aoonj ONOoas 



■Nvid aooij iSbij 



•NVHd aooij Hxanod 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 20. NO 8. 



PLATE 101. 




^WUNG-MEM-G«1STIAN- ASSOOATION- 




DETAILS OF YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDING, NORFOLK, VA. 
R E Mitchell and Wood, Donn &. Deming, associated Architects 



THE P. R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 20. NO. 8. PLATE 102. 



P_„ 




THE BRIC KBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. b. PLATE 103. 




i^ammm^^ 



Tttm rtOOR fiAA 




Frost & Granger, 
Architects 



/5/ldCMiyi/T FLAAf 







ne^TrwoEFLAA 



i 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 8. PLATE 104. 




ENTRANCE. 

MOHAMMED TEMPLE, PEORIA, ILL. 
Herbert Edmund Hewitt and Hewitt & Emerson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 8. PLATE 105. 




&-1jLMLAr FLA/y 



Ai/ti/v rum PL/uY 



//vrce/icm/irc ura. vPFce upri^ 



MOHAMMED TEMPLE, PEORIA, ILL 
Herbert Edmund Hewitt and Hewitt &. Emerson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 8. PLATE 106. 





LINDEN BAPTIST CHURCH, CAMDEN, N. J. 

Arthur Truscott and Arnold H Moses, Associated Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 8. PLATE 107. 




I 
O 
CC 

H m 
< Q 

QQ S 

2 U 

w 

Q 

2 
J 



-t- 




a ■ a 



O Q <n 



X o t 



< < 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 8. PLATE 108. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 8. PLATE 109. 




roueTHriooe pla/v 



r/rm tLoojs fla/v 




^yfS/^jyC/Vr Ft A// 



r/FSmOOF FM/V XMK>» i'" - r -r T-4 /-f f r 



si::Coyvn rwoF fla/v 



r///FD nOOF FLA A 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 8. PLATE 110. 




SECOND FLOOR. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 8. PLATE 111. 




rmr nooR PLA/J 



YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDING, WHITE PLAINS, N. Y. 

ALBRO & LiNDEBERG, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL 20. NO. 8. 



PLATE 112. 




JiASRMRTVT PZJV^ " 



■PlUST FLOOH PZ-JiJV- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



169 



Storage. Ample and accessible storage space should 
be provided for supplies and equipment temporarily not 
in use. This should be immediately accessible from the 
stairway and long elevator. There should be special 
small storage rooms or closets opening off from the 
gymnasium for apparatus, and off the lobby and assembly 
halls for chairs and other furniture. 

Telephones and Call Bells. Dormitory rooms should 
be wired for call bells with return circuit. Pay telephone 
stations should be put in the hall on each floor. Public 
telephone stations should adjoin the lobby or office. 
Possible extensions from an exchange or the installation 
of a house-telephone system should be anticipated and 
provision made for the placing of wires. 

Visitors' Galleries. The gymnasium and natatorium 
should have ample provision of accessible gallery space 
for visitors and onlookers. vSimilar provision, less ex- 
tensive, should be made in the pool and billiard and 
bowling rooms. 

Windows. Sash windows are preferable to french 
windows except when intended for access to balconies 
or porticoes. Wire glass should be used where break- 
age is likely or where windows are exposed to possible 
fire from adjoining buildings. 



It should be stimulating to an architect and a builder 
to know that the effective designing and right construc- 
tion of a Young Men's Christian Association Building 
are large contributions toward the furtherance of the 
Association's service in the upbuilding of the boys and 
men of the community. 



Y. M. C. A. Illustrations. 
Description. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Norfolk, Va. Plates 100, 
101. The exterior is of a grayish red brick having very 
wide white joints, with trimmings in the lower stories of 
Indiana limestone and above of terra cotta. The metal 
work is a greenish gray. The cornice is of various shades 
of silver gray with panels and rosettes picked out in orange 
and dull red. The roof is of slag except for the roof 
garden, which is of vitreous tile. Upon the interior the 
entrance lobby has terrazzo floors with marble borders, 
walls and ceiling of ornamental plaster work. The 
woodwork throughout is of ash stained a grayish brown. 
The construction is fireproof and cost per cubic foot, 
measured from the mean of the basement floors to the 
mean of the roofs, 25 cents. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Newton, Mass. Plate 102. 
The exterior is of water struck brick with trimmings of 
buff Indiana limestone. Upon the interior the finish of 
the main stories is paneled chestnut stained, and of the 
dormitories North Carolina pine. The floors in the lobby 
and main corridor are of terrazzo, in the balance of the 
first story of maple covered with heavy linoleum, in the 
basement of granolithic and in the upper stories of maple 
and quartered oak. Provision is made for three hundred 
and one lockers in the general locker room, sixty-eight 
in the business men's section and three hundred and 
thirty-eight in the boys' section. The pool, 21 by 60 
feet, has a floor and 6 foot wainscot of ceramic tile, the 
remainder of the room being finished in white enamel. 



The second floor plans for an assembly hall, a running 
track and kitchen, in addition to the directors', ladies', 
photo and club rooms. On the third floor are thirty- 
four bed rooms with necessary toilets, trunk rooms, etc. 
The building is heated throughout with steam and 
equipped with fan ventilation for the basement, first 
story and assembly hall. The fan may be used to flush 
out all locker rooms and baths. The first floor and the 
larger part of second floor is of mill construction, while 
the third floor and the roof are of ordinary joist con- 
struction. The cost of the building, including all con- 
tracts and fittings, was $102,400, or 16.75 cents per cubic 
foot. The cubical contents are 611,427 feet measured 
from top of basement floor to average of roof and includ- 
ing extra depth of boiler room, coal pocket and swim- 
ming tank. 

Hyde Park Y. M. C. A. Building, Chicago, III. Plate 
103. The exterior is of a deep red paving brick, strong 
in texture, with Indiana limestone trimmings. Through- 
out the building the finish and floors are of oak except 
in the bowling alleys, visitors' gallery and class rooms, 
where maple is used. The reception room and main 
rooms opening from same have a high wainscot with cap, 
base and rails of oak and panels of canvas painted in 
oil, while the walls above and ceilings are treated in 
water color. The walls of the basement, the auditorium, 
all sleeping rooms and halls are finished in oil paint. 
The locker rooms contain eight hundred lockers, each 
made of steel with open wire faces and sides. The en- 
tire structure is fireproof and cost, exclusive of furnish- 
ings, ;ji!l05,000, or 16% cents per cubic foot, figured from 
the basement floor to the top of the roof. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Baltimore, Md. Plates 108, 
109. The exterior is finished in Milford pink granite, 
mottled brick and terra cotta. The gymnasium locker 
room for men contains seventeen hundred and thirteen 
lockers and the one for boys five hundred and six. The 
fifth, sixth and seventh stories are divided into one hun- 
dred and twenty-four bed rooms, each having a large 
closet. Linen, trunk, shower, toilet and private bath 
rooms are provided on each bed room floor. The entire 
roof is covered with flat vitreous tiles and is used as a 
roof garden, the part adjacent to the elevators and stair- 
way being covered. The assembly room on the second 
floor seats four hundred and forty. The electric light 
plant, heating apparatus and elevator machinery are 
placed in the sub-basement. The outside dimensions of 
the building are 106 by 142 feet. 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Saint Pa^ul, Minn. Plate 110. 
In the basement are fourteen hundred lockers and twelve 
shower baths for men, four hundred lockers and eight 
showers for boys and two hundred extra large lockers 
with eight showers for a business men's club. On the 
ground floor the annex gymnasium will serve as a third 
hand ball court. The running track has twenty-three 
laps to the mile. The seating capacity of the auditorium 
is five hundred, one hundred and fifty of which are in the 
gallery. All of the one hundred and forty bed rooms 
will be outside rooms, while those on the third floor can 
be changed into class rooms. The lot cost $36,500, the 
foundations $17,000 and the general contract, together 
with fixtures, equipment and furnishings, $296,500, mak- 
ing a total cost of $350,000. 



170 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



V. M. C. A. Buii.DiNc, White Plains, N. Y. Plate 

111. The exterior is of Harvard brick and limestone, 
with cornices and entrance porch of white pine painted 
white. The roof is of copper. The general finish of the 
interior is chestnut stained a 

dark brown. The floors are of 
Georgia pine. The locker 
room accommodates three 
hundred lockers The build- 
ing contains 200,000 cubic feet, 
measuring from the basement 
floor to half the height of the 
roof, and was built for 23 cents 
a cubic foot, or a total cost of 
$46,000. This figure included 
the installation of a running 
track in the gymnasium, bowl- 
ing alleys and lockers. 

The New Y. M. C. A. Build- 
ing, Wilmington, Del. Plate 

112. The exterior is of brick 
and stone. The building is of 
steel frame construction with 
floors of hollow terra cotta. 
The spaces between the steel 
work around the light well are 
built with hollow terra cotta 
and covered 
with corru- 
gated sheet 
iron painted 
white. The 
finish of the 
reception 
room, billiard 
room, etc., is 
of quartered 
oak, stained a 
light brownish 
gray . The 
finish of the 
library, peri- 
odical room, 
restaurant and 
music room on 
the second 
floor is also of 
oak. The 
walls of the 
gymnasium 
are of cream 
colored vitri- 
fied brick , 
while the floor 
is of maple. 
The radiators 

are set in recesses in the walls and protected by wire 
screens. The fourth and fifth floors each contain twenty- 
eight bed rooms. The upper floors are trimmed with 
birch stained mahogany color, harmonizing with the 
cream colored, " sand finished " plaster walls. The 
basement is finished with yellow pine stained and waxed. 
The heating on the first floor is by indirect hot air, while 




YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

BUILDING, MARTINSBURG, W. VA. 

Harding & Upman, Architect.s. 




I AityEUT- »L» 1 



FIl/T-FLOOt- tUH 



in the gymnasium and the rest of the building above 
the first floor there is direct steam heat. The total cost 
was $190,000, including the architect's fee, and its unit 
cost was .33 cents per cubic foot. The furnishings cost 

about $20,(X)0 additional. 

The New Central Y. M. C. 
A., Philadelphia, Pa. Page 
161. The building is of steel 
frame with exterior walls of 
brick, excepting the first story 
front of limestone. The fourth, 
fifth and sixth floors comprise 
one hundred and seventeen bed 
rooms, the dining rooms and 
kitclien. The mezzanine floors 
contain administrative offices. 
Upon the interior the stairways 
are of Tennessee marble, like- 
wise the wainscot in the en- 
trance vestibule, and the bath 
and steam rooms. The library 
and the main hall are paneled 
in quartered oak extending to 
the ceiling. Elsewhere the 
plain plaster walls are painted. 
The pool is entirely lined with 
enameled brick which is laid 
against con- 
crete, a damp 
proofing 
course of 
a s p h a 1 t i c 
mastic, rein- 
forced con- 
crete and then 
broken stone. 
There are thir- 
teen hundred 
and eighty 
clothes lockers 
of steel. The 
dining room 
seats two 
hundred and 
fifty and the 
bancjuet room 
seventy-five. 
A large por- 
tion of the as- 
phalted roof is 
intended for 
skating. The 
approximate 
cost of the 
building was 
$675,000, of 
the furnishings $75,000, and of the land about $300,000, 
making a total investment of $1,050,000. 

Bedford Branch Y. M. C. A., Brooklyn, N. Y. Page 
164. The building is of pressed red brick, with headers 
averaging twenty-five per cent of nearly black ends. The 
base course and portico are of Indiana limestone and the 
balance of the trim, including cornice and work about the 



•/ECOIIII-flOOl-K»l 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



171 




50kLE OPFEET 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



BASEMENT. 



1/4 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



frequently arises where plans are ordered and drawn and 
never used. 

A, an engineer and architect, who had had experience in 
the construction of bridges, went to the ofifice of a large 
bridge corporation and asked for the President. That 
officer being out, he met the Secretary and Treasurer and 
also the Vice-President and stated that he would like to 
make plans for them for the bridgewhich they were expect- 
ing to construct over the Hudson River from New York to 
New Jersey. These officers said, " We are the men who 
carry on the business here and you can talk with us." 
The architect's ability and experience was discussed and 
he was then given a pamphlet containing the dimensions, 
width of span, clear opening, height and other details of 
the bridge. Said pamphlet further showed that before 
any construction could be begun or permitted, the con- 
sent and approval of the Commissioners appointed by the 
states of New York and New Jersey would have to be 
obtained ; also that the consent was required to be 
obtained from the federal government before any struc- 
ture could be placed over the river; and it further dis- 
closed the fact that the bridge corporation had an 
engineer and an assistant. The architect spent six weeks 
upon his work and then submitted to the Vice-President 
and Secretary and Treasurer an elevation, plans and 
general strain sheets, which were looked over and pro- 
nounced very good. As there had been some misunder- 
standing regarding the clear height, the architect left 
the first plans with the officers and started to draw further 
plans. The latter were completed in about two weeks' 
time and upon their being shown to the officers they 
stated that that was what they wanted. Subsecjuently 
these officers told the architect that they would submit 
his plans to the Board of Directors, and still later the 
Secretary and Treasurer told him that the Board had 
accepted his plans. Later on the architect prepared an 
article for publication containing a description of the 
bridge, together with lithographs of the drawings for 
the bridge. This article was published by the corpora- 
tion and stated that the plans prepared by the architect 
would be used in the construction of the bridge. The 
Vice-President and vSecretary and Treasurer invited the 
architect to be present on the ceremony of breaking 
ground for the bridge, and being present he was intro- 
duced to various persons as the engineer or architect 
whose plans had been accepted. The architect's plans 
were not thereafter used, and upon suit brought to recover 
for the preparation of the same it was held by the trial 
court and also by the Appellate Court that there could 
be no recovery for the plans as furnished or for the labor 
and time devoted to their preparation. This decision 
was reached upon the ground that from all that appeared 
in the evidence the persons who talked with the architect 
respecting the plans, and the architect himself, did not 
contemplate either the one to accept or the other to fur- 
nish by binding agreement any plans; but that the offi- 
cers were willing and invited the architect to submit a 
plan which might or might not be adopted, depending 
entirely upon certain contingencies; and also upon the 
further ground that under such circumstances the Vice- 
President and Secretary and Treasurer could not have 
the power to accept any plan or create a legal obligation 
against the defendant in connection therewith. The 



contingencies which the Court considered were that the 
work was of such national importance that no plan would 
or could be accepted until it had passed the scrutiny of 
the Board of Directors of the defendant corporation and 
received the approval of the state and national authori- 
ties. This one case makes it very patent that in cases of 
employment by a corporation the architect should assure 
himself that such employment is pursuant to a resolution 
of the Board of Directors. 

(3) Our consideration of employment by municipal 
corporations will involve also those (juestions likely to 
arise in cases of employment by similar corporate 
bodies, such as counties, boroughs, towns and villages 
which are by law ordinarily considered as municipal 
corporations. Right at the start, the writer, in view of 
his experience, advises architects never to do any work 
for any such governmental corporations without con- 
sulting an attorney. 

The chief matters which require attention are the 
charter requirements as to the making of contracts by the 
municipality and regarding the appropriation of money 
for the work; the thorough understanding of the terms 
of the contract entered into, and the strict and absolute 
observance of every clause and punctuation mark in the 
contract in its performance. 

Under most county and village laws and city charters, 
no contract is valid or legal unless there has been a prior 
appropriation for the work. This technical requirement 
is often so strictly construed as to work the greatest 
injustice, as is shown by the following actual experience 
of the writer in one of his cases. An architect had been 
given a signed and sealed contract by the authorized city 
official to draw plans for a certain building and superin- 
tend its construction. Said contract had attached thereto 
the requisite certificate of the head of the department 
that the estimated cost was a certain amount, chargeable 
to a certain fund previously appropriated, and also a cer- 
tificate of the comptroller that there was at hand an 
unexpended balance sufficient to pay the estimated 
amount for the work contracted for. The facts were 
that there had been an original appropriation by the 
proper Board of $18,000 for the work. The architect 
found upon investigation that in order to have the 
building conform to other structures of a similar character 
in the city it would require about $30,000. The appro- 
priating body were asked to appropriate the additional 
$12,000, but took so much time in so doing that the head 
of the department, believing the work essential and 
necessary, decided to take the additional moneys required 
from his general department appropriation. Said deter- 
mination was shown by the contract and approved by the 
comptroller by his certificate thereto attached. There- 
after the preliminary plans were drawn and approved 
and the one per cent due the architect paid out of the 
two funds by the comptroller of the city. After the 
working drawings and specifications had been completed, 
the work was abandoned, chiefly on account of the death 
of the official having said work in charge, and the city 
thereupon refused to pay the balance due the architect 
for the work actually done and completed by him. An 
action was duly brought to recover said balance and upon 
the trial the case was dismissedupon the ground that there 
was no specific appropriation of $30,000, the estimated 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



175 



cost of the work. So it was that the architect lost not 
only the value of his services and work actually per- 
formed, but court costs and his own legal expenses. The 
fact that the actual appropriation of $18,000 was still 
untouched in the city treasury and sufficient to pay his 
just claim, and the further fact that the acceptance and 
retention of the work and the payment by the comptroller 
of part of the contract price would seem to constitute a 
ratification or at least to create an estoppel against the 
city, availed nothing. However, this merely verifies the 
strict rule which is carried out by courts for such govern- 
mental bodies, that once the contract is proved void or 
illegal there can be no recovery upon quant 11 m meruit or 
for the reasonable value of the work done, even though the 
city, as a matter of fact, had been benefited by the same. 

The charter provisions or statutes and their legal inter- 
pretation differ as to the requirement of a written con- 
tract and as to the requirement that all contracts for 
work requiring more than a certain amount shall be 
awarded after due advertisement to the lowest bidder. 
For example, the law of New York seems to be well set- 
tled that the engagement of an architect is an exception 
to the general rule requiring a written contract, adver- 
tisement, etc. On the contrary, in Massachusetts it has 
been held that a county is not liable under a much simi- 
lar statute for architect's fees exceeding $800 unless the 
contract is in writing, after due advertisement for propo- 
sals. These two contrary determinations show that in 
dealing with statutes one cannot be sure that the stat- 
ute means what it says, though, as a general rule, if the 
strict requirements of the statute are not followed, there 
should be an immediate investigation made to see whether 
the variation is permissible under the decisions interpret- 
ing the statute. 

The ordinary municipal contract to-day contains so 
many unreasonable and unfair clauses that the writer 
has reached a personal opinion that in signing such a 
contract the contractor or architect gambles worse than 
on the stock market. He frequently becomes an insurer 
and an exponent of faith, hope and charity. 

Let us consider one of the usual clauses in architect's 
contracts, which provides as follows: "The architect 
shall on or before the first day of November, 1904, fur- 
nish a set of preliminary studies and specifications, to- 
gether with an estimate of the cost of said building or 
structure. If the said preliminary drawings and specifi- 
cations and estimates are not satisfactory to and approved 
by the commissioner, then the architect shall and will 
revise and correct the same so as to conform to the sug- 
gestions and criticisms and requirements of the commis- 
sioner, and so that the estimated cost, including the 
architect's fees, of the cost and service and inspection 
shall be well within the sum of $48,000, the funds avail- 
able for said building or structure." 

It had been judicially determined that under such a 
clause it was not necessary that the preliminary draw- 
ings, specifications and estimate should be within the 
sum mentioned and it was intimated that if the estimated 
cost, including architect's fees, ran above that figure 
it would become a question for the jury to determine 
whether or not there had been a substantial performance 
of the contract by the architect. In the latest case, how- 
ever, the same Court held that the architect was bound 



to furnish not only preliminary plans, drawings and 
specifications which, with the architect's compensation, 
should be within the limit of cost of $48,000, but that the 
final drawings, which must include the suggestions and 
criticisms of the commissioner, should also be within the 
$48,000. The facts in the case were that the architect 
dijew preliminary plans and specifications, the estimated 
cost of which, including his fees, was within $48,000. 
These preliminary plans were not approved by the com- 
missioner, but were revised and changed to meet his 
approval. These revisions were in the nature of better- 
ments, and the commissioner was advised that by making 
said changes he was increasing the cost. The architect 
was told to proceed with the work and follow his require- 
ments and suggestions, which he did. When the final 
plans and specifications were approved by the commis- 
sioner, the architect estimated the cost as about $58,000, 
including his fees. The engineering staff of the com- 
missioner thereafter suggested further changes, and while 
the commissioner did not finally determine to make the 
same, yet it resulted in putting oK the advertisment for 
bids upon the plans for almost a year, during which time 
prices advanced. The plans were finally advertised, but 
the lowest bid received was $66,000, exclusive of archi- 
tect's fees Thereafter the work was abandoned. Upon 
suit to recover for the services performed, the Court held 
that the architect was not entitled to anything, upon the 
ground that the contract clearly indicated that the amount 
appropriated for the building was not to be exceeded, and 
there being no larger appropriation, the amount of the 
appropriation bound both the plaintiff and the commis- 
sioner, or, in other words, that since the architect obeyed 
the instructions and requirements of the commissioner, 
as required by the contract, and yet failed to keep the 
cost within the amount appropriated, he thereby lost his 
compensation for his work. 

Another clause of the same contract provided for the 
payment of one per cent upon the completion of the 
drawings and specifications called for by the clause here- 
inbefore set forth, and it was contended that the archi- 
tect was at least entitled to that one per cent. The Court 
held to the contrary, on the ground that the approved 
revised plans did not come within the limit of cost of 
$48,000. 

This case and others seem for the present to establish 
a new rule of law in such employment, that where an 
architect contracts to furnish plans not to exceed a cer- 
tain cost and the bids being largely in excess of said cost 
so that the plans are abandoned, the architect loses his 
right to any compensation for the work done. This 
seems an exceedingly harsh and unfair requirement to 
put upon an architect, especially when one notes the 
range of prices bid by contractors upon the same plans 
pursuant to the ordinary advertisements for bids. How 
can a municipality conscientiously and fairly ask an 
architect to plan a building and make his remuneration 
dependent upon his following not only the requirements 
and suggestions of the official in charge, but also refuse 
to give him any credit in case there is delay in advertis- 
ing for bids, especially when the contractors' bids will 
vary thirty per cent on the same plans ? However, the 
Courts have so held and it behooves architects to take it 
into consideration in this class of work. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



ASIATIC BRICK. 

WE should hardly expect to learn much of the arts 
of civilized life from the tribes of central Asia, 
yet it seems they make better brick than we turn out. 



genious Mongols 
of temperature, 
bricks made by 
American. 



live is subject to great extremes 
having a disastrous effect upon 
the ordinary process. — Scientific 





ENTRANCES TO RAND, MiNALLV HUILDING, CHICAOO, lURNHAM A ROOT, ARCHITECTS. 

One of the first skeleton buildings erected in this country, now being deinohshed. The building is of brown semi-glazed terra cotta, 
made by the Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. The illustrations are from photographs recently made. 



The barbarians employ the same material that we do, 
and, curiously enough, the thing that imparts superiority 
to their process of brickmaking is one of the powerful 
agents of Western civilization — steam. When the Asiat- 
ics have baked their bricks for three days, the opening 
of the oven is closed with felt, which is kept wet, so that 
the bricks, intensely heated, are enveloped in steam. 
The process causes 
a remarkable 
change in the char- 
acter of the bricks. 
From red they turn 
gray, and at the 
same time acquire a 
remarkable degree 
of toughness and 
hardness. Although 
porous, they give 
out a sound when 
struck like that of 
clinkstone, and they 
are said to resist the 
efforts of weather 
much better than 
do the bricks of 

Western make. Necessity was the mother of inven 
tion in this case, for the climate in which these in 




PAVILION BY JOHN V. VAN FELT, ARCHl 

Faience tile frieze in rich colors executed by Hartford Faience Company. 
Roofed with I^udowici-Celadon Tile. 



IN (GENERAL. 
The Ninth International Congress of Architects will 
be held at Rome from the 2d to the 10th of next October. 
His Majesty, the King of Italy, has consented to act as 
patron of the Congress, and the Ministers of Foreign 
Affairs, of Public Instruction and of Art have consented 
to act as Honorary Presidents. The Congress will be 

inaugurated in the 
historic hall of the 
Horatii and the 
Curiatii. 

The Third Exhi- 
bition of the Rhode 
Island Chapter, 
A. I. A., will be 
held in Memorial 
Hall, Providence, 
October 21st to 
November 1st. 
Entry slips must be 
received before 
September 30th, 
and exhibits before 
October 11th. 



The Western Brick Company, of Danville, 111., fur- 
nished the brick for Mohammed Temple, Peoria, 111., 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



179 



Hewitt & Emerson, architects, which is illustrated in the 

Plate Forms of this issue. 

The Y. M. C. A. at Norfolk, Va., Wood, Bonn & Dem- 

ing, architects, illustrated in the Plate Forms of this 

issue, was built of Fiske's " Tapestry " brick. 
Clarence Wilson Brazer and E. Donald Robb have 

formed a copart- 
nership for the 
practice of archi- 
tecture, under 
the firm name of 
Brazer & Robb. 
Offices, 1133 
Broadway, New 
York. 

The Atlantic 
Terra Cotta 
Company fur- 
nished the archi- 
tectural terra 
cotta for the Y. 
M. C.A. Building 
at Ottawa, Ont., 
Jackson & Rosen- 
crans, architects; 
the Bedford 
Branch Y. M. C. 
A., Brooklyn, 
N. Y., Jackson 
& Rosencrans, 
architects, and 
the Y. M. C. A. 
Building at 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
These buildings are illus- 




STORE AND OIFICE BUILDING, 
CUMBERLAND, MD. 

Terra cdtta furnished by Conkling-Arnistroiig 
Company. Bricks furnislied by Hydraulic- 
Press Brick Cimipany. 
George F. Sansbury, Architect. 



Gaggin & Gaggin, architects 
trated in this issue. 

Mauran, Russell and Crowell, architects, of St. Louis, 
have opened an office at Dallas, Tex. Harre M. Bernet, 
representing them, desires samples and catalogues. 

Sayre & Fisher Company supplied the brick for the 
Bedford Branch Y. M. C. A., Brooklyn, Jackson & Rosen- 
crans, architects, which is illustrated in this issue. 

The Hydraulic-Press Brick Company furnished their 
brick for the Y. M. C. A. Building at St. Paul, Clarence 
Johnston, architect, which is illustrated in the Plate 
Forms of this issue. 

WANTED. — Back numbers of The Brickbuilder for January 
and February, 1908, and January, February and July, 1909. 
Will pay one dollar a copy. Must be in good condition. — Gifford 
Brabant, Room 1729, 38 So. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Office of the Supervising 

Architect, Washington, D. C, August 2, 1911. 
SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 3 o'clock 
P.M. on the 15th day of September, 191 1, and then opened, for the con- 
struction of the United States Post Office at WASHINGTON, D. C, in 
accordance with drawings and specification, copies of which may be had 
at this office or at the office of the architects Messrs. D. H. Burnham & 
Co., Railway Exchange Building, CHICAGO, ILL., at the discretion of 
the Supervising Architect. 

Applications must be accompanied by a certified check for $230 drawn 
to the order of the Treasurer of the United States, the proceeds of which 
will be held in this office until the return of the drawings and specifica- 
tions. JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, Superohwg Archilecl. 




V. ,M. C. A. HUILUINd AT PLATTSBURG, N. Y. 

Built of Fiske's "Tapestry" Brick. 
Jackson & Rosencrans, Architects. 

The new eight-story building for the Washington 
Investment Company, of Washington, D. C, J. H. 
de Sibour, architect, is faced on all sides, from the first 
story up, with white vitreous porcelain finished terra 
cotta, made by the O. W. Ketcham Terra Cotta Works. 

Plant No. 2 of the Western Brick Company, of Dan- 
ville, 111., is now in full operation, the product being a 
matt face brick, shading all through the reds and browns. 




HOUSE BUILT OK HOLLOW TERRA COTTA TILES, FURNISHED 
BY CARTER, BLACK & AYERS. 

"WANTKD. — Thoroughly competent draftsman. Lord, 
Hewlett C8b Tallant, 345 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

POSITION WANTED. — Architect and structural en- 
gineer, good designer and expert in materials, experienced on 
the highest grade residential and commercial work, also school 
and public buildings, with broad experience in the handling of 
clients, capable and forceful personality, able to meet and talk 
with men of all classes and to carry job right through from 
first interview to final payment, particularly conversant with 
the conception, promotion and financing of large building oper- 
ations, having business experience of the highest grade and 
executive ability to manage large office, wishes to become iden- 
tified with an established firm of architects, or single architect 
with good practice, where there are large opportunities for the 
exercise of merit and ability which will command recognition. 
Size of office not so important a factor as quality of work 
handled. Would consider partnership on reasonable terms. 
For interview, address, " X.Y.Z.", care Brickbuilder. 




< 6 



< 

X 



o < 

'J Q 



o s 



.a o 



Decorative Treatment of Plaster Walls. 



BY WILLIAM L. PRICE. 



AvS NEW conditions arise, as civilizations wax and 
wane, architecture keeps the records. No condi- 
tions, however vital with new thought, no matter how 
surely dying of a banal and fruitless renascence, but 
leave their mark on architecture. Either the touch of 
new sincerities and new beauty, or the scar of degener- 
ate and unthinking niceties. Living men build in archi- 
tecture living ideals; dead men in the name of culture 
paw over the scrap heaps of the past. 

I have looked vainly among the cloying refinements of 
our large modern buildings for some vestige of self expres- 
sion, some vital spirit, even for intelligent use of the old 
— their marble work is not even real marble work, let 
alone art. Our high buildings are our one stupid contri- 
bution to building — I will 
not say to architecture be- 
cause as architecture they 
have not yet arrived. 
They are feats of engineer- 
ing and decoration, and 
most of them are stupidly 
designed even as decora- 
tion. Our libraries. State 
and other public buildings 
which have a core really 
built of brick and steel 
and concrete are merely 
covered with a layer of 
unrelated marble. They 
might as well be veneered 
an inch thick for all the 
intelligence shown in col- 
umns that support abor- 
tive pediments, recesses 
made in walls for the sake 
of the columns to be set 
in them, pasted on pilas- 
ters that hang on the walls 
they are supposed to but- 
tress, moulding, column and pediment wormed over with 
borrowed and meaningless ornament. Our new forms of 
construction, steel and concrete, have scarcely been 
looked at as a possible medium for expressive beauty. 

There is no modern method of construction so fertile 
in its suggestiveness as reinforced concrete and hollow 
tile. Much has been written about the construction itself 
but little attention has been given to its possibilities as 
an incentive to design. 

There are a number of architects who are using it 
intelligently but a vastly greater number who, hampered 
by the traditions and fetters of the renascence, are still 
using the old details and the old motifs of decoration in an 
utterly inappropriate medium and without a reasonable 
relation to the life of to-day. 

In our slavery to form we have nearly forgotten the 
meaning of ornament. We go on reproducing details 
and forms of ornament which were designed for marble, 
in stone, wood, cement, anything and everything, and 
even where we work in marble we still hang festoons of 




MARLBOROUGH-BLENHEIM HOTEL, ATLANTIC CITY. 



flowers indiscriminately on bank buildings, on railway 
stations, and still stripe our walls up with unmeaning 
pilasters and mouldings. Mouldings are either to form 
watersheds on walls or for the purpose of ornamental or 
protective shadow, and ornament should be the glorifica- 
tion of the necessary materials of the building in such a 
way as to add to its beauty and at the same time express 
some purpose or some feeling inspired by the building 
or its use. 

When we are considering plaster surfaces, whether of 
concrete or of plaster coated tile construction, there is 
no excuse for expressing block consti"uction ; either we 
have a material cast in a mould or a trowel applied sur- 
face over some other material for protection and beauty. 

Practically all of the 
details handed down to us 
from the past are wood, 
stone or marble forms, the 
renascence using stone 
forms for all materials as 
we do, making its wood 
details of layers as in 
stone walls and using col- 
umn and pediment as or- 
nament. But concrete 
and stucco are neither 
wood, stone nor iron and 
while it is quite possible 
to make moulds in which 
concrete may be cast, imi- 
tating stone forms, it is 
quite inexcusable and an 
admission by the architect 
that he is totally unable to 
design or think in terms 
of the materials used. 

Quoined corners, col- 
umns with base and capi- 
tal, layers of egg and dart 
or dental ornament can only give one the impression of 
the block or layer construction out of which they grew 
and have no place in plaster buildings. 

The use of inlay in plain wall surfaces or on mould- 
ings is not new and most of it is trivial. It is usually 
an attempt to paint in varicolored fragments and it al- 
most never gives the impression of being part of the 
wall it is supposed to decorate, whether inlaid or cover- 
ing the whole surface. The reason for this is that it has 
not been used as a decorated portion of the wall surface 
but as an applied ornament. 

If a closely allied material which can be reasonably 
embedded in the wall surface be used in such a way as to 
seem a part of that surface, there can be no objection to 
such use of color for en;;ichment instead of modeled or- 
nament; and burnt clay products which can be fashioned 
in innumerable forms and colors, glazed and unglazed, 
when so separated in design as to allow the wall surface 
to penetrate and tie it to that surface is almost an ideal 
form of Wall decoration. 



l82 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



183 




DEIAIL OF MARLBOROUCH-HLENHEIM HOTEL, ATLANTIC CITY. 




DETAIL OK REEDS STORE, PHILADELPHIA. 



184 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Tiles are now available, roughly enough formed and 
surfaced not to be either hard or fussy, and tile layers 
and plasterers are not wanting with the skill to so work 
their materials together 
that wall surface, tile and 
jointing make an harmo- 
nious whole. There is no 
limit to the possibilities 
open to the designer in 
the use of this material 
and when combined with 
dull glazed terra-cotta for 
copings, domes or what- 
ever surface it is desira- 
ble to protect from wet 
and frost, may be made to 
produce color and texture 
harmonies just as chaste 
as the most hallowed 
classic and far more ap- 
propriate to our own time. 
Even in the humblest 
plaster cottage a few spots 
of color, some symbol of 
its owner's interests, some 
theme suggested by its 
location, may be worked 
out to give the greatest 
distinction to the simplest 
design. We must never 
forget that the color spots 
that seem brilliant or even 
glaring in the sample, 
tone down when out of 

doors, surrounded, by nature's dazzling tones. Persian 
trimming on a woman's dress by itself is quite gaudy but 
used sparingly it gives just the livening touch to low 
toned stuffs that lift them 
out of the commonplace. 

Our decorative artists 
are doing wonderful work 
on paper for magazine 
covers, for advertise- 
ments and for posters. 
Why should we architects 
not build in lasting form 
something at least ap- 
proaching in significance 
and beauty these daily 
creations of our fellow 
craftsmen? 

We admire the wonder- 
ful color of old marbles 
and mosaics in San Marco. 
We are fascinated by the 
painted walls of Germany 
and the Tyrol. We look 
upon the time mellowed 

color of the old, but we firepiack. 

hesitate to reach after 

color effects in our own work. We have a chilling fear 
of the barren niceties and tepid enthusiasm of what 
we call culture. We glorify restraint and curb our 




LAMP POST, HOTEL TRAVMORE, ATLANTIC CITY. 




enthusiasm except as to the work of dead men. Our 
attempts at color in architecture show either an over 
restraint or garish crudeness. We are like the men at 

the beginning of the re- 
nascence who waking up 
to the barbarism of the 
glorious and riotous 
building of the gothic 
period, substituted in 
their day the culture of 
other days instead of re- 
fining their own vital and 
uplifted art. No doubt the 
painted and gilded carv- 
ingsof a new gothic church 
would be shocking to us 
who love the soft dingy 
mystery of their decay. 

Why not keep the 
knowledge and culture of 
other days while expres- 
sing without fear the 
vital meanings of our 
own day? And this 
middle ground is quite 
within our reach; we 
know how to produce the 
rare and dazzling mate- 
rials of which we might 
build an architecture as 
sincere as the gothic, as 
chaste as the Greek, but 
as new as Oklahoma, and 
we can do this without 
embarking our clients on the bottomless sea of extrava- 
gance. We are spending enough on fool mouldings, on 
useless and meaningless detail even in simple houses, to 

pay for a few spots of real 
decoration built into wall 
or porch or around the fire- 
place that we now dese- 
crate with the cold and 
hard tiling of the commer- 
cial tiler, which is quite 
appropriate in a bath room 
and quite out of place in a 
living roomor out of doors. 
The soft hand made tile 
which has had the personal 
interest of its maker will 
cost little if spotted into 
plaster. And there is no 
limit to the possibilities of 
combinations of brick, 
plaster, marble and tile. 
We could rival the glories 
of painted walls, of inlay 
and fresco, and do it in a 
more legitimate way than 
ever before. 
Our limitations are not in our materials or oppor- 
tunities but in our timidity or laziness, in lack of some- 
thing to say rather than in the way to say it. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



185 



Group of Houses at Moylan, Rose Valley, Pa. 

BUILT OF TERRA COTTA HOLLOW TILE WITH PLASTER FINISH AND COLORED 

TILE DECORATION. 

PRICE & MCLANAHAN, ARCHITECTS. 






ABOUT fifteen miles from Philadelphia, separated 
by a series of hills and valleys from the clatter 
and disturbance of railroad traffic, is situated Rose 
Valley. Rose Valley has gained in prominence not 
alone by the fact of its delightful location with the 
accompanying attractiveness of its homes, but particu- 
larly for the reason that here associated together in 
sincerity of purpose architect and craftsman, artist and 
literary folk, have chosen to live their own life in the 
home, making the best, in its establishment, of the 
material at hand for 
what it is or may be- 
come. Thus in effect 
the highest possible 
expression of the in- 
dividual has come to 
be realized, although 
the expression of the 
individual as a unit is 
in no sense inconsist- 
ent with the harmo- 
nious whole, and the 
general results are not 
characterized by any 
uniformity of type. 

In the development 
of the hillside illus- 
trated by the accom- 
panying photographs 
at Moylan, the unity 
of relationship to the 
environment has been 
carefully preserved, 
and the types of 
dwellings, though 
largely a matter of 

personal taste with the architects, conform admirably 
to and appear to grow easily out of the site. 

These homes are primarily intended for artists, so 
among the conditions naturally imposed in their arrange- 
ment is the importance of a well proportioned and amply 
lighted studio. This condition has been met by provi- 
ding large rooms extending the width of the house, and 
in some instances of clear height of two stories with 
direct exposure to the north. In addition to this the en- 
semble of the adjacent rooms has been considered par- 
ticularly for comfort and utility. Broad porches and 
out of doors sleeping accommodations have been added 
where the best exposure and prospect is to be offered, 
and the relationship of house to house within the group 
is so established that no objectionable feature of any 
adjoining property is imposed upon its neighbor. Serv- 
ice yards are separated by lines of well arranged hedges 
or attractive fencing, and the approach from the high- 
way is over a winding drive common to all properties. 

In regards to the houses individually, the nature of 
the materials employed in their construction has been 




PLOT PLAN, GROUP OF HOUSES AT MOYLAN 



altogether preserved. No false impression is to be 
gathered from any of the details. Under a present 
day impulse new structural conditions as exemplified in 
concrete and hollow tile have been accepted. These 
demand a specific surface treatment and naturally point 
the way to the accomplishment of a plastic art whereby 
perhaps an indigenous expression, typically American, 
is to become established. The manner of ornamenta- 
tion is characteristic of the work of the architects em- 
ployed. The idea that the ornamentation of the wall 

must be constitu- 
tional has not been 
altogether recognized, 
as applied decoration 
in the form of orna- 
mental Moravian tile 
has been largely em- 
ployed in the fashion- 
ing of the whole, 
particularly where 
color is destined to 
play a significant 
part. In the designs 
of the chimneys, this 
is well illustrated in 
the relation of form 
to color. Naturally 
photograp.hs do not 
illustrate the impor- 
ance of this, since the 
color so necessary to 
the complete expres- 
sion of the form is 
Jacking. Attention 
should be called to the 
manner in which the 
houses grow up from their foundations. Rose Valley 
hill is naturally a rocky eminence, and to establish a 
friendly relationship with the structures the walls are 
first erected of this material, but the identity of the 
stone is finally lost by a gradual merging of the mortar 
of its joints into the full plaster wall surface above. 

Mention should be made of the general interior treat- 
ment. Plain wooden trims without mouldings are pro- 
vided at all doors, while at the windows the plaster is 
rounded and returned in at the jambs and heads. In 
the stairways the usual type of square or turned balus- 
ters has been banished, and plain plaster balustrades 
with simple wood caps have been introduced. Yet the 
resulting impression in its completion is neither new nor 
hard. The quiet and simple lines lend something of 
that dignity which we expect to find only in the old. 
Herein lies the success and comfort of the interior treat- 
ment of these homes. The work has been handled so as 
to constitute an entity, a complete work of art — complete 
because every day life has here found an expression in 
consonance with its own daily existence. 



1 86 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




iivT 







Ip I . , ID 




HOUSE AT MOYI-AN, 

ROSE VALLEY, PA. 

Price & McLanahan, 
Architetts. 




U aco sooff I I 



■rjofl^-' 







3tCQ/^ rVOOgPLA/i 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



187 




1 88 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 





HOUSE AT MOYLAN, ROSE VALLEY, PA. 
Price & McLanahan, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



189 




HOUSE AT MOYLAN, ROSE VALLEY, PA. 
Price & McLanalian, Architects. 



190 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




eoor \ \ rumFLAA 




THE BRICKBaiLDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 9. PLATE 113. 





THE UNITED ILLUMINATING COMPANY BUILDING. 
NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

FooTE & TpvfNSEND, Architects. 




r/g5r noog PLyiA 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 9. PLATE 114. 



a4 



!iiimm Hintiiii iiii"ii!i iiniiiiti umnm 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 9. PLATE 115. 






••^ ,' "T^* 



< 

Q 

W 

u! 
o 
z 

S 

c/) 

O « 

z t 

I— > LiJ 

Q t 

-J o 

^-> a 

D < 

QQ i" 

> o 

Z 5 

< S 

O "^ 

o ^ 
o 

(-,>-" 

i: !? 

o °° 



Q 
-J 

o 
z 

2 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 9. PLATE 1 16. 




PRICE HILL PUBLIC LIBRARY, CINCINNATI, OHIO, 
Garber & Woodward, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 9. PLATE 117. 




BASEMENT 

PLAN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 9. ■ PLATE 118. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 20, NO. 9. 



PLATE 119, 





AMERICAN PAVILION AT THE INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION, ROME, ITALY. 

Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 9. PLATE 120. 










[ERICAN PAVILION AT THE INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION, ROME, ITALY. 

Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 9. PLATE 121. 




THE BELLERIVE CLUB, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Edward G. Garden, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 9. PLATE 122, 







o 

CO 

3 

UJ 

CO 5 

D 
U 



> 

s 

w 

uJ 

w 
m 



Ci) 



THE 13 RICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 9. PLATE 123. 




THE B RICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 9. PLATE 124. 



;g^?s'«. , *.t 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 9. PLATE 125. 





NICHOLS SCHOOL BUILDING, BUFFALO, N. Y. 
Green & Wicks, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 9. PLATE 126. 






r 


tarfh rfi 


I^T 












]-* 




I^B'"^"^' 


1 






^ 
«(•- 


5 ^ ~ 


4 

or 













i 




1< 




9^: 


1 








1^ 


1 ■■■ ' 


^ IM H^ 


■ 




^^ 


L 




3 


!■ 


U 


tJtF^ 






1 




j) N 


1- ==^ 










■) 


•^^ - 




1 




t. 






i ^ 
















(J -J 










1 























1 




-1 f 




1 




1 


■■ 


1 








■i 


ivmi 


1 m^m 


1 








i 






i V 




1 I^BH.I^ 


1 1^ 


■ 




1^^ 


■■■n 












! 


* 


1^ 


1 






■3 ^ 




's 


5*? 


1 






I^H 


I 


_ Lllx 1 ^fcJIi 


'rtHTTT^ 


1 








m 


IF 




TIBlJ^ 























2 








Q 




J 








D 


> 


03 


. 




A 


J 




O 


o 


O 


u 


I 


< 


n 


Lu 


CO 


Lu 


, 1 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Architects in Charge of Construction. 



191 



BY WALTER H 

THIS article is not intended to be anything more pro- 
found than a brief discussion of the trade-contract 
method of conducting building operations, and the pres- 
entation of a few points in its favor as compared with 
the usual "general contract" method. 

Of the various ways to go about erecting a building, by 
far the commonest is to put the work into the hands of a 
"general contractor." It is usually awarded to him after 
he has been selected from among several competitors 
who submit their bids based on the architect's drawings 
and specifications. 

The general contractor is a middle-man. He is rarely a 
mechanic or a direct employer of skilled labor. He takes 
the architect's drawings and specifications to his office and 
calls in his sub-con tractors, — firms or individuals carrying 
on the various building trades, — whom he invites to sub- 
mit to him their bids for that part of the work which is to 
be done under their particular trade. In this way he gets 
his bids for the carpentry, plastering, heating, plumbing, 
structural iron, ornamental ironwork, etc. To the sum of 
the most favorable bids he so obtains, and which represent 
the real cost to him of putting up the building, the gen- 
eral contractor adds his own profit, generally 10%, and 
then offers the owner this sum as his bid for doing the 
work. If it compares favorably with estimates similarly 
made up by other general contractors who have been 
asked to submit bids, the work is awarded to him. 

Viewed from t^e owner's standpoint there are many 
disadvantages attaching to this way of building. That 
the owner's viewpoint is the right one for the architect 
is unquestioned, as he is the owner's agent in the trans- 
action, and while it is his first duty to be fair in all his 
dealings and rulings, his legal position naturally causes 
him to look after the owner's interests with special care. 

An honest, competent and experienced man acting as 
the general contractor can be a very effective aid to a 
building enterprise; there are many such men in the 
business, and their employment is wise in many cases. 

Architects who are more interested in the artistic than 
in the practical problems connected with their work will 
welcome the opportunities which the employment of an 
efficient general contractor affords them, of shifting 
responsibility to his shoulders. It is comforting and 
reassuring to feel that one's work is being well and 
promptly executed through the activities of your con- 
tractor — that your client's end of the contract is being 
honestly lived up to by the " party of the first part. " But 
how many times is such confidence well placed? Build- 
ers are, as a rule, no more unselfish than most business 
men, and at best they are, and naturally so, a little more 
anxious about their own interests than anyone else's. It 
is clearly improper to leave in their hands any power to 
choose or direct or to exercise discretion of any impor- 
tance. In other words, it is the architect's plain duty to 
look after his client's interests himself and not delegate 
any of that duty to the man who has the other end of his 
client's contract. 

But many times the employment of a general contractor 
adds to, rather than lessens, the architect's difficulties in 
controlling and directing a building operation, by inter- 
vening between him and the sub-contractors. Being 



. CHAMBERS. 

responsible legally only to the general contractor, the 
sub-contractor can evade carrying out instructions re- 
ceived directly from the architect by interposing his 
employer and claiming that all orders to him must pass 
through the latter. Technically he is perfectly right in 
this position; but when, as is often the case, it is made 
use of to thwart the carrying out of the architect's wishes, 
the latter looks about for some other system of legal 
relationships and responsibilities which will be a help to 
him instead of a hindrance. He can find this in the 
" trade-contract method." 

By the trade-contract method the architect, acting for 
the owner, makes direct contracts with each of those 
manufacturers and employers in the different building 
trades who under the other method are only sub-con- 
tractors of the general contractor. 

To do this properly, the drawings and specifications 
must be prepared in considerably greater detail, and a 
much larger number of copies of each are needed for 
sending out to the tradesmen to secure estimates; for it 
is necessary to take at least six estimates in each trade 
in order to get the benefit of the competition, which is 
one of the chief purposes of the procedure. 

There are two signal advantages of this contract-by- 
trades method, — first, the more direct control over the 
work which it gives to the architect, and second, the 
reduction in cost, through the greater amount of com- 
petitive bidding by the many would-be contractors, and 
through the elimination of the general contractor's profits. 

The importance of the first of these cannot be too 
greatly emphasized, for it deals with those matters 
which make the difference between satisfied and dis- 
satisfied clients successful or unsuccessful operations. 
For that reason it is even more important than the 
second, since efficiency and energy in carrying out a 
building are even more to be desired, in most cases, than 
rock-bottom prices. Still, there is no surer way to obtain 
for a client one hundred cents' value for every dollar 
expended, than by this contract-by trades procedure. 

Another advantage is that inspection and superin- 
tendence of work in progress, both at the shops and at 
the building, is made easier for the architect. Under 
the ordinary system, when the architect or his repre- 
sentative visits the sub-contractor's shops and thinks it 
necessary to order changes or corrections, he finds his 
directions accepted by the sub-contractors "subject to 
the approval of the general contractor." The reason is 
obvious, — the sub-contractor, being responsible legally 
only to the general contractor, doesn't propose to let 
himself be committed to any modification of his contract 
without the latter's sanction. This puts the architect 
in an awkward position. It is as though the colonel of 
a regiment was told by the lieutenant to whom he had 
given an order, " I'll carry it out if my captain approves. " 

The military analogy, though not perhaps a true one, 
will do to illustrate the awkward state of affairs, — a state 
of affairs which can't exist under the trade- contract 
system, where each tradesman has his legal relations 
direct with the owner. 

How many trade-contracts are needed in a building 
operation ? This depends both upon the nature and the 



192 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



location of the building. An office building in a large 
city requires over fifty; ~ a city residence a little more 
than half that number. 

The greater the number the greater the advantage to 
the owner, and also the greater the complications and 
difficulties in management and direction on the part of 
the architect. Too much sub-dividing is apt to defeat 
its own object. Following is a fairly typical list of 
convenient trade-divisions into which the erection of 
an ordinary city building may be separated: — 

1. Demolition of existing struc- 13. Plastering. 

tures. 14. Carpentry. 

2. K.xcavation, shoring, etc. 15. Joinery and cabinet work. 

3. Masonry. 16. Plumbing. 

4. Waterproofing. 17. Heating. 

5. Bluestone. IS. Electric work. 

6. Limestone and marble. 19. Interior marble and slate. 

7. Granite. 20. Tiling. 

8. Fireproof construction. 21. Concrete paving. 

9. .Structural iron. 22. Elevator plant. 

10. Iron other than structural. 2i. Painting. 

11. Sheet metal work and roof- 24. Glazing. 

ing. 25. Hardware. 

12. Metal furring and lathing. 26. Lighting fixtures. 

27. Special finish and equipments. 

The preparation of the drawings, specifications and 
contract papers needed for separate trade-contracts is 
arduous in direct proportion to the number of sub-divi- 
sions. They have to define clearly not only just what 
work is to be included in each, but also just how the 
work of the other trades will affect each one. The con- 
tractors must know at the time they put in their bids just 
what to count on from their associates on the job by way 
of help or hindrance to their own work. For instance, 
if the plumbers are not told in their specifications that 
the cutting of masonry, iron, wood or plaster work 
necessary to the proper running of their pipes is to be 
done for them by the masons, ironworkers, carpenters 
and plasterers, they will include in their bids a sum to 
cover the cost of such cutting, and the owner would be pay- 
ing for it twice, since each of those trades will be called 
upon in their own specifications to "do all cutting," etc. 

vSo the specification-writer's task is proportionately 
more complicated. So is the draftsman's. And so of course 
is the bookkeeper's, whose records show the state of each 
contractor's account, the extras, credits and payments. 
When there are fifty accounts connected with one build- 
ing operation, in place of one, the clerical labor involved 
is greatly increased; in fact, the importance of accurate 
business procedure by the architect is apparent. 

The pitfalls and labyrinths of misunderstandings into 
which we may be led through verbal modifications of 
written contracts, or discrepancies between drawings 
and specifications, or other vaguenesses, have to be even 
more carefully avoided when a "general contractor" is 
not employed. For one of the functions of the latter is 
to fill up the holes and bridge over the gaps in his con- 
tract. These holes and gaps always exist, though their 
number and size vary according to the thoroughness 
with which the architect prepares his drawings and speci- 
fications, as well as the contract clauses themselves. 
Among the latter is usually inserted that one which calls 
upon the contractor to "do any and all other work not 
shown on or described in plans and specifications, but 
necessary to complete," etc. 

The actual value of this clause depends largely on the 
good nature of the contractor, as its legal worth is nil. 
If your "general contractor" is making a good profit 



out of the work, he will not be averse to filling in gaps 
and holes out of his own pocket, with a lively sense of 
favors to come by thus impressing the owner with his 
liberality. Most contractors figure at the outset on doing 
this, and their bid for the work is made just so much 
larger by providing for it. 

Under the separate contract system, it is possible to 
keep a much more accurate account of the building's 
progress and the proper times and amounts for the pay- 
ments due the contractors. One reason why contractors 
like it is that their payments are made to them direct, 
on the certificate of the architect, whereas when a "gen- 
eral contractor " is in charge, his sub-contractor's work 
is paid for by him out of the payments made him by the 
owner. An unfair contractor (there are such persons) is 
thus given the opportunity to be unfair to his "subs" 
by holding back their money on some pretext. So the 
trade contractors welcome dealing directly with the 
owners, for they know that their payments will be prompt, 
and at the same time the architect's control is the more 
effective, for the argument of a withheld certificate is al- 
ways potent in hastening the carrying out of his directions. 

The taking of a large number of estimates by trades, 
which is so important a feature develops a fact of much 
significance, btit to which little attention is usually paid. 
This is, the wide difference in the amounts submitted, 
though the bids are of course all based on exactly the 
same data of drawings and specifications. Those differ- 
ences are found to be greater in some trades than in 
others, but the fact that they are found, and almost in- 
variably run a wide gamut of change, is one of the 
strongest argtiments in the trade-contract method's favor. 

Various legitimate causes create these differences. 
One bidder bids low because he is doing other work in 
the neighborhood of the proposed " job " and counts on 
consequent economies accruing from that fact. Another 
counts on certain money-saving methods of which he 
believes himself master, either in fabricating or erect- 
ing material, or both. Still another contractor bids low 
through a mistake on the part of his estimating clerk in 
taking off the quantities or adding up the figures. Some 
contractors are careless enough to entrust this important 
duty to inexperienced or incompetent hands. A well-' 
known granite firm recently faced, and accepted, a loss 
of many thousand dollars because it found itself saddled 
with a contract for stone which the firm's estimating 
clerk had figured for on the assumption that the archi- 
tect's drawings were at quarter-inch scale. The draw- 
ings were really at eighth-inch scale, and were so marked. 

Another case is that of the contractor who, when work 
is slack, is willing to undertake it at little or no profit to 
himself in order to keep his men employed. But from 
whatever cause they are traced, the diversity in the 
estimates received is nearly always surprising, and 
emphasizes the importance of taking as many bids as 
possible in each line, as well as in as many lines as prac- 
ticable. It often happens that of half-a-dozen estimates 
taken in a certain trade, the lowest is one hundred per 
cent less than the highest. 

It is hardly necessary to add that a building built 
under the trade-contract system will be better built 
than one done under a general contract, for the greater 
amount of time and attention it demands from the archi- 
tect is bound to bring this about. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Legal Hints for Architects. — Part III. 



193 



BY WILLIAM L. BOWMAN, C. E. , LL. B. 



MANY of the municipalities to-day have what is 
known as a Municipal Art Commission, to which 
commission the plans and specifications for all proposed 
buildings must be submitted and whose approval must 
be secured before the building can be erected. The fact 
that an architect's plans must be approved by such a 
commission is rarely, if ever, mentioned in the contract, 
but being a charter requirement is binding upon the 
architect notwithstanding. While the writer is inclined 
to feel that such commissions are ordinarily free from 
political influence, yet that is a consideration which 
must be taken into account. Then again, such a com- 
mission may be dominated by architects who are gradu- 
ates of the Beaux Arts or members of the American 
Institute of Architecture or even by local cliques, in 
which case there may be a prejudice against an architect 
not associated with the controlling power of the com- 
mission. The action of such commissions generally 
involves merely an approval or disapproval of the plans, 
and it is often impossible to secure even suggestions 
from the commission or any of its members as to what 
features were disapproved or what changes could be 
made in the plans to make them satisfactory to the 
commission. 

A further requirement binding the architect, but which 
is not mentioned in the contract, is that his plans must 
satisfy the Building Department of the municipality, and 
although it is practically an impossibility to file plans 
with the Building Department which will be unequivo- 
cally approved, yet the grounds for the disapproval are 
always stated, so that ordinarily it is an easy matter for 
the architect to make the necessary changes to secure the 
required approval. 

A requirement not stated in the contract is illustrated 
by the following experience of one architect. By corre- 
spondence he offered a certain Lunacy Board " to examine 
the site and then to prepare all requisite probationary 
drawings for the approval of the committee, and all other 
drawings and details to be submitted to the Commis- 
sioner of Lunacy, and subsequently to draw the whole of 
the working drawings and specifications for $2,000." The 
Board accepted the offer through its clerk and the archi- 
tect started his work. His first set of plans were disap- 
proved ; his second set were rejected as too costly and 
ornamental; his third set were disapproved, and then the 
Board decided to engage another architect. By law, the 
plans had to be approved not only by the committee 
but by the Court, and when the detailed drawings were 
completed they had to be approved by the commis- 
sioners and finally by the Secretary of State. When the 
architect sued to recover for the reasonable value of the 
work which he had actually done, it was held that he 
could not recover, upon the ground that the architect 
knew the ordeal through which his plans must go before 
anything could be done upon them, and he had agreed to 
receive the gross sum of $2,000 for the perfect and entire 
work. The Court well expressed the situation in these 
words: "Does not the plaintiff mean this: 'L relying 
, upon my skill and experience as an architect and drafts- 



man and upon your judgment and honor, undertake to 
prepare such plans as you shall approve of, and when 
you have approved of them and they stand the scrutiny 
of those other persons to whom the law requires them to 
be submitted, with such further details as are required, I 
will then complete my work by preparing the working 
drawings, estimates and specifications and so entitle my- 
self to the stipulated reward'?" In this same case, the 
Court, speaking about the question as to whether or not 
the committee were fair judges of approval, wrote as 
follows: " If, with full knowledge of the powers and the 
circumstances under which they were to act the plaintiff 
(the architect) chose to agree with them that he should 
not be paid anything for his drawings unless they should 
be approved by them, I think he ought to be concluded 
by their judgment." 

Counties, boroughs, towns and villages have a com- 
mon practice of appointing committees who deal with 
architects when their services are required. Frequently 
these committees are not careful to ascertain and know 
the powers which they have been given. Thus they, as 
well as an architect, often innocently enter into a con- 
tract for plans and specifications which the committee 
had no power to make, and the architect no right to 
compensation thereunder. For example, a county at one 
time appointed a committee to investigate and report 
regarding "the best manner of raising funds," and 
should submit " recommendations relative to the matter 
of erecting a Court House," and that the committee file 
its report in writing, " together with plans and specifica- 
tions, with the County Clerk, on or before April 1, 1900." 
The committee after examining many different sets of 
preliminary plans and specifications finally selected a 
certain firm of architects to do the work, and entered 
into a duly written contract for seven sets of plans and 
specifications and detailed drawings, etc. When an action 
was later brought to recover for the preparation of plans 
and specifications pursuant to the contract, it was held that 
the words "plans and specifications " in the resolution 
xa.&2i.xit preliminary plans and specifications, and therefore 
the contract by the committee for working plans and 
specifications was beyond their power, and the architect 
suing upon such illegal and void contract could not 
recover. In this particular instance there was also an 
intimation that the architects could not recover for even 
preliminary plans and specifications because it was un- 
derstood and a custom for architects to draw preliminary 
plans and specifications without compensation in the 
hope of securing the contract for the complete work. 

Before closing this subject another usual provision 
of municipal charters should be mentioned. That is the 
provision which aims to prevent an officer of a munici- 
pality from contracting with the municipality or any of 
its departments. Thus an architect acting as expert 
adviser to a municipal Board of Education probablycould 
not at the same time make a contract with the munici- 
pality to draw plans and specifications and superintend 
the construction of a hospital for the Department of 
Charities. The extremes to which this provision may be 



194 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



carried are well shown by the following instance: Under 
the usual Municipal Civil Service rules in vogue to-day, 
architectural services are graded by such classifications 
as draftsman, examiner, engineer, inspector, architect, 
etc., said gradings being made according to the amounts 
of annual compensation paid. Such architectural posi- 
tions are subject to competitive examination, thus pro- 
tecting the successful applicant appointed to a position 
from being removed for political reasons. Under such 
employment a man can be granted a leave of absence for 
a certain length of time, and his name thereupon goes 
upon a list of those eligible for similar positions through- 
out the municipality. Such were the conditions in a city 
where an architect assumed to take advantage of a 
granted leave of absence in order to enable himself dur- 
ing the leave of absence to take a contract with the city 
to draw plans and specifications and superintend the con- 
struction of a Court House. After he had spent nearly 
$10,000 in the way of expert advice, draftsmen, materials, 
surveys, etc., and prepared not only preliminary plans and 
specifications, which were duly approved by the proper 
official, but almost completed the final plans and specifi- 
cations, he was refused compensation for any of the said 
work. Upon suit brought upon a proper written contract, 
there having been a previous appropriation, the architect 
was defeated, practically upon the sole ground that while 
he was upon the eligible list of the Municipal Civil Serv- 
ice, he was still in the employ of the city, even though 
receiving no compensation therefrom. His name being 
upon said eligible list brought him within the restric- 
tions of the charter provision hereinbefore mentioned. 

The above considerations regarding municipal work 
are sufficient to show the dangers of such service. The 
writer's experience urges him to recommend that no 
architect should attempt to secure or perform a munici- 
pal contract without a full appreciation of its dangers, 
especially in view of the fact that practically every change 
in political power brings opposition and added difficul- 
ties. To sum the situation, the architect is dealing ordi- 
narily not only with the now familiar political steam 
roller, but with a city attorney whose assistants for 
political exigencies and for reputation look for every 
technicality and excuse to prevent the payment of money 
out of the corporation treasury ; in other words, to pre- 
vent one case of graft and fraud the legal staff of the 
municipality will dispute and defeat ninety-nine fair, 
legal or equitable claims for work actually done or time 
and expenses honestly and in good faith expended in 
behalf of the municipality. As a final warning, this 
class of contract is strictly within the rule that a little 
knowledge is a dangerous thing, and about the only 
recommendation that can be honestly and fairly made 
is that no step should be taken in such matters without 
taking local legal advice. 

(4) The various states of the Union and the United 
States Government have requirements regarding con- 
tracts much similar to the requirements of the municipal 
corporations. A very brief consideration of the United 
States statutes regarding this matter will show the gen- 
eral trend of such requirements and their interpretation. 
The aim, object and intention of the government to pre- 
clude fraud or favoritism finds expression in a statute 
which provides that all purchases and contracts for sup- 



plies or services in any department of the Government, 
except for personal services, shall be made by advertis- 
ing, etc. There is no cjuestion but what the exception 
would cover the usual case of the employment of an 
architect. In this connection it is gratifying to notice 
that there is no strict technical application of this law, 
and there are many instances where this requirement is 
dispensed with under unfavorable or peculiar circum- 
stances, and it is still more gratifying to note and record 
that even though such a contract is declared void for 
failure to advertise, yet if the supplies or the services 
have been received by the Government and it has de- 
rived the benefit from the same, recovery is always per- 
mitted; not, however, upon the contract, but upon the 
quantum meruit, or for the reasonable value. Again, 
there are statutes designed to prevent officers from con- 
tracting unless there has been a previous appropriation, 
and that no contract is binding for a larger sum than the 
amount of the appropriation. Yet these statutes are not 
strictly construed and there are certain officials to whom 
they are not applied, and such laws are never permitted 
to defeat recovery for work, labor or services honestly 
and fairly performed, the results of which have been 
beneficial to the Government. 

There are further requirements that members of Con- 
gress must not be interested in Government contracts. 
Probably one of the most important statutes provides 
that every contract with certain of the Government 
departments is required to be in writing and signed by 
the parties. This statute is in the nature of a Statute of 
Frauds to protect the Government. In the interpreta- 
tion of this law the Comptroller of the Treasury and the 
Court of Claims have consistently held that the invalidity 
of a contract by reason of this requirement is immaterial 
if the contract has been performed. Thus it will be seen 
that the rulings of the Comptroller of the Treasury upon 
questions of payment, in cases where the strict letter of 
the statutes has not been followed, are based upon equit- 
able principles. 

Since a sovereign power can not be sued in the courts 
of law, the states and the United States have formed 
Courts of Claims where any claimant against them may 
prove his case, and his right to compensation is there 
governed by equitable rules. One illustration will show 
the difference between the usual Trial Court justice and 
the treatment accorded by a Court of Claims. 

The Assistant Secretary of the Navy directed a naval 
officer to have drawings and plans made for changes at 
Annapolis. Said officer employed an architect upon an 
agreement that the architect was to charge nothing for 
the plans, provided he was engaged to superintend the 
construction, for which superintendence he would receive 
the usual compensation. The plans were completed after 
several months' work, were duly approved by the naval 
officer, and then sent to the Navy Department at Wash- 
ington, but that was the last heard of them or of the 
proposed work. Upon claim being filed and the evidence 
taken, the Court permitted the architect to recover the 
reasonable value of the work done. 

This shows that while an architect should not know- 
ingly violate any of the statute requirements prescribed 
by a state or the United States, yet if such requirements 
are innocently and unknowingly violated, yet the archi- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



195 



tect has a chance of recovering the reasonable value of 
the work which he has done. 

(5) Competitions are of course the convenient and 
usual method of securing plans and specifications for 
large buildings. The invitation to compete contains the 
conditions, which are usually strictly enforced. The 
familiar condition granting the right to reject any or all 
plans has caused much trouble. Again here, as in con- 
tracts with municipalities, the architect must be abso- 
lutely certain that he has followed and conformed to 
each and every requirement of the conditions of the 
invitation; otherwise he may be defeated upon a techni- 
cality by some unsuccessful competitor, or unfair or 
biased board or committee. 

In one case there was the invitation to compete con- 
taining the condition above mentioned, and the architect 
in question with others duly presented plans. The 
Building Committee passed a resolution stating among 
other things that "a vote of the committee be taken 
as to which plan best meets the letter of the require- 
ments and the needs of the association, and that on 
completion of this examination we select the architect 
who has the largest number of votes." At the next 
meeting it was found that architect A had the largest 
number of votes. The committee then formally rejected 
all plans and ordered them returned. Then they passed 
a vote choosing A as architect " in accordance with the 
vote of last night," and he was unofficially notified by a 
couple of the committeemen of his appointment. About 
forty days later the same committee met and rescinded 
their action. A day or so later the architect wrote to the 
Board claiming to act as architect. They refused to per- 
mit him so to act and upon suit being brought the Court 
held that there was no contract because the vote was not 
an offer or proposal to him. 

In still another case the condition in the resolution 
which adopted the plaintiff's plans after competition was 
" that after duly advertising for bids and for the con- 
struction, etc., we receive a bid from a reliable party 
who will enter into a good and sufficient bond, etc." The 
Board of Supervisors who had charge of this matter later 
thought that the architect had slandered them, so they 
passed a resolution rejecting the plans, even although a 
bid had been duly received from a party ready to furnish 
a good and sufficient bond. The Board took the ground 
that this condition required an acceptance by them of 
the bid before the plaintiff should become architect, but 
the Court held strictly to the wording of the condition 
that there was no necessity for the acceptance of the bid, 
the only question being whether the bid was from a 
reliable party willing to give a good and sufficient bond. 

Probably one of the most palpable attempts to defeat 
an architect in his rights acquired by competition in- 
volved the following facts: The terms of the competi- 
tion called for two buildings, a County Court House and 
a County Jail, with a limit of expenditure of $150,000. 
Among the conditions were the right to reject any and 
all plans; that the architect submitting the accepted de- 
sign should receive the commission for drawing of all 
plans and supervision of the work; the Board reserved 
the right to alter or amend any plan accepted ; the names 
of the authors were to be put in sealed envelopes, to be 
opened only after the award and in the presence of the 



Board and a jury; that the Board of Supervisors with 
expert advisers would form the jury of award ; that the 
jury would use discretion as to any violation of the terms 
of competition and their judgment would be final; that 
a prize of $250 would be paid for each of the three best 
designs submitted, exclusive of the accepted design. 
About fifty different sets of plans were received and they 
were put upon exhibition to the taxpayers, and finally 
the Board passed a resolution which, while it recited that 
it was inadvisable for the county to expend more than 
$100,000 in the erection of the county buildings, and that 
it was obvious that the plans submitted called for an 
expenditure in excess of that amount, yet that one cer- 
tain plan best met the requirements of the county in the 
opinion of the Board, therefore the Board resolved pur- 
suant to the terms of the competition to award the first 
place of merit to that plan, subject to the condition that 
the author modify the details in certain ways and in a 
manner satisfactory to the Board. A copy of this reso- 
lution was then sent the successful architect. Several 
months later the Board passed a resolution repealing said 
resolution and then passed a resolution reopening the 
entire competition and requesting all competitors to re- 
turn and file their plans for reconsideration. Later the 
Board appointed a jury of expert advisers to pass upon 
the plans. The Board and the jury finally came to an 
agreement and selected another architect's plans, but the 
Board in passing its resolution merely recited all the facts 
and stated that in view of the fact that the cost should be 
reduced to $100,000, the Board desired to have the archi- 
tect who won the first competition and the architect 
selected under the second competition both alter their 
plans to conform to the cost of construction desired. In 
the meantime the architect named in the first competition 
had never received the notice about the second competi- 
tion and had not personally put his plans in the second 
competition, contending that under the first resolution 
he was entitled to be architect. Pursuant to their request 
he did make changes in his plans to reduce them to. 
the $100,000 cost, stating, however, that he did so in pur- 
suance with the first resolution naming him as architect. 
Later on the Board, after having received estimates from 
builders, all of which were high, rejected all plans. Within 
a month after said rejection the Board then proceeded to 
award a contract to the architect named under the sec- 
ond competition. Upon suit being brought the Court 
held that the terms of competition were an offer, and the 
plaintiff having complied with said terms and conditions 
and the Board having passed a resolution setting forth 
said compliance and naming said architect as the winner, 
that should be considered as making a binding contract 
that the plaintiff be employed as architect for the build- 
ing, so that the reduction of his plans to a cost of $100,000 
instead of $150,000, as proposed in the competition, was 
not a condition precedent to his right to become archi- 
tect. Of course throughout this procedure the county 
was advised by its attorneys, and the methods used in the 
attempt to defeat the architect's rights in this instance 
were well calculated to defeat not only his legal but also 
his equitable rights. Again, the only advice which can 
be given is that when you intend to enter a competition 
submit its terms to your attorney, and if successful fol- 
low his counsel until you have collected your full fee. * 



196 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




KlKSr liANK BllI.UINi; 




DETAIL OF FIRST P.ANK IIUII.DINO. 



DK.TAIL OF GATEWAY TO TOWN. 



II-LUSIRATIONS OF THE NEW TOWN OF COREY, ALABAMA. 
William Leslie Welton, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



197 



Plate Illustrations — Description. 



The United Illuminating Company Building, New 
Haven, Conn. Plate 113. The exterior is of " Tapes- 
try " brick of a buff color with wide, deep raked joints, 
laid in the first story with double stretchers and in the 
second story and battlement with a diaper pattern of 
2-inch, square gray heads with a single blue head in 
center. The trimmings throughout are of cream color, 
mat glazed terra cotta, with all decorative work, enrich- 
ments, cornices, etc., in green and gold. The exterior 
woodwork is of mahogany with bronze grilles and bronze 
lamps. The main room on the first floor is finished with 
a marble and tile floor, marble wainscots and counters, 
mahogany trim throughout and a beamed ceiling. In 
the second story the president's, the directors' and the 
general offices have finish and wainscots in mahogany, 
mantels in mahogany and marble, wall brackets and 
ceiling chandeliers finished in silver. The color scheme 
is also in buff and cream. The building is heated by 
direct steam. The approximate cost of the building is 
$40,000. The cubic contents measured over all from 
roof to cellar floor is approximately 145,000 cubic feet, 
which gives the rate per cubic foot approximately 
28 cents. 

Springfield Gas Light Company Building, vSpring- 
KiELD, Mass. Plates 114, 115. The exterior is of New 
England red water- struck brick, laid in white cement 
with Yz inch joint. The trimmings are of Indiana lime- 
stone. The center of the building is two stories high with 
skylight above. The woodwork is painted white while 
the walls and ironwork are in varying tones of gray. 
The approximate cost of the building was $80,000. 

Price Hill Public Library, Cincinnati, Ohio. Plate 
116. This building forms a part of Cincinnati's Park 
Scheme and will eventually have the parking, such as 
shrubberies, etc., which will give it a proper setting. 
The approximate cost of the building was $21,500, and 
the cost per cubic foot, 16.7 cents. This measurement 
was taken from basement floor to height of roof. 

DivoLL Branch Library, St. Louis, Mo. Plate 117. 
The exterior is of a rough matt brick, cherry red in color 
and laid in white mortar. The stone, excepting the base 
course and steps of granite, is of bufi: Bedford. The 
main reading room on the first floor is approximately 
98 feet long by 44 feet wide, with a clear ceiling height 
of 21 feet. The walls are lined with book shelves to the 
height of 7 feet 6 inches. The building is fireproof, and 
steel trusses carry the roof which is covered with slate. 
The interior finish of the building throughout is of white 
quartered oak. The building contains 231,300 cubic feet, 
and the cost complete, including decoration, fixtures, 
shelving, furniture and equipment of every kind and 
landscape gardening, was $70,548, or 30)^ cents per cubic 
foot. Exclusive of the items just mentioned, the cost per 
cubic foot was 25^ cents. 

American Pavilion, Rome, Italy. Plates 118-120. 
Each nation participating in the World's Fair at Rome, 
Italy, was asked to erect a pavilion characteristic of their 
own life which would furnish a type of country home, 
livable and homelike. An effort was made by the archi- 
tects to have the United States pavilion conform in 



every way to the wishes of the committee in charge. 
The greatest problem in the design was to adopt the 
requirements of an art gallery with overhead lighting 
to a building in which the window openings were to be 
one of the essential features. It was possible to con- 
struct the main fa(;ade facing the formal garden with 
such openings as were recjuired by running a portico 
and entries across the entire front. The building is ab- 
solutely fireproof, and practically the only wood in the 
building, excepting doors and trim, is the ^ by 3 inch 
wooden strips bedded on the face of all columns and ribs 
to which are attached the 2 by 2 inch picture strips built 
into the walls and covered with metal lath and plaster. 
The roof construction is formed entirely of steel, which 
carries a tile covering and the upper and inner skylights. 
To insure a building which would be in every sense 
American, arrangements were made whereby the manu- 
facturers of " Tapestry " brick supplied and shipped to 
Rome the entire facing, or veneer of brick, which was 
laid up in special design and pattern. The arrangement 
of color and pattern has made the American Pavilion 
one of the most talked-of buildings in the Exposition. 
The " Tapestry " brick attracted the special notice of the 
King and (Jueen who commented favorably upon their 
texture and beauty. The dull red appearance which 
confronts one in approaching is restful and presents a 
decided contrast to the white walls of the surrounding 
buildings. 

The Law Building, University of Virginia. Plate 
123. This structure is the latest addition to the facili- 
ties of the University of Virginia, the institution whose 
original buildings were designed by Thomas Jefferson. 
The building follows the general proportions and char- 
acter of the original buildings both in its design and 
materials of construction. The general wall surface is 
of a dark red brick, the columns of brick stuccoed and 
the cornice of wood, white. The part of the first floor 
over the boiler room is fireproof and the rest of the 
building is of the usual wood and brick construction. 
The cost of the.structure was approximately $60,000. 

Engineering Building, Ri^tgers College. Plate 124. 
The architects in designing this building endeavored to 
preserve the style and feeling of the old " Queens 
College," as well as conform to the varied styles of the 
modern buildings. The exterior is of brick and terra 
cotta. The brick are of a soft red with chrome tones 
running through, interspersed here and there with pat- 
terns, diapered work and Moravian tiles. The terra 
cotta is of a warm color with a fire flash that makes it 
blend with the general tone of the brickwork. The back 
portion of the basement being entirely above ground is 
utilized for the dynamo laboratory and for the mechani- 
cal engineering laboratory. The roof is of slate. The 
cupola acts as a plenum chamber for the ventilating 
system. The heating of the building is so arranged 
that it can be controlled as a whole or in part from the 
basement by the arrangement of valves. The building 
is entirely fire-proof, with the exception of the finished 
floors which are of wood. The structure was built at a 
cost per cubic foot of 18.3 cents. 



198 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



THE LONDON MEMORIAL TO KING EDWARD. 

THE sight proposed for the King Edward Memorial 
in London is in the Mall, directly opposite Marl- 
borough House, and the scheme includes, besides a 
bronze statue of the King, the demolition of the present 
bridge across the lake in St. James's Park and the erec- 
tion of a more ornamental bridge, to which King Ed- 
ward's name will probably 
be given. The King and 
Oueen Alexandra have ap- 
proved of the site. The 
sculptor selected by the 
committee for the work is 
Mr. Bertram Mackennal, 
A. R. A. He contemplates 
illustrating the great aim 
of King Edward's reign by 
er^ecting a large seated 
figure of Peace, with ap- 
propriate symbols. On 
each side of the super-base 
will be two processional 

groups, comprising eight or nine figures delineating the 
"Arts of Peace" and advancing towards the central 
figure. On the super-base will be erected a center ped- 
estal, on which a bronze statue of King Edward in Garter 
robes — 14 feet high — will be placed. The height of the 
entire memorial will be from 45 feet to 50 feet. At the 
back of the pedestal, facing the park, a figure of Britannia 
will balance that of Peace. A flight of steps will connect 
the memorial on the park side with the avenue between 
it and the bridge. Mr. Edward Lutyens is the architect 

selected to design 
and carry out the 
bridge and other 
features of the 
scheme, which will 
include paved ter- 
races, with balus- 
trades, vases and 
stone seats. The 
estimated cost of 
the central monu- 
ment is $150,000 
and of the bridge 
$100,000. The time 
suggested for the 
completion of the 
work is five years. 




DKIAIL l;V SCHWARTZ A: (JkOSS, ARCHITECTS 
South Amboy Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



which is coming over the habits of the Chinese people. 
The dilapidated rows of one-storied houses of lath and 
plaster, which formerly did duty as Government offices, 
schools, barracks, etc., are rapidly disappearing before 
buildings in foreign style of brick and stone, fitted with 
electric light and steam heat; while in all the large cities 
and trading centers, merchants and shopkeepers are re- 
placing the shanties of 
former days with modern 
constructions, in which the 
yanglou, or foreign upper 
story, and the plate-glass 
window are usually con- 
spicuous features. In 
places like Shanghai and 
Peking, where the erection 
of business buildings and 
Government offices has 
been entrusted to foreign 
architects, the results have 
the character of a European 
city. As regards such ma- 
terials as stone and brick, China is already well supplied. 




TH 



DETAIL B\ I'KEDERICk C. KKOUNE, 

ARCHITECT. 

Klxecuted by the New York Architectural 

Terra Cotta Company. 



BUILDINCi CON- 
STRUCTION IN 
CHINA. 

E sum of 
)ver $6,000,- 
000 spent by China 
last year on the 
purchase of foreign 
building materials 
is indicative of a 
far-reaching change 



JAPANESE GARDENS, GREAT NECK, L. I. 

ANEW motor-boat canal is being cut from a point in 
the bay opposite the Manhasset Yacht Club to a 
distance of more than a mile. The canal is to be 200 feet 
wide and to have a depth of 10 feet at low tide. A 
frontage of 800 feet on the canal is to be filled in and 
laid out as a Japanese garden. The plans for the garden 
comprise the erection of a casino of pure Japanese design. 
A salt water swimming pool and bathing beach will con- 
nect the casino with the tennis courts and a bathhouse of 
harmon ious 
design. A 
picturesque 
Japanese 
bridge will 
span a brook 
springing 
from the 
hills, which 
will be fash- 
ioned into 
miniature 
lakes and 
waterfalls. 



TERRA 

COTTA 

TILE FOR 

PARTITION 

WALLS. 

THE illus- 
tration 
on page 199 
of one of the 
offices of the 
West Publish- 
ing Company, 




DETAIL IIV t HARI.ES I'.. iME\EkS, 

ARCHITECT. 

E.xecutecl by the New Jersey Terra Cotta Company. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



199 



St. Paul, shows the walls built of interlocking terra 
cotta tiles. While only one room is shown, all the offices 
of the company are finished in a similar manner. The 
illustration gives no idea of the beau- 
tiful tone effects in this tile. The —"" 
center of each is flashed with a deli 
cate old rose tint shading to 
old gold at the edges. The 
tiles are laid with a light 
cream joint and the whole 
covered with three coats of 
transparent varnish, 
which imparts to the 
walls the soft mellow 
glow of the setting sun. 



large basin, and the corresponding calidarium have also 

been revealed. Every feature of the interior gives the 

impression that it was once rich in statuary and mural 

paintings, and a large number of 

artistic fragments have already been 

found. 




W TOWN OF COREY, 
ALA. 

HIS model industrial 
town, near Birming- 
ham, Ala., is being built 
for the purpose of hous- 
ing the many employees 
which will be engaged 




■"»■'•- •"^fvJk- 



DETAILS, ST. PATRICK S CHURCH, BROCKTON, MASS. 

Executed in terra cotta by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 

Charles R. Greco, Architect. 



Besides their beauty these tiles are comparatively inex- 
pensive, sanitary and fireproof, and are particularly 
adapted for partition walls in office and other semi-public 
and public buildings. They are made by the Twin City 
Brick Company, 
St. Paul. 




HORACE'S 
SABINE FARM. 

THE announce- 
ment is made 
of the discovery of 
the vSabine Farm at 
Vignati-Corte, near 
Licenza. Excava- 
tions reveal primi- 
tive wall panels and 
a mosaic pavement 
of the Augustan 
epoch. In front of 
the dwelling por- 
tion of the house 
was a garden of 
considerable size 

surrounded with arcades. In the middle of the garden 
a basin or pool has been uncovered more than 60 feet in 
length. To the left of the enclosed garden the ruins of 
a large farmhouse are to be seen. A frigidarium, a 



OFFICE OF THE WEST PUBLISHING COMPANY, ST. PAUL, MINN. 



on the construction and in the operation of the ten 
million dollar improvements now going on imder the 
direction of the United States vSteel Corporation. As 
indicated in the illustrations (see page 196) brick with 

panels of cement 
and tile will be used 
for all houses, com- 
mercial and other 
buildings to be 
erected. William 
Leslie Welton, Bir- 
mingham, has been 
chosen architect for 
the entire group, 
and the brick, which 
is of various shades 
from light to dark 
buff with fire- 
flashed tones of 
brown, red and 
black, is made by 
the Sibley-Menge 
Brick Company. 



ON THE Fourth of July, 1912, will be dedicated the 
monument commemorating the battleship " Maine. " 
The shaft is the work of Atilio Piccirilli, sculptor, and 
will furnish with its elaborate setting a monumental 



200 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



entrance to Central Park, New York City. H. Van Buren 
Magonigle has charge of the landscape features. 



The Pkinciflks of Pi.annim; Buildings. Percy L. 
Marks, architect. An analytical treatise containing over 

two hundred plans of buildings of various types. New 

CHICAGO DOCK IMPROVEMENTS. York, William Helburn, publisher. Large 8vo, cloth, 

THE city of Chicago is considering plans already gilt. Price, $4.80. 
made under the supervision of the Administration Pi,umhin(; and Household Sanitation. Edited by 
for a new system of dockage. The scheme provides for J. Pickering Putnam. A course of lectures on " Plumb- 
a harbor with twenty-five miles of docks, including boat ing " delivered before the plumbing school of the North 
landings for freight and passenger traffic, piers for yachts End Union, Boston. New York, Doubleday, Page & 



and excursion 
steamers, teaming 
platforms, traffic 
and pleasure drive- 
ways, recreation 
piers, etc. 



Vjr M 




V E R N- 
M E N T - 
MADE bricks will 
be used in the new 
capital buildings to 
be built at Can- 
berra, Australia. 
The discovery 
within the new fed- 
eral area of promis- 
ing deposits of raw 
material has led the 
Government to the 
conclusion that the 
establishment of a 
brick-making plant 
on the property 
would be highly 
profitable. 

NEW BOOKS. 
Ofi iciAL Year Book of iiiE New York Society of 
Architkits. a handljook containing the information 
required in the daily routine of an architect's ofiice. 

New York ; 
A. M. Madi- 
gan, pub- 
lisher. 

TUHERCU- 

Losis Hos- 
pital AND 
Sanatoriu.m 
construc - 
TioN. Writ- 
t e n by 
Thomas 
Specs Car- 
r i n g t o n , 
M.D., for 
The N a- 
tional Asso- 
ciation for 
the Study 
and Preven- 
t i o n of 

Tuberculosis. The book contains 168 pages, bound in 
heavy paper and published by the Association, 105 East 
22d street. New York. Price, 25 cents. 



ii -! 1 r w Ks r\\ ()(ii), OHIO. 

Roofed witli American " S " tile. 

Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. 



Company. 

Fire and Fire 
Losses. A paper 
by F. W. Fitzpat- 
rick on the causes 
of fire, the means 
to prevent them 
and the fire resist- 
ing construction of 
buildings. Chicago, 
American School of 
Correspondence. 

Annual Report 
OF the Boston 

SCHOOLHOUSE DE- 
PARTMENT, 1910- 

1911. Report of 
the Commissioners 
on the various divi- 
sions of schoolhouse 
work. Boston, City 
Printing Depart- 
ment. 

Our Home Citv. 
Edited by William 
Arthur on the 

Model City and its various needs, Omaha, Neb. William 

Arthur, publisher. Price, 25 cents. 




DETAIL BV PEUCKERT & WUNDER, 

ARCHITECTS. 

Executed bv the O. W. Ketcham Terra Cotta Wcjrks. 



IN GENERAL. 
The Conkling-Armstrong Company supplied the terra 
cotta for the United Illuminating Company's Building, 
New Haven, Conn., Foote & Townsend, architects, illus- 
trated in this 
issue. 

The Engi- 
neering Build- 
ing at Rutgers 
College, Hill 
c^ Stout, archi- 
tects, illus- 
trated in this 
issue, was 
built of Sayre 
& Fisher 
brick. 

Brick for the 
Divoll Branch 
Library, St. 
Louis, Mo., 

Mariner & La Beaume, architects, illustrated in the Plate 
Forms of this issue, was furnished by the Hydraulic- 
Press Brick Company. 




DETAIL BY LONG, LAMOREAUX & LONG, 

ARCHITECTS. 
American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Co., Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



20I 




DETAIL BY ALBERT RAHN, ARCHITECT. 
Executed by Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company. 



The Newton Y. M. C. A. Building, Brainerd & Leeds, 
architects, shown on Plate 102 of our August issue, has 
its entire exterior walls waterproofed by Cabot's Color- 
less Waterproofing Number 700. 

The following buildings illustrated in the Plate Forms 
of this number are built of " Tapestry " brick, furnished 

byFiske 
& Co., 
Inc.: 
Ameri- 
can Pa- 
vil ion, 
Rome , 
Italy, 
Carrere 
& Hast- 
i n g s , 
archi- 
tects; 
United 
Illumi- 
nat ing 
Com- 
pany 
Build- 
ing, New Haven, Conn., Foote & Townsend, architects; 
Nichols School Building, Buffalo, N. Y., Green & Wicks, 
architects. 

John H. Pray & Sons Co. have published recently a 
small book relative to the merits of their linoleum and 
cork carpets. It also enumerates the large number of 
buildings in which this material has been used with 
unmeasured success. 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT Office of the Supervising 
Architect, Washington, D. C, August 21, 191 I. 

NOTICE is hereby given that the time for opening the bids for the con- 
struction of the United States Post Office at WASHINGTON. D.C., has 
been extended from Sept. 15, 1911, to 3 o'clock P.M. on Oct. 10, 1911. 
JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, Supervising Architect. 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT Office of the Supervising 
Architect, Washington, D. C, August 31, 1911. 

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 3 o'clock P.M. 
on the 31st day of October, 191 1, and then opened for the construction 
(except the mechanical equipment) of the United States Post Office 
at MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. The building is to be of fireproof construc- 
tion, stone faced, with a ground area of approximately 61,000 sq. ft., one 
story in height, except the front portion which is three stories. Draw- 
ings and specifications may be had from the Custodian of site at MIN- 
NEAPOLIS, MINN., or at this office at the discretion of the Supervising 
Architect. JAMES KNOX TAYLOR. Supervising Architect. 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT Office of the Supervising 
Architect, Washington. D. C, Sept. 2, 1911. 

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received in this office until 3 o'clock P.M. 
on the 16th day of October, 191 I, and then opened for the construction, 
complete (including plumbing, gas-piping, heating apparatus, electric 
conduits and wiring and lighting fixtures), of the United States Post 
Office at POINT PLEASANT, WEST VIRGINIA. The building is to 
be two stories in height with a ground area of 5500 sq. ft., of fireproof 
construction, with brick facing and stone trim. Drawings and specifica- 
tions may be obtained from the Custodian of site at POINT PLEAS- 
ANT, W. VA., or at this office at the discretion of the Supervising 
Architect. JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, Supervising Architect. 



The program for the Ninth International Congress of 
Architects, to be held in Rome during the month of 




DETAIL BY JARVTS HUNT, ARCHITECT. 
E.xecuted by The Northwestern Terra Cotta Company, 

October, under the patronage of His Majesty the King 
of Italy, can be obtained by addressing George Oakley 
Totten, Jr., Secretary and Treasurer, American Section, 
Washington, D. C. It summarizes the various meetings, 
the numerous excursions in the neighborhood of Rome, 
the method of traveling, the hotels, etc. 

WANTED. 

Specification writer with large experience, for architect's 
office in the Middle West. An excellent opportunity for a 
capable man w^ith plenty of energy. Write fully stating ex- 
perience, reference and salary. 

Address, Wolverine, care The Brickbuilder. 
"COMPETITION" 

Approved by the Standing Committee on Competitions of the 
American Institute of Architects 

The Public Auditorium Commission of Portland, Oregon, 
invites Architects of experience and in good standing to 
compete for a Public Auditorium to cost $450,000.00. 

For information address : ELLIS F. LAWRENCE. Pro- 
fessional Adviser, 1019-1023 Chamber of Commerce Build- 
ing, Portland, Oregon. 

BRICK AND TERRA COTTA PLANT WITH 
FIVE (5) KILNS AT RAILROAD STATION 
(WITH SIDING) FORTY-FIVE MILES FROM 
PHILADELPHIA. RENT FREE FOR TEN 
YEARS TO ANY RESPONSIBLE PARTY WHO 
WILL MAKE CLAY PRODUCTS; UNLIMITED 
SUPPLY OF CLAY ON PROPERTY HALF MILE 
FROM WORKS. ADDRESS EDWIN F. MORSE, 
S. W. CORNER 12TH & SANSOM STS., PHILA- 
DELPHIA. 



202 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



"SPECIFICATION BLANKS," by T. Robert Wieger, 
architect (formerly with F. E. Kidder). Forms for all classes 
of buildings, each trade separate. Complete set, 44 pages, 
25 cents. Reduction on quantities. Sample page upon 
request. 628- 1 4th street. Denver, Colo. 



University of Pennsylvania 

School of Architecture 

FOUR YEAR COURSE. (.Degree B.S. in Arch.) Options in design and 
architectural construction. 

GRADUATE YEAR. {Degree M.S. in Arch.) Allowing specialization in 
advanced work. Fellowships, 

SPECIAL COURSE of two years. (Professional Certificate.) For qualified 
draftsmen. 

ADVANCED STANDING granted for equivalents completed elsewhere. 

SUMMER SCHOOL in architecture and allied subjects. Special circular. 

YEAR BOOK illustrating work in design, drawing, etc., mailed without 
charge. 

FULL INFORMATION will be sent on application to the Dean of the College 
Department, Dr. George E. Fisher, University of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 



Double Roller Gravity Spiral 

For conveying boxes, barrels and other articles having one flat 
surface dowrn any number of floors. Made to receive and dis- 
charge at any desired floor by means of a switch lever. De- 
signed for inside or outside installation. A modern, labor, 
time and money saver, Morris & Co., Kansas City, Kan., write 
us as follows : " The Spiral Conveyor installed at our plant 
over two years ago for carrying boxes and barrels of different 
products down five floors has been entirely satisfactory and a 
great labor saver." We also design and build Automatic 
Straight-Lift Elevators and Open Gravity Friction Chutes. 
Architects should inform themselves of these modern convey- 
ing devices by addressing 

Mathews Gravity Carrier Company, 

ST. PAUL, MINN., U. S. A. 

Boston, 164 Federal Si. 
New York, 30 Church St.. Room 337 
Philadelphia, 1002-3 Drexel BIdg. 
Chicago. 213 Roanoke Bldg. 
St. Louis. Box 568 
CANADIAN MATHEWS CO.. Ltd., 28 Sheppard St., TORONTO 
BRITISH MATHEWS CO., Ltd., 147 Upper Thames St.. E.G., LONDON 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 

TRADE MARK - REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 

BULLETIN 

RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

United Illuminating Co. Bldg., New Haven, Conn. Plate 113 

FooTE & TowNSEND, Architects 

American Pavilion, Rome, Italy Plates 118-120. 

C.\RRERi'; & H.\.STiNC,.s, Aicliilects 

Nichols School Building, Buffalo, N. Y. Plates 125, 126 

Green & Wicks, Architects 

"PISKE 6- COMPANY JNC 
lACE BRICKS/ ESTABLISH 
llRE BRICKSl ED IN 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Arena Building, New York 



COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE 

IN 

South Carolina and Georgia 

Edited by CRANE & SODERHOLTZ 

A series of the choicest examples of pure Colonial Architecture found in the 
South. Showing some of the best and most interesting examples of American 
Colonial work, many of which have now disappeared. 

A collection of 52 plates illustrating exteriors, interiors and numerous details ; 
entrances, doors (interior and exterior), mantels, halls, stair cases, interior 
trim, mouldings, wrought iron work, furniture, etc. 

One volume, portfolio, size \2}i x 16/4 inches. 

Price, $10.00 

THE BRUNO HESSLING COMPANY 

64 East 12th Street, NEW YORK, N. Y. 



r 



BOILERS AND RADIATORS 



^ 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

Water Tube and Return Flue Boilers 

Plain and Ornamental Direct Radiators 
Direct-Indirect Radiators 
Indirect Radiators 

For Steam and Water Warming 

Send for complete illustrated catalog 

THE H. B. SMITH CO. 



Westfield, Mass. 
Philadelphia 



New York 
Boston 



Linoleum and Cork Covering 
FOR CEMENT FLOORS 



Linoleuyn .secured by waterproof cement to concrete 
foundation can be furnished in plain color.s or in inlaid 
effect.s. 

Cork Carpel in plain colors. 

Elastic, Noiseless, Durable. 

Is practical for rooms, halls, and particularly adapted 
to public buildings. 

.Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing .skilled workmen. 

Follozcing I'.vamples of our work : 

Brookline Public Library. R. Clipston Sturgis, Esq., Architect. 
Suffolk County Court House, Boston. George A. Clough, Esq., 

Architect. 
Registry of Deeds, Salem, Mass. C. H. Blackall, Esq., Architect. 

A small book on this subject, and quality samples, mailed 
nil application. We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 
646-658 WASHINGTON STREET - BOSTON, MASS. 

Continuously in this business for 93 years 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XX OCTOBER 1911 Number 10 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, 1911, by ROGERS A MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ........ $5.00 per year 

Single numbers 50 cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............... $s.so per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ................. $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order 



P.AGK 

Agencies — Clay Products ...... II 

Architectural Faience ....... II 

Terra Cotta . . . . . . II and III 

Brick Ill 



P.^GK 



Brick Enameled HI and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ..'...., IV 

Fireproofing ........ IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work bv 

GROSVENOR ATTERBURY; BIGELOW & WADSWORTK; BROCKIE & HASTINGS; 

CUMMINGS & HOWARD; J. MILTON DYER; WILSON EYRE; 

ABRAM GARFIELD; CHARLES A. PLATT. 



LETTERPRESS 



PAGE 

CHURCH OF S.-^N CRISTOBAL, PUEBLA, MEXICO Frontispiece 

ARCHITECTS IN CHARGE OF CONSTRUCTION H. Kent Day 203 

LEGAL HINTS FOR ARCHITECTS — PART IV William L. Bozcyuan 205 

THE SMALL HOUSE OF BRICK IN SUBURBS AND COUNTRY h'oberl C. Spencer, Jr. 209 

HOUSE AT DENVER, COLO., VARIAN & VARIAN, ARCHITECTS 216 

HOUSE AT ST. LOUIS, MO., MAURAN, RUSSELL & GARDEN, ARCHITECTS 217 

HOUSE AT ST. LOUIS, MO., MARINER & LA BEAUME, ARCHITECTS 218 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 219 

THE BRICKBUILDER ANNUAL TERRA COTTA COMPETITION PROGRAM 224 




CHURCH OF SAN CRISTOBAL, 
PUEBLA, MEXICO. 



Dome is covered with glazed tile fonning squares 
of yellow and blue. The ribs are blue and the 
star is yellow on a blue ground. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

OCTOBER, 1911 



VOLUME XX. 



NUMBER 10. 



Architects in Charge of Construction. 



H. KENT DAY. 



THE article by Mr. Walter B. Chambers, " Architects 
in Charge of Construction," published in The Brick- 
builder for August, gives so complete a description of 
the system that it seems best that anything further on 
the subject should assume the form of comments supple- 
mental thereto. 

It is doubtful whether the term "Trades-Contract 
Method " is the best for the purpose. It would be better 
to emphasize the separation of the usual general contract 
into many, rather than to call them "trade-contracts"; 
therefore the term "Separate Contract System," which 
is frequently if not generally used, expresses the essential 
idea more strongly. 

One of the most important advantages in the separate 
contract system not mentioned by Mr. Chambers is that 
the architect actually controls the selection of the sub- 
contractors. No matter how many bidders he may a,=k 
in any one trade, it may be supposed that he will apply 
only to those who would be satisfactory to him as con- 
tractors and whose bid he would accept if lowest. Thus 
in advance he knows that his list of contractors, as far as 
can be foreseen, will be such as he would desire. In the 
general contract system, bids are often asked even by 
good well-meaning general contractors from low bidding 
sub-contractors, and it is seldom that the lowest general 
bidder presents a list which is wholly satisfactory. 
Should the architect wish to substitute others who do 
meet with his approval, the bid is necessarily advanced, 
perhaps beyond that of the next highest bidder, whose 
list in turn would probably contain objectionable names. 

It is because the separate method provides, as shown, 
presumably only good men for the various trades that 
there is more direct and better control of the work, rather 
than on account of avoiding what Mr. Chambers calls 
the " Military System." While it does occur occasion- 
ally that a sub-contractor refuses to take orders or sug- 
gestions from the architect unless through the general 
contractor, this gives little trouble compared with the 
frequent necessity of accepting unsatisfactory or incom- 
petent men as sub-contractors, often those whose habits 
of workmanship, no matter how willing they may be, 



prevent their carrying out their contracts as demanded 
by the specifications and by the architect. Incompetent 
sub-contractors are met with more frequently than dis- 
obliging ones, but by the separate contract system there 
is a reasonable surety of avoiding both. 

Mr. Chambers mentions the saving of the general con- 
tractor's profit on the total of the sub-contracts, but the 
advantage to the owner through closer bidding under 
the separate contract system deserves fuller explanation. 
Under a general contractor in an operation where there 
are, say, twenty-five separate parts of the work, at least one 
hundred and twenty-five bids would be asked. Each gen- 
eral contractor is furnished by the architect with a set of 
the blue prints and a copy of the specifications. The re- 
sult is that in a more or less cramped and unsuited office 
there are often seen a great number of men at one time 
(for they seldom begin to make up their estimate until 
the last days of the time allowed) endeavoring to learn 
what work they have to do or what materials to furnish, 
all needing the specifications and certain prints at the 
same time and necessarily guessing, more or less, at the 
cost or quantity and, naturally, not in the owner's favor. 

The difference of opportunity and certainty in bidding 
in the separate contract system is marked. As stated by 
Mr. Chambers a much larger number of copies of draw- 
ings and specifications are required. Each of the, say, 
one hundred and twenty-five bidders receives as nearly a 
complete set of drawings and copy of the specifications 
as he may have any reason for consulting. The work 
of some bidders may have a relation to twelve or 
more parts of the work. These men must have all those 
parts of the specifications sent to them with whatever 
part, or the whole if necessary, of the blue prints. Thus 
the total number of prints and specifications distributed 
may be very large, yet there must be no economy in 
regard to this. Each man m.ust be allowed ample time, 
from one week to ten days, lo examine everything having 
any bearing vipon his bid.* This he is enabled to do at 
his own office or home, and with the advantages afforded 
him he is more likely to^ommence to compute soon after 
receiving the documents. He realizes he is in a real 



204 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



competition, equally fair to all, and he will proceed to 
obtain the best bids possible on his materials, apparatus, 
etc. He now has no reason for guessing, he can get 
his costs accurately on even the smallest items of labor 
or material. 

Mr. Chambers gives as a reason why contractors like 
this system, that the payments are made direct by the 
owner, and explains clearly why this is an advantage, 
bat he fails to make the point that this is a strong reason 
for low bidding. Many contractors state freely that 
they bid lower under a contract direct with the owner 
than they will to a general contractor. It is often stated 
that this difference is five per cent or more. It must be 
remembered that in bidding to several general con- 
tractors, they do not know which will be the lowest and 
they have to take the risk of becoming sub-contractors 
to an undesirable contractor, whereas the owner's finan- 
cial responsibility is or may be known in advance and is 
generally better than that of the average contractor. 
It is not difficult, therefore, to see the advantages to the 
owner in this method of getting the bids under the 
separate contract system. 

As to the various contractors under this system who 
would otherwise be sub-contractors, it m^y be freely 
stated that invariably they greatly prefer this method. 
In addition to the advantage to them that they are paid 
directly by the owner and that they can know in advance 
what his responsibility is, they are interested in the work 
and they come into immediate contact with the architect 
whom they find directly interested in their work. They 
are not separated from him by one who is a mere broker 
of their services. They realize that they are having a 
fair chance to do their best, and they do it. They be- 
come keen for re-employment under the same system. 

As to owners, it is the experience of those architects 
who have adopted this method that when an owner has 
had even a single opportunity of observing its workings, 
he would not willingly go back to the general contract 
system. An interesting instance is where an owner who 
was familiar with the separate system, having occasion to 
have some large work done by an architect other than 
the one usually employed by him, insisted that the work 
be done by the separate system even though the architect 
was unfamiliar with it. 

Mr. Chambers omits an important point — possibly he 
thought it went without saying — that the architect 
should have a greater commission for doing the work 
under this system. As the owner will make very con- 
siderable savings through direct bidding and by the sav- 
ing of the general contractor's profits on sub-contracts, 
he will have, after paying the architect a suitable fee for 
the additional work and expense entailed, a substantial 
balance in money in his favor aside from all the advan- 
tages inherent in this method. It is not meant that the 
owner should pay a larger fee because he — the owner — 
makes substantial savings, but because of the added work 
and responsibility devolving upon the architect. Some 
of the reasons for such added work and expense may be 
noted : 

Drawings must be more numerous and more carefully 
made and fuller in their demonstration of the work. 

Specifications must be more accurately divided as to 
trades; and more complete and detailed. 



The bidding in detail becomes a part of the duties of 
the architect. 

There are many contracts to write and to have exe- 
cuted in place of one. 

Supervision is far different, combining much usually 
done by the general contractor and much that he often 
fails to do. 

Book-keeping must be separate and accurate for each 
account from start to finish. 

Responsibility of the architect is far greater in many 
respects. 

Payments are made monthly to many contractors in- 
stead of to one. The architect must issue a separate 
certificate to each contractor after careful investigation 
and, if necessary, correction of the claims of each. 

It is more important than with work done in the 
usual way that the one or more superintendents should 
be not only capable persons but especially suited by 
experience and tempefament for carrying on the work 
under separate contracts and attending to the various 
additional duties which are theirs under this system. 
It is their duty to see that the work of the various con- 
tractors is done in the proper sequence, that there are 
sufficient and properly skilled men furnished by each 
contractor at the proper times, to know in advance the 
condition of the work in the shops or yards and many 
other duties which are, under the ordinary method, those 
of the contractor and his assistants. 

In regard to the "gaps and holes" that Mr. Chambers 
says have to be filled under the general contract sys- 
tem, most contractors figure on these and include in 
their bids what may be called a "contingent fund." If, 
however, there are no gaps or holes or only a few, the 
contractor gets his allowance in full and the owner is 
correspondingly the loser. Moreover, the theory that he 
will fill the gaps when he has made a contingent allow- 
ance is not borne out by the facts, for when no sub-con- 
tractor can be called upon under the specifications, the 
general contractor will nearly always demand an extra, 
as it is not known that he has allowed for gaps in his 
contract price. He makes such allowance to cover him- 
self, but it is not usually used for the owner's benefit if 
an extra can be obtained. In the separate contract sys- 
tem, the greater care needed in preparing the drawings 
and specifications for bidding under distinct headings 
makes gaps and holes less likely to occur — the owner 
paying only what it costs to take care of them and never 
paying twice. Again, guessing and the consequent loss 
to the owner thereby is eliminated. 

In conclusion it may be said that the separate contract 
system is not generally applicable with advantage to 
small operations. While it would be of advantage to the 
owner to adopt the system for work of any size, it is 
doubtful whether, with any reasonable payment, the 
architect can employ it without loss on buildings costing 
less than $7.S,000 to $100,000. 

What has been said above about general contractors 
and their methods of handling contracts must not be 
taken as applied to all alike. There are many who do 
take an interest in the work other than that of a broker 
and who do not exact an extra wherever possible. If all 
were of this kind, there would be little need of the 
separate contract system. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Legal Hints for Architects. — Part IV, 



205 



WILLIAM L. BOWMAN, C. E., LL. B. 



DURING EMPLOYMENT. 



Duty to Employer. The failure of architects generally 
to have a formal written contract of employment has just 
called forth the following judicial plea: " When parties 
fail to reduce their contracts to writing and cannot agree 
upon the terms thereof, it is difficult for courts to deter- 
mine with legal accuracy the liability of the contracting 
parties." Such failure necessarily leaves the architect's 
duties undefined, and as a practical matter the same 
might be said of most of the architects' written con- 
tracts. Those duties are threefold, namely, to his em- 
ployer, to the contractor thereafter employed, and to 
himself. They are largely determined by the architect's 
contract of hiring, and by the terms of the construction 
contract entered into by the owner, but they also depend 
somewhat upon the practice of the profession as estab- 
lished by custom and good usage in the various localities. 
An architect, like any other professional man, impliedly 
contracts with his employer (who will for convenience 
hereafter often be designated as the owner) that he has 
the ordinary skill, knowledge, and judgment possessed 
by men of his profession, and that he will use this .skill, 
care, and judgment in the interest of his employer and 
will act with perfect honesty. There is also an implied 
understanding upon the employment of an architect that 
the work shall be suitable and capable of being used for 
the purpose for which it is intended. The basic princi- 
ple of the relationship between employer and architect 
has been concisely stated in these words: "Architecture 
is the art of building according to certain determined 
rules. The owner does not know the rules. Reemploys 
an architect, who makes the plans in accordance with 
them." In addition to his knowledge of the fundamen- 
tal laws of nature, of materials, etc., an architect repre- 
sents himself as possessed of a knowledge of the statutes, 
ordinances, and laws relating to buildings and to the 
erection of buildings in the places where the structure is 
to be located. 

As to the amount of skill required, his undertaking 
implies that he possesses skill and ability, including 
taste, sufficient to enable him to perform the required 
services, at least ordinarily and reasonably well, and the 
mere fact that others of far greater experience or ability 
might have used a greater degree of these elements is 
not sufficient to make him responsible for failures or mis- 
takes in matters of reasonable doubt aijd uncertainty. 
Unless there is a special contract providing therefor, an 
architect does not warrant the perfection of his plans, 
nor of the structure, nor its safety, nor that it is durable, 
any more than a surgeon warrants a cure or a lawyer 
guarantees the winning of a case. The question is 
whether there has been such a want of competent care 
and skill leading to a bad result as to amount to negli- 
gence. Thus, one who takes a contract to plan a mil- 
lion dollar court-house has been held by the law to a 
higher degree of skill than one employed to plan a 
country home, or, as it has been judicially expressed. 



the skill and care must be commensurate with the under- 
taking to be performed. The liability of an architect 
for failure to possess or apply these qualifications will be 
hereinafter considered under that heading. 

One of the early duties of an architect is to obtain from 
the owner all facts necessary to enable him to prepare 
proper plans and specifications for the proposed building. 
Another duty is to submit studies, sketches, or prelimi- 
nary plans for approval, which should conform to the 
instructions given by the owner, especially as to the 
estimated cost. Said sketches or preliminary plans 
should also comply with all laws applicable, they should 
not infringe the rights of any third party, and should 
be in accordance with all the rules of the architect's 
science and art. How many different sketches or 
studies shall be submitted upon request depends upon 
the contract requirement. If nothing is mentioned re- 
garding the same, then the number depends largely 
upon the importance and magnitude of the proposed 
construction. If the architect has confirmed his employ- 
ment by writing, as has been suggested should always 
be done, and at the same time referred to and enclosed 
the schedule of the American Institute of Architects, so 
that its terms and conditions are brought to the notice of 
the employer, then the number of sketches would proba- 
bly be governed by said schedule. Ordinarily this is 
not a matter of serious import, except in cases where the 
employment is discontinued after such studies or prelim- 
inary plans have been prepared and submitted. Whether 
recovery will be permitted for more than one set of 
sketches or plans depends largely upon the facts, but it in- 
volves the same principles as where more than one set 
of detailed plans and specifications are drawn, considera- 
tion of which is taken up later. 

An architect upon presentation and explanation of the 
sketches or preliminary plans to his employer is often 
directed to make certain changes, and frequently such 
changes increase the cost. In such instances an archi- 
tect, for his own protection, should always advise his 
employer of this fact in writing even though such a 
statement may seem senseless or unnecessary. In muni- 
cipal contracts or in contracts where the architect knows 
that only a certain amount is available with which to 
construct the building, this matter of making changes 
becomes extremely serious. While an architect is ordi- 
narily bound to obey the instructions and directions of the 
contracting official who represents his employer, yet if 
in so doing the cost is being increased over the appro- 
priation, it is proper for him to refuse to make the 
changes without corresponding cost-reducing modifica- 
tions. The only other safe method is to offer to make 
the changes provided the official will give his personal 
written agreement to pay for all services rendered if the 
plans should be rejected or compensation refused for 
that reason. 

After approval of the studies or sketches, then it is the 



2o6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



architect's duty to furnish detailed plans and specifica- 
tions conforming with the requirements heretofore men- 
tioned for the preliminary plans. In this connection it 
might be noted that it has been held that blueprints 
furnished are sufficient to comply with the contract to 
furnish plans. On the other hand, it has been held that 
where the architect failed to include among his drawings 
a transverse section, and where the specifications were 
general as to concrete work, electric wiring, etc., he had 
not fulfilled his contract, the intimation being that the 
specifications for the construction contract >fi!/s/ be 
definite. 

This brings us to one of the most frequent causes of 
the trouble between owners, architects, and contractors; 
namely, the inability of some architects to express their 
requirements clearly, concisely, and in plain unequivocal 
English so that all concerned may read and know what 
their specifications mean and call for. Most of this 
trouble can be ascribed to the practice of copying speci- 
fication provisions from some other person's work or 
from some ancient specifications with no regard or con- 
sideration as to whether the class of materials is the 
present market classification, or whether even obtainable 
except at an exorbitant price. Such specifications usu- 
ally contain ambiguous phrases which have been rightly 
named "club or big stick clauses," unfair to all parties 
and which create the impression that the architect him- 
self does not know what he wants, and that he expects 
to cover up his deficiency by other common phrases such 
as~'the decision of the architect as to the true construc- 
tion and meaning of the drawings and specifications 
shall be final"; "that all work and materials must be 
to the entire satisfaction of the architect"; "that all 
materials must be of the best quality " ; "that all work 
must be done in the best manner as the architect shall 
direct," etc. Nor do these expressions always accom- 
plish the expected result. For example, where a con- 
tract for a heating plant provided for " a complete and 
perfect job, even though every item required to make it 
such is not specially noted in the drawings or these 
specifications"; also that the contractor "shall furnish 
all labor, tools, and appliances necessary to complete his 
work according to these specifications, and shall perform 
his work in a true workmanlike manner in every particu- 
lar, and thus provide the building with a durable and 
mechanically perfect system "; it was held that the con- 
tractor was not required to improve upon the plans in 
order to make a mechanically perfect system. 

Similarly, where a contract requires the construction 
of a cellar according to specifications, it was held that 
an additional requirement that " the whole to be per- 
fectly water-tight and guaranteed " only bound the con- 
tractor so far as his own work was concerned and that 
he was not held to guarantee that the plans would pro- 
duce a water-tight job. In another instance, where a 
tin roof of the " best quality " was called for, the trial jus- 
tice in charging the jury held that such a requirement 
was satisfied when the roof as finished " was equal to 
the standard contemplated by the contract." In another 
contract a reservoir was required to be built according 
to definite plans and specifications, and the contract 
further provided that "the work contemplated ... is 
the construction of a water-tight reservoir, " and it was 



held that that did not impose upon the contractors the 
responsibility of making the reservoir water-tight, be- 
cause consideration of the entire terms of the contract 
showed that they had no discretion as to the method or 
means of doing the work. These numerous examples 
are given because of the tendency on the part of some 
architects and engineers to reject work under such cir- 
cumstances, involving all concerned in expensive and 
needless litigation and opening themselves to severe and 
sometimes well merited criticism. 

There has been a tendency in some quarters to specify 
in such a way that only one certain patented or exclusive 
kind of material can be used, when for all practical pur- 
poses the ec^ual of that could be specified. This should 
be avoided because it often causes a contractor to in- 
crease his estimate, and because it opens the door for 
(questioning the architect's motives. If the specifications 
are made liberal in this respect and call for material of a 
certain make or equal, the architect is of course the judge 
as to what is equal and the owner is thus protected in 
this respect. It might be here noted that if the speci- 
fications do call for a particular brand or equal, the con- 
tractor may use the equal material in the first instance, 
and it has been held that such use could not be made to 
depend upon the question as to whether the material 
specified was procurable or not. I quote the following 
excerpts from a late written discussion of the subject: 
" The engineer or professional adviser who draws up the 
specifications is too lazy to write out the details of the 
paragraph and so he says we will leave that to the judg- 
ment of the architect or the engineer. It is the result 
of his own mental laziness. Now, then, if you go to the 
opposite e.Ktreme and specify everything, there is noth- 
ing left for the engineer to decide, and there is nothing 
left for the arbitration to decide, . . . leaving also much 
less to fight about than if you left the things to the dis- 
cretion of the engineer or put in ' big stick ' compulsion 
clauses, which do not belong there." 

" Let the professional advisers work entirely for the 
man who employs them, and nobody else, and not have 
him a judge of any kind whatever. When he is not act- 
ing as a judge he will write specifications that will 
explain themselves. ... It is morally wrong to have a 
judge in litigation paid by one of the litigants. If our 
judges on the bench were paid that way . . . you would 
get wrong decisions; and this is a case where you pro- 
pose to have the judge paid by one of them, the owner, 
and expect him to judge fairly between the owner and 
the contractor." 

In connection with this subject, however, it should be 
noted that the satisfaction of an architect does not per- 
mit the architect to force his personal idiosyncrasies or 
personal tastes upon a contractor. To require work to be 
done ' ' in the best workmanlike manner, " or with ' ' mate- 
rial of the best quality " does not permit the architect to 
arbitrarily and unreasonably declare that work or mate- 
rials are not such as called for in the body of the speci- 
fications. The legal rule for these instances is "that 
which the law will say a contracting party or architect 
ought in reason to be satisfied with, that the law will 
say he is satisfied with"; or in other words, all that is 
required is materials and workmanship which would sat- 
isfy that legal creation named a "reasonable man." 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



207 



Thus it is that materials and workmanship for a build- 
ing cannot be compared with portraits, statuary, cloth- 
ing', etc., which require the absolute satisfaction of 
personal taste. 

A few jurisdictions have held that where work to the 
satisfaction of the architect is required, the architect 
acts as an arbitrator, whose decision is final and conclu- 
sive; that it is not a question of his good faith, and the 
only hope of the contractor is to prove that the expres- 
sion of dissatisfaction on the part of the architect was 
the result of fraudulent collusion with the owner. This 
extreme legal interpretation, which might cause the con- 
tractor, excepting in cases of substantial performance, to 
forfeit his compensation, was apparently beyond the 
equitable views of the layman, and the Legislature of 
Pennsylvania in 1907 passed a statute providing that 
no contract clause making an architect's or engineer's 
award or certificate final or conclusive should oust the 
Courts of their jurisdiction, and that any controversy 
arising on such a contract should be determined in due 
course of law with the same effect as if such provisions 
were not in the contract. For some unknown reason 
municipal corporations and corporations with power to 
exercise the right of eminent domain were specifically 
excluded from the operation of this statute. 

Further, the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of an archi- 
tect must be promptly expressed, since it is held that 
when the architect has power to reject materials, and he 
does not do so, or does not inspect it until it is in place, 
and when its removal would cause serious loss to the 
builder, then such delay operated as a waiver and the 
builder need not take it out, and if required so to do he 
can recover his damages caused by the replacement from 
the owner upon the theory of a breach of the contract by 
the owner's agent, the architect. 

Of course even under the strictest contract clauses, an 
architect cannot have the arbitrary right to remove any 
proper material actually in place, though he might in 
some jurisdictions refuse to permit such materials to be 
used and condemn the same as not fulfilling the require- 
ments of the contract. 

The above considerations call for the serious attention 
of the architect to his specifications, which should contain 
the following essential features : 

" (1) CoMPLETicxESS — Everv requirement properly specified, 
and provision made to check work to insure nothing is omitted. 

(2) Accuracy — Specifying clearh- what is desired ; correct- 
ing former errors, revising methods, etc. 

(3) Brevity — Elimination of a superfluous matter, and 
condensation of descriptions by careful selection of words 
and expressions. 

(4) Arrange-Mrnt — Placing subjects in proper and clearly 
defined divisions and sub-divisions to insure general conditions, 
etc., clearly indicating the work they were intended to govern, 
and to facilitate ease in reference." 

This recommendation is so stated, enlarged, and the 
entire subject well considered in a Report on Uniform 
Specifications for Buildings, published in March, 1911, 
lournal of the American Society of linginecring Contrac- 
tors, to which those further interested are referred. 

The writer's personal experience in this regard causes 
him to recommend the English practice of having a state- 
ment of the quantities of the various kinds of work and 



materials made for the contractor to bid upon in addi- 
tion to the plans and general specifications. That custom 
abroad has resulted in the architects giving over this 
work to another party named the "quantity surveyor" 
who is personally responsible to the contractor for the 
accuracy of his statement. At least one state has by 
legislative action required such a bill or list of quantities 
to be prepared and furnished by the architects or engi- 
neers of all public buildings, said list to be attached to 
the plans and specifications as a guide to the bidders. 
Such a bill or list of work and materials prepared by the 
architect who best knows what is going to be required of 
the contractor seems to be an easy solution of many of 
our serious building disputes. 

There are instances where an owner has changed his 
mind after the architect has completed the general work- 
ing drawings and specifications and the architect is then 
called upon to plan differently. In one case the architect 
was employed to prepare plans and specifications for atwo- 
story building, which plans and specifications were duly 
completed. Thereafter at the employer's request the 
architect prepared plans for a three-story building. It 
was held that the two sets of plans were properly regarded 
as applying to two different buildings and that the archi- 
tect might recover two and one-half per cent of the esti- 
mated cost of each Similarly a change of area of a 
building has been held to entitle the architect to charge 
and recover for two sets of plans. Thus it would seem 
that if complete plans and specifications are finished in 
accordance with the owner's suggestions, and the owner 
thereafter entirely changes the character or scope of the 
work, the architect may consider the order for the second 
set of plans and specifications as a new contract having 
no relation to the work done even under a prior written 
employment. 

In some jurisdictions it is held to be the duty of the 
architect to furnish the owner with a form of contract, 
bid, and bond for the construction of the proposed build- 
ing. This does not seem to be fairly implied under the 
usual contract of employment, and such a duty must 
depend either on a contract requirement to that effect or 
upon local custom. The mere fact that the employer 
approves the plans and specifications and signs the 
proper documents permitting said plans and specifica- 
tions to be filed with a municipal building department 
has been held not to be any excuse for faults therein 
of which the employer is not a competent judge. This 
warning is given so that the architect may know that 
approval by an owner does not prevent such owner from 
later refusing either to accept the plans or to pay for the 
same; nor does it prevent him from setting up any de- 
fense as to the lack of skill or as to any faults or defects 
that may be found to exist therein. 

The next duty would seem to be the securing of the 
approval of the plans and specifications prepared and 
accepted by the owner, by the Building Department, Art 
Commission, or whatever other body is required to pass 
upon same, so as to obtain the necessary permission to 
erect the building as planned. There is a serious ques- 
tion whether this duty is required to complete perform- 
ance so as to earn the percentage payment for plans and 
specifications sufficient for bidding purposes or whether 
it is part of the superintendence. Having in mind the 



208 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



fact that plans and specifications are useless without such 
approval, it is suggested that this should as a matter of 
precaution be considered as a requirement involved in 
the preparation of plans and specifications and as a con- 
dition precedent to the recovery of the usual two and one- 
half (Z'/i) per cent partial payment. 

Provided the architect's employment is not restricted 
to a mere furnishing of drawings and specifications, 
the next duty is that of honestly and conscientiously 
advising the owner regarding the bids and bidders and 
assisting him in his selection of a responsible builder. 
Then comes the duty to furnish details as required and 
superintend the actual construction work. 

In the preparation of the detail drawings care should 
be taken so that they do not require more than is shown 
or can be fairly implied from the original plans and 
specifications. The general rule seems to be that if the 
details vary materially from the original drawings and 
involve much additional labor or expense, and if the 
architect orders the contractor to do such work without 
giving him a written order as for extra work, then the 
contractor may refuse to proceed with the work at the 
contract price and recover at least for all the work he had 
done ; or he may proceed with the work as ordered after 
protest not only to the owner but to the architect, and 
thus raise the legal question as to whether such work 
was as a matter of law within his contract or not. 

In the superintendence an architect must bestow such 
care and attention that no material variation in the plans 
and specifications is permitted, and detect and guard 
against all such defects as can be discovered by the 
exercise of ordinary skill and attention. Failure so to 
do may cause the architect to lose his compensation even 
though the owner may have a remedy against the 
contractor. 

Since the employment of an architect depends upon a 
personal trust and confidence reposed in his skill, the 
common statement is made that the architect cannot be 
permitted to delegate any of his duties or powers with- 
out express authority to do so. The modern building and 
the practical changes in our methods of handling build- 
ing construction work has required and permitted some 
divergence from this absolute rule of ancient law. At 
the present time there seem to be four general excep- 
tions : first, where there is a lawful custom or usage to 
authorize it ; second, when the act is purely ministerial 
or in other words requires no exercise of judgment ; 
third, where the object of the agency cannot be attained 
otherwise; and fourth, where the employer is aware that 
the architect will appoint a subordinate for certain 
details. In all instances of delegation the architect 
must see that the acts and operations of his assistants 
are just, reasonable, and correct; and since he is respon- 
sible for the acts and defaults of his subordinates to 
whom he intrusted details, he should choose subordinates 
having the necessary knowledge, experience and ability. 
A common source of trouble, irritation, and annoyance 
upon a building is the architect's representative, and the 
cause may be due to his incompatibility, ignorance, lack 
of experience, or dishonesty. Many of these subordi- 
nates are newly graduated college men with a great 
deal of theoretical or book knowledge, but with ab- 
solutely no conception of the practical ways of doing 



things or of the fact that time is an essential element 
in building construction. In addition, their usual lack 
of knowledge of the relations between the various 
trades, the power of labor unions and their walking 
delegates, and their general inexperience in dealing 
with men, coupled with their pride and failure to seek 
and ask advice, do not tend to hasten the work, or create 
the proper atmosphere for hearty and zealous co-opera- 
tion on the part of all concerned. 

Another type of clerk of the works consists of a class 
of men who know what is right, but their remunera- 
tion is "SO small that they have to depend upon their 
position to aid them in securing what they consider living 
expenses. In this connection another fruitful source of 
trouble is the retention by the architect of a clerk of the 
works who has taken a grudge against the contractor, 
subcontractor or foreman, so that for personal reasons, 
or to satisfy such personal grudge, work well within the 
specifications is ordered to be replaced or materials 
rejected which properly should be accepted. 

Most, if not all, of these troubles may be avoided if 
the architect will give the job the personal supervision 
which it requires, and which it is his duty to give. If 
the employe is without experience, the architect should 
see that some experienced person keeps close watch of 
things and teaches and advises the beginner. He 
should also remember that his clerk of the works or 
inspector is human and not infallible, and his assertions 
and statements should be verified by the architect per- 
sonally, just as he would verify statements or opinions of 
the contractor or of a materialman. 

Upon one occasion an architect did not measure the 
work or check the estimate upon which his certificate for 
a payment was issued, and it was objected that such a 
delegation of authority to another would invalidate the 
certificate. The Court held that that did not make the 
certificate bad, it being admitted that the architect had 
behaved in perfect honesty in the matter and that there 
was nothing in the shape of corruption or improper 
conduct attributable to him. In that case there was 
a suggestion that for the details of much of an archi- 
tect's work it might well be that the architect, while 
well skilled in the general rules of architecture, etc., 
and a thoroughly competent architect, might not be 
skilled in the particular details of general construction, 
and therefore that a subordinate might be better able 
to make the measurements and estimate upon which 
the architect's certificate would be based than the archi- 
tect himself. 

An architect as well as every employee or servant is 
bound to obey all lawful orders of the employer within 
the scope of the employment; and he must not be guilty 
of gross moral misconduct, or of habitual negligence in 
business, or of conduct calculated seriously to injure his 
employer or his business. The penalty may be instant 
dismissal. 

Our considerations of the architect's duty to his em- 
ployer have been legally summed as follows: "Those 
who employ him have a right to his best judgment, to 
his skill, to his advice, to consultations with him and to 
his absolute fidelity and good faith, and when the archi- 
tect has contributed these things to the person who em- 
ploys him his duty has been fulfilled." 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



209 



'ME SMALL 



■E,®F IBMCKC^"' BY ROBERT OSPEAtCERJR- 




WVLL5- 12 ""» • LOCAL VlIftCUT BRICK'RAKtD HORIZONTAL JOINTS— 
BA5E.-COPING.')- KLCWI-RBOXES- MULL10N5-AND-GUTTLeC0RNIcr.-C0NCRLTt' 
ROOF- TAB AND GBAVE1-C0MP05ITI0N' 
ESTIMATLD T0C05TAB0UT $3500 



build attractive 
the readers of 



N INTERESTING topic, to be sure, offer- 
"^T" ing some latitude in its interpretation. 
J"^ But how much or how little may we mean 

^p^^ by "small"? To be liberal, let us say 
fifteen thousand dollars, more or less, pref- 
erably much less, providing that the material for illus- 
trations can be found without going abroad, where, of 
course, there is easy picking. 

Doubtless many architects who can 
little brick houses and bungalows for 
popular illustrated journals to cost but 
three or four thousand dollars — £>« 
paper — would throw up their hands if 
limited to an appropriation of six. But 
to build, or to discover built, well de- 
signed, individual houses, wholly of 
brick, or of the "half and half" type, 
costing between five to ten thousand — 
to say nothing of a still lower price 
limit — is another story. This is true, 
even in our most productive brick-mak- 
ing districts. 

In looking over nine miscellaneous 
volumes of The Brickmuilder, ranging 
over a period of twelve years (and this 
journal probably publishes more good 
brick houses than any other), I found 
illustrated thirty-two houses of moder- 
ate cost, representing the work of a 
dozen architects, which seemed good 
enough to illustrate this article, had 
they not already appeared. Than this, 
no better illustration could well be had 
of the rarity of good small brick houses 
in the United States. Of these thirty- 
two houses not all possessed particu- 
larly interesting or individual qualities 




FICST FLOOQ PLAN 



of design, and only a few showed any marked degree of 
brick technique. 

Upon the beauty and sterling structural qualities of 
brick as a material for the exterior walls or wall envel- 
opment of the small house, it is not the purpose of this 
article to dwell. 

The advantages of brick as a building material at once 

beautiful, adaptable, and durable are too well known and 

have been already too well set forth in these columns to 

need repetition. But why, since brick is so desirable a 

structural material for even the most 

modest cottage or bungalow, is it so 

seldom used for minor residential work, 

and when used, why are the results 

usually so bald and commonplace } 

The cost, by comparison with all 
frame, or with frame and stucco con- 
struction, is the chief reason. Minor 
reasons are a frame-house habit of 
mind, which we as a people have 
acquired through over a century of 
cheap lumber. There is also the diffi- 
culty of securing good brick masons for 
small jobs, and, in small towns, a lack 
of practical experience in the use of 
brick on the part of the majority of 
those architects whose practice is largely 
restricted to the small house. This 
latter condition, of course, is largely 
due to the saving in first cost effected 
by adhering to the customary frame 
construction. Stucco on wood or metal 
lath is only fairly beginning to replace 
wood for surface envelopment, because 
of the relatively small difference in cost 
and the elimination of expensive re- 
painting or restaining, but country 



2IO 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




A larger house of the three-bedroom type with roomy allies, stucco and "half timber" treatment of gables, walls of kiln-run pavers, in dull, buff 
colored mortar. Base, sills, and copings of bricks on edge. Shingled roof. Somewhat unusual in its placing, but very convenient and livable is the 
large living and dining porch, which is screened in summer and glazed in winter. Cost about fTi-VKI at Morgan Park, a suburb of Chicago. 



1 



I 



architect-builders still hesitate to experiment with it. 
The!^ still cling to the painfully neat American clap- 
board, and build wooden s/ulls, not walls. 

The American is always ready to take a chance, if he 
feels that by so doing he can make money, or save money, 
which is sometimes, but not always, the same thing. 

In deciding for a frame house, he takes an extra chance 
of fire loss and faces a certainty (although he seldom esti- 
mates it as an average annual tax) in the future cost of 
repainting and repair which may be forecast with a 
reasonable degree of accuracy, if he expects to maintain 
appearances, as well as his property. 

If he decides for frame and stucco, he takes a smaller 
chance as to fire, particularly as to exposure from wit/t- 
out, although in the country, or in a roomy suburban lot, 
there is small danger of fire exposure, except from 
within. And in this latter respect — inside exposure — 
the average brick house is also vulnerable only in a less 
degree. 

With wooden floor and partition construction, no metal 
lathing or fire-stopping, poorly built chimneys, etc., 
everything may readily burn, or be wrecked by a fire, 
except the bare brick walls. Yet, is it not indeed worth 



a little both in money and sentiment if the walls can be 
depended upon to remain standing? 

For the builder of the small house, the saving in first 
cost, due to all-frame construction, will in a few years 
cease. 

In the suburbs of our larger cities, the wide adoption 
of cement stucco for exterior envelopment, by the specu- 
lative builders of cheap houses, is the first step away 
from wood toward brick, showing clearly how the cost 
of lumber good enough for exposed outside work has 
advanced in the last few years. 

While there are many doubters of the lasting qualities 
of exterior cement stucco over wood, there is good rea- 
son to believe that it can with proper care be made to 
last as long as the average house enveloped in wood. 
Costing but a small percentage more, and more substan- 
tial in appearance with a decided saving in upkeep, its 
popularity must continue to grow as the price of lumber 
continues to rise, and as a knowledge of proper methods 
of its use and of its possibilities becomes common. 

At present but few architects are able to secure good 
stucco color and texture, particularly in country work, 
dependent upon country builders. Ready-prepared 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



211 





FIBST F=LOOia PLAN 



"rough-cast" or float finish material, ensuring fairly 
uniform matching of samples for color and texture, are 
not available for the small house, except within a rela- 
tively short haul from the few producing centers for 
such material which now exist. 

The finished wall effect of any selected make or shade 
of brick in combination with different mortars and in 
different bonds can be anticipated with reasonable cer- 
tainty, and verified in advance by the experimental erec- 
tion of bits of sample wall a few square feet in area on 
the building site while the foundations are being laid. 

There is another difficulty common in frame construc- 
tion which brick avoids and which the average archi- 
tect seems not always to appreciate. 

Where the contour of the home site is enough out of 
level to preclude artificial leveling to a single water table 
or base grade ; and the walls of the house to be effective 
must grow sheer up from the slopes of the ground, — 
only solid masonry walls are satisfying. 

A ground level water table, or stylobate, is good only 
on a site naturally level, or easily leveled without mar- 
ring its natural character. 

Extensive formal terracing may overcome this diffi- 
culty, but the small house owner cannot afford the long 
formal terrace as a flat base for his building, and ter- 
race walls on a picturesque or broken site should be of 
masonry. Pseudo terraces — commonly termed "open 
porches," with frame walls and wooden floor construc- 
tion instead of a solid, satisfying earthen fill, are, of 
course, a common adjunct of the frame house. 

If, for the sake of paving with brick, tile, or cement, 
walls of porches and terraces are built of brick in con- 
nection with frame and stucco houses, there is a large 
risk of cracks developing where the frame and brick 
walls join to form flush stucco surfaces. 

For a house of moderate cost, bricks of local or not 



far distant manufacture must be used for economy. In 
the middle West we are fortunate in being able to secure 
excellent sand-moulds or pavers at prices varying from 
$6.00 to $10.00 at the kilns and from $12.00 to $20.00 
or more per m. delivered at the building in Chicago and 
suburbs. 

Most architects, as well as many laymen, have now 
learned to know the beauty of rough bricks, particularly 
for suburban and country work. 

One of the chief difficulties in securing effective rough 
brickwork is the common predilection, which appears to 
be shared by many architects, as well as owners, for very 
dark gray to black mortar for the facing joints, although 
every colorist knows that even a small admixture of 
black tends to kill and muddy his color tones in any 
medium. In' rough brickwork, the brick unit is rela- 
tively so small, that the colors of bricks and very dark 
mortar tend to mix in the eye of the observer, pro- 
ducing a dull, hard, and more or less "muddy" effect. 
For purity and richness of color quality and nice 
definition of bond texture, the mortar should always 
be at least somewhat lighter than the average tone of 
the bricks. 

As a rule, the light gray of the lime and cement mortar 
ordinarily used for brickwork at the present time is suf- 
ficiently toned away from a dead white to produce very 
satisfactory results with the lighter red bricks. With 
bricks of a deep, strong red or with the deeper brown or 
purplish shades of hard burned kiln-run pavers, a small 
quantity of lampblack in the mortar produces a softer 
and quieter gray. 

With the ordinary mineral red mortar color, a dull, 
soft pinkish shade, considerably lighter than the average 
tones of the bricks may be obtained, which is very 
agreeable, and not so hard in effect as the light gray 
joints. With the buffs or ochres, rich warm effects may 



212 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




A compact little four-bedroom house of the suburban type, desijjned by Tallmadge and Watson, with den or library on tirst floor ; living and dining 
porch placed similarly to that at Morgan Park in preceding illustrations. Brick base, sills, and band courses in gray mortar ; slate roofing. Built on 
the south side of Chicago at a cost of about $6,500. Plans below. 




Detail of a composite brick and frame house by Tallmadge and Watson. 



F1B3T TlDOC DLjMS 



THE BRICKBUILDE R. 

VOL. 20. NO. 10. PLATE 127. 




HOUSE AT NEW HAVEN, CONN. 
Grosvenor Attersury, Architect. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 20. NO 10. PLATE 128. 







THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 10. PLATE 129. 





'^•src^ry^f^snwf'm 



rm 




HOUSE AT CHESTNUT HILL, PA 
Brockie & Hastings, Architects. 



X^ rtftST F^tJX». PlAJ^ 



TRE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 10. PLATE 120. 




GARDEN VIEWS. 

HOUSE AT HUNTINGTON, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
Wilson Eyre, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 10. PLATE 131. 





THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 20. NO. 10. PLATE 132. 




Q 
Z 
< 

m 

O K 

</! O t 
< -J o 

S z -*. 
<r p s 

2 H >- 

UJ ^ 

•- Z ^ 

"^ H ^ 

D 

X 

h 
< 

U 
w 

D 
O 

PC 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 10. PLATE 133. 




> 

Z 

Q 
2 

< 



O 

z 

o 



r "^ 

o '^ 
z ^ 

S o 

H ^ 

Z ? 

D 

< 

w 
w 
D 
O 

X 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 10. PLATE 134, 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 10. PLATE 135. 







HOUSE AT 

HARTFORD, CONN. 

Charles a. Platt, architect. 



StCOAJI^ rmiF FLAA/ 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 10. PLATE 136. 




BiGELOW & WaDSWORTH, 

Architects. 



HOUSE AT 
SHERBORN, MASS. 







^< ati^ s tis&i ^ iii^xatimii ^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 10. PLATE 137. 






THE BRIC KBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 10. PLATE 138. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 10. PLATE 139. 




CO 
C/5 

UI 

o < 

DQ 

H <« 
< I 

^ i 

D o 
O 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 10. PLATE 140. 





£rn 



n"""""'"; 





X 

o 

Q t 

z r 

< I 

■-J tr 

W < 

> a 

U ^ 

-J Q 

U z 

< 5 

w 
D 
O 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



213 




House at River Forest, Ills., designed by William Gray Purcell. The smoking-room is a unique adjunct of the living-room, and with its four double 
casements is practically a porch in warm weather. The horizontal joints of the brickwork are raked out and the vertical joints struck flush, giving a 
decided horizontal texture to the first story. The roof is of variegated gray-green and purple slate. The rough cast surfaces above the first story are of 
a rich warm buff color, with olive green wood trim, and inlays of colored tiles. 



be given to walls of sand- 
mould bricks; care being 
taken not to make the color 
too strong. 

Returning to the use of 
lampblack for the deeper gray 
mortar tones, the writer has 
had so much trouble in ob- 
taining the proper shading 
and an evenly colored mortar 
that he is inclined to depend 
entirely upon the cement 
mixture, even where the re- 
sulting shade is lighter than 
might be desired. 

Owners, who often have a 
fatal predilection for very 
dark joints, have on a number 
of occasions taken upon 
themselves (in their roles of 
active assistant superintend- 
ents) to order the masons to 
increase the quantity of lamp- 
black used, much to the det- 
riment of the work. As a 
result of this sort of "but- 
ting in," on a large country 
place the gate lodge has me- 
dium gray joints, the stable 
and garage nearly white 
joints, and the house shows 
all shades from light gray to 




'^.v"'^>" 



3E.COM D FLOOC PLWH 



^^^^ 




PIC5T FLOOC PLAN 



black, for the owner was a 
very determined person and 
set in his ways. 

Mortar mixers appear to be 
very careless in mixing 
mortar color, however ear- 
nestly warned by superintend- 
ents. Lampblack appears to 
differ from other colors in 
having comparatively little 
effect in darkening mortar up 
to a certain point, after which 
the darkening is so rapid 
(running to a deep blue-gray) 
that it seems dangerous to 
attempt a deep gray, except 
by the use of a pure, dark 
setting cement, gauged with 
just enough lime mortar to 
allow free working. 

Temperature also seems to 
have much to do with the 
final color of mortar toned 
down with lampblack. When 
used in very cold weather (as 
is found necessary in this 
latitude) it does not seem to 
bleach out in drying, as in 
warm weather. 

Where the erection of a 
large brick house is com- 
menced rather late in the 



14 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




Fall, the mortar is liable to 
be subjected to a wide range 
of temperature. To what 
extent the widely disappoint- 
ing variations in mortar 
color, from light gray to blue- 
black, in certain cases, have 
been due to carelessness in 
mixing rather than to these 
extreme changes in temper- 
ature, there is, of course, no 
means of knowing, and the 
fact can only be ascertained 
by special experiments. But 
wide temperature variations 
furnish an excuse to the 
mason. Within certain limits, 
it is true that variations in 
mortar tones are agreeable, 
but it is often difficult to hold 
bricklayers to a sufficiently 
small variation for a reason- 
ably uniform effect in all wall 
surfaces. 

With any kind of mortar 
color, the architect must be 
constantly on guard against 
variations which will cause a 
noticeable patchy effect, as 
between different large areas 
of wall surface. 

While horizontal joints 
struck from beloiij un- 
doubtedly weather better than those struck from above, 
the latter produce a more pleasing effect, particularly 
where seen from below. The former if neatly struck are 



.\ huusL- al Evaustou, Ills., designed by Walter Hurley Gril- 
tin, Architect, which cost about $10,(KMl. First stoi-y of wire 
cut stiff mud process bricks from Ohio (red shading into yellow 
olive), with deeply raked horizontal joints. Rough cast above, 
soft light tan in color. Exterior woodwork stained brown. For 
a comparatively small house the plan places rather unusual 
emphasis on the out-door living accommodations ; the main inter- 
ior space of the veranda being about 16 by 21 feet, and a sleep- 
ing porch above of liberal dimensions. The treatment of eaves 
and shingled ro(jfs and the wood muntined casements give a 
somewhat Japanese touch to the design, which is pleasing how- 
ever outside the pale of conventional, " stand-pat'' architecture. 




SECOND FLOOR 

PLAN. 




KIKST FLOOR PLAN 



shadowed by the next course 
of bricks and the shadows 
neutralize the contrast of 
light and dark between the 
mortar and the bricks. 

A discussion of brick bonds 
would add little to what has 
already been written and il- 
lustrated in this journal. For 
the small house, what is 
known as "Chicago bond," 
one course of headers every 
fifth or sixth course, looks 
well, particularl)' if worked 
out carefully to space with 
heights of openings, and is 
the most economical, partic- 
ularly where the backing 
bricks, as often happens, 
differ in make and size from 
those used in the facing. 

Notwithstanding the wide 

range of effects obtainable in 

bonding, in using bricks of 

two or more (juite different 

shades and varying the mortar 

color, they are, as a rule, too 

expensive for the small brick 

house, and, unless the unit of 

bond texture is small, as in 

the case of cross-bond, which 

is scarcely a pattern at all, 

there is not enough broad, 

unbroken wall surface to justify its use. One of the 

best examples known to the writer of strong pattern of 

relatively large scale in domestic work, is "Sandhouse" 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



215 




2l6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



in England, designed by Mr. Troup. Although there is 
a good deal of wall surface, and the pattern has been 
very cleverly managed, it would seem to little enhance 
the beauty of the building, although, of course, it adds 
a decidedly individual touch. 

In building of brick with a sharp eye to economy, it 
was suggested in this publication some years ago, by 
Mr. Cram, and illustrated by sketches of some charming 
English cottages of brick, that 9-inch walls, above the 
basement, for a small two-story house or cottage should 
be considered sufficient. With good, hard bricks, laid 
in mortar containing plenty of Portland cement, this 
would seem to be true, particularly in view of the com- 
paratively recent development of damp-proofing prepa- 
rations, which, when thoroughly applied to the inside 
wall surface, ought to make a well-built 9-inch wall more 
impervious to dampness than the 13-inch wall, without 
such treatment. As for strength, the two-storj' 9-inch 
wall should be sufficiently heavy, carrying moderate 
spans, particularly if narrow piers are avoided and but- 
tresses or pilasters (either internal or external) introduced 



to break up the longer stretches of wall. By reducing the 
customary story height, 2 feet can be saved in the height 
of a two-story house, the rooms made cozier and more 
homelike, and the number of steps between floors reduced, 
the latter a convenience and comfort not to be despised. 
The writer's own house has a first-story height of eight 
feet in the clear, the dimensions of the living room being 
19 X 25 and a second-story height of 7 feet 6 inches. 
Notwithstanding popular prejudice as to the superior 
airiness of high rooms, this house is delightfully cool in 
summer, if there is any coolness out of doors. All of 
the windows are casements, opening out, giving us the 
benefit of each entire opening, catching every passing 
breeze, and adding far more to the ventilation of the 
house in warm weather than would an additional foot of 
height in each story, since in warm weather the heated 
air in any room remains stagnant only above the level of 
the window tops, or in the case of a house with double 
hung sash, above the top of the actual warm weather 
opening, which in most houses is at the meeting rail and 
not at the top of the window. 




• SCJZonD'Tx.cc^'PL^rv 




HOUSE AT DENVER, COLORADO. 
Varian & Varian, Architects. 



Tl^T •fX«7I^-Pl-.AM 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



217 




- /f^lU. 


!-TVl' 


LjiQisL 






= ^ 




com 


\\s/iLca-vy 


eoot 

i 


f 


5LC0/V/? nooe pl^i/v 


lllllill 







:i8 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



219 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 



PERRY MEMORIAL COMPETITION. 

THE Building Committee of the Perry Memorial an- 
nounces a competition for the selection of an archi- 
tect for the Memorial which will be erected at Put-In-Bay, 




I, A SALI.E HOTEL, CHICACO. 
Entire trim above lower three stories of architectural terra cotta, ex- 
ecuted by the Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. 
Holabird & Roche, Architects. 

South Bass Island, Lake Erie, near the place where 
Perry s victorious action was fought. The Memorial will 
commemorate not only the victory but the subsequent 

one hundred 
years of 
peace be- 
tween the 
United 
States and 
Great 
Britain. 

It will con- 
sist of a lofty 
commemora- 
tive monu- 
ment with a 
museum of 
historicrelics 
at its base 
DETAIL FOR HIGH SCHOOL. standing in a 

Executed by the South Ambov Terra Cotta , . 

Company. ' reservation 

Guilbert & Betelle, Architects. of fourteen 




acres. $600,000 will be expended upon the construction 
of the monument and museum. The reservation will 
be designed as a suitable setting 
for the Memorial. 

The program, which conforms to 
the principles approved by the 
American Institute of Architects, 
has been so drawn under the direc- 
tion of the Committee and Mr. 
Frank Miles Day, adviser to the 
Committee, that the problem pre- 
sented is a most attractive one. 
Competitors will have the fullest 
scope for their artistic imagination. 
The prize of the competition will 
be the appointment as architect to 
design and superintend the con- 
struction of the Memorial. There 
are also to be three premiums for 
the authors of the designs placed 
next to the winner. 

The Building Committee will be 
advised in making its awards by a 
jury of well-known experts. 

Architects desiring a copy of 
the program, which sets forth the 
conditions of participation, should 
make application to Mr. Webster P- 
Huntington, vSecretary to the 
Building Committee, Federal 
Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 



DETAIL. 
E.xecuted by the Rook- 
PARNELL MONUMENT, wood Pottery 

DUBLIN. Company. 

THE Parnell national monument, which was unveiled 
in Dublin, Ireland, on October 1st, was one of the 
last works of the Irish-American sculptor, Augustus 
Saint Gaudens. The monument, which is built of Shan- 
talla granite, is a triangular obelisk, rising 67 feet above 
the street level and crowned with a bronze tripod 8 feet 
high. The base rests on a platform 26 feet in diameter, 




mmm^m^ 



DETAIL FOR STATE EDUCATIONAL HUILDINd, ALBANY, N. 
E.xecuted in terra cotta by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 
Palmer & Hornbostel, Architects. 



220 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




without the name of the artist being more 
than mentioned. It further states that 
many monuments have been erected to 
our heroes of war, a few to our statesmen, 
less to our writers, but none to our artists, 
and concludes with the encouraging 
thought, — "None are able to deny that 
conditions are improving." 



DKTAII, FOR STATE EDUCATIONAL HUII.DINM;, ALBANY, N. 
Executed in terra totta by tlie Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 
Palmer & Hornbostel, Architects. 

which is inlaid with a large trefoil of Barna granite, em- 
bracing the area of the base. The bronze statxie of Par- 
nell, 8 feet high, stands on a projecting 
pedestal about 9 feet above the street. 
Around the pedestal and the base of the 
monument are elaborate carvings with 
swags, underneath which are inlaid bronze 
wreaths and plaques. The entire cost of 
the monument, including the masonry and 
architectural work, was approximately 
$42,nnn. Henry Bacon, New York, pre- 
pared the architectural drawings. 



ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF THE 
ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE. 

THE Architectural League of New 
York City at its last regular meeting 
defeated the proposition of charging a fee 
to non-members for submitting work in 
their annual exhibitions. The proposed 
fee was to be one dollar per square foot 
with a minimum charge of five dollars. 
The point was made that no matter at what sacrifice to 
themselves as league members, the annual exhibition 



T' 



"ART AND THE NATION." 

'HE ARTS AND PROGRESS for 
October contains an editorial on 
" Art and the Nation " which shows how 
architects, painters, and sculptors are not 
infrequently treated by building commit- 
tees, public officials, and private indi- 
viduals of wealth as though they were 
contractors, dealers in mere commodities, 
men to be hired as day laborers without 
regard to brains, inspiration or technics, 
training and skill. The article cites how often a build- 
ing is dedicated, a statue unveiled or a portrait presented 




(JATE LODGE, SPRING GROVE CEMETERY, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

Covered with green glaze "crown" Reinforced English Shingle Tile mantifactured by 

The Cincinnati Roofing Tile & Terra Cotta Company. 

Elzner & Anderson, Architects. 



should offer an open door to all exhibitors who have 
valuable material to show. 

Since the 




exhibition of the 
League has become rather an im- 
portant institution it was voted to 
charge an admission fee of twenty- 
five cents on each day except Sun- 
days. There will be, however, the 
usual liberality in the distribution 
of tickets free to students and 
draftsmen. 



NEW CONVENTION HALL, 
PHILADELPHIA. 



w 



DETAIL FOR STATE EDUCATIONAL BUILDING, ALBANY, N. 
Executed in terra cotta by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company. 
Palmer & Hornbostel, Architects. 



'^ORK has been started on 
Philadelphia's new Muni- 
cipal Convention Hall which over- 
looks the Schuylkill River from a 
raised terrace, 70 feet above the 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



221 




FAIENCE WALL FOUNTAIN IN AN APARTMENT BUILDING. 

Executed by The Hartford Faience Ccjmpany. 

Russell F. Barker, Architect. 



water. The building itself will be 624 feet long by 450 
feet wide, finished in granite, light gray brick, and terra 
cotta. The auditorium will have a seating capacity of 
18,500, which may be subdivided by means of a fire cur- 
tain 6 feet thick. There will be no stairways, and all 
approaches to the different floors will be inclined planes. 
The building will cost approximately $1,500,000 and has 
been designed by John T. Windrim, Architect. 



BRONZE AWARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL MERIT. 

THE Ar- 
chitec- 
tural Club 
of South 
Bend, Indi- 
ana, has re- 
cently held 
two exhibi- 
tions, one in 
Indianapolis 
and the 
other in 
their home 
city. In 
order to 
St imul ate 
a rch i t e c - 
tural merit 
in their 
buildings 
the Club has 
established 
an annual 
honor award 
for the best 
building 
project com- 
ple ted in 

DETAIL FOR STORE BUILDING. SoUth Bend 

Executed by Conkling- Armstrong Terra Cotta qj- vicinity. 

Company. , 

H. J. Kiutho, Architect. 1 he award 




will be a bronze relief 
suitably inscribed and 
will be attached to the 
building selected by the 
jury of award. The an- 
nouncement of same will 
be made at a formal 
dinner following the an- 
nual meeting at the Club. 



IN GENERAL. 



Thornton A. Herr and 
Leon F. Urbain have 
formed a copartnership 
for the practice of archi- 
tecture under the firm 
name of Herr & Urbain, 
with offices in the Mar- 
quette Building, Chicago. 

The architectural firm 
of Reinecke & Jenkinson, 
Sioux City, Iowa, has 
been dissolved. William 
A. Jenkinson will con- 
tinue the practice of 
architecture with Milton J. Henoch, under the firm name 




DETAIL BY WARREN & WET- 
MORE, ARCHITECTS. 
The New Jersey Terra Cotta Com- 
pany, Makers. 




DETAIL BY J. H. DESIBOUR, ARCHITECT. 
New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

of Jenkinson & Henoch, at 406 United Bank Building. 
Manufacturers' catalogues and samples solicited. 



The 
American 
Enameled 
Brick & 
Tile Com- 
pany will 
furnish 
approxi- 
mately 
200,000 
English 
size, dull 
finish, en- 
a m e 1 e d 
brick for 
the United 




DETAIL BY 

ROBERT A. SCHUMANN, 

ARCHITECT. 

Executed in white mat glaze 

terra cotta by O. W. Ketcham 

Terra Cotta Works. 



222 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




HOUSE AT ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Built of Konian Brick furnished by the Hydraulic-Press Brick L'oinpany. 

Wilham A. I.ucas, .Architect. 



practice of architecture, with offices in the 
Corcoran Building, Washington, D. C. 

Charles Russell Lombard announces the 
opening of offices for the practice of arch- 
itecture at 95 Exchange street, Portland, 
Me. 

The contract has been let for the New 
Field Museum to be built in Jackson Park, 
Chicago, at a cost of $4,500,000. 

Considerable regret will be felt over 
the closing of the famous old landmark, 
Long's Hotel, located in Bond street, 
London. This is one of the many historic 
places which has had to give way to the 
ever increasing needs of modern commer- 
cialism. 

Plans are being prepared for a $4,000,000 
building to be erected on the public square 
in Cleveland, Ohio, which will be used for 
a railway terminal, hotel, and offices. 




vStates Post Office and Custom House, Porto Rico, 
W. I. The brick will 
be shipped by sailing 
vessel. 

The Junior mem- 
bers of the Birming- 
ham Society of 
Architects have or- 
ganized an Atelier 
with \Vm. Leslie 
Welton, holder of 
the Rotch Traveling 
Sch olarship, as 
patron. 

A small book rela- 
tive to the courses 

of instruction together with other features of the Low- 
thorpe School of Landscape Architecture, (hardening, 
and Horticulture for women can be ob- 
tained by addressing Lowthorpe School, 
Groton, Mass. 

Arthur T. Remick, architect, has re- 
moved his offices from 37 East 28th street 
to 103 Park avenue. New York City. 

The architectural firm of Cleverdon & 
Putzel, 41 Union Square, West, New York 
City, has dissolved. Robert N. Cleverdon 
will continue as the firm's successor, and 
Joseph Putzel will practise as a consulting 
architect and appraiser of buildings. 

The Rhode Island Chapter of the A. I. 
A. will hold an exhibition of architectural 
and municipal improvements in Memorial 
Hall, Providence, from October the 21st 
to November the 4th. 

Frederick A. Kendall and Uelos H. 
Smith have formed a copartnership for the 



STORE BUILDING, DETROIT, MICH. 

Terra cutta furnished by the Winkle Terra Cotta Company 

Frederick T. Bancroft, -Architect. 



The contract has been let for an addition 
to the British Parliament buildings at Victoria, Canada. 

The new part is to 
be erected of Brit- 
ish Columbia stone 
similar to that 
used in the origi- 
nal structure and 
will cost when 
completed 
S1,2.S0,000. 

It is reported 
that a large uni- 
versity will soon 
be founded on 
Staten Island, 
New York, which 
in wealth and equipment will rival all others. It is to 
be erected in memory of Christopher Columbus. 



\fS 




l'ARENT.\l. SCHOOL, MASKAIR, ILL. 
Roofed with York Tile furnished by the Ludowici-Celadon Company. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



223 



The Prix de Rome for sculpture has been awarded to 
Mile. Heuvelmans, an honor which no woman has ever 
won before. Mile. Heuvelmans is the daughter of a 
cabinet-maker and appears to have discovered her liking 
for this work when eighteen years old. 

Archie H. Hubbard, architect, formerly of Urbana, 
111., has removed his offices to 300 First National Bank 
Building, Champaign, 111. 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Office of the Supervising 
Architect, Washington, D. C, October 3, 1911. 

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received in this office until 3 o'clock 
P.M. on the I6th day of November, 191 1, and then opened, for the con- 
struction, including roof and ground surface drainage system, of a four- 
story, stone faced, fireproof building, of approximately 90,000 square 
feet of ground area, for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, WASH- 
INGTON, D. C. Drawings and specifications may be obtained at this 
office at the discretion of the Supervising Architect, but vifill not be ready 
for delivery before October 21, 1911. 

JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, Supervising Architect. 

Double Roller Gravity Spiral 

For conveying boxes, barrels and other articles having one Hat 
surface down any number of floors. Made to receive and dis- 
charge at any desired floor by means of a switch lever. De- 
signed for inside or outside installation. A modern, labor, 
time and money saver. Morris & Co., Kansas City, Kan., write 
us as follows : " The Spiral Conveyor installed at our plant 
over tvio years ago for carrying boxes and barrels of different 
products down five floors has been entirely satisfactory and a 
great labor saver. " We also design and build Automatic 
Straight-Lift Elevators and Open Gravity Friction Chutes. 
Architects should inform themselves of these modern convey- 
ing devices by addressing 

Mathews Gravity Carrier Company, 

ST. PAUL, MINN., U. S. A. 

Boston, 164 Federal St. 
New York, 30 Church St., Room 337 
Philadelphia. 1002-3 Drexel Bldg. 
Chicago, 213 Roanoke Bldg. 
St. Louis, Box 568 
CANADIAN MATHEWS CO., Ltd.. 28 Sheppard St., TORONTO 
BRITISH MATHEWS CO., Ltd., 147 Upper Thames St.E.C, LONDON 



V 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 

TRADE MARK - REG. U. S.* PATENT OFFICE 

BULLETIN 

RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

House at Cleveland, Ohio Plate 140 

J. Milton Dyer, Architect 



t=?iske 6- company jnc 
|ace bricks/ establish 

llRE BRICKSl ED IN 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Arena Building, New York 



"COMPETITION" 

ApproMed by the Standing Committee on Competitions of the American Institute of Architects 

The Public Auditorium Commission of Portland, Oregon, invites Architects of ex- 
perience and in good standing to compete for a Public Auditorium to cost $450,000,00. 

For information address: ELLIS F. LAWRENCE, Professional Adviser, 1019-1023 
Chamber of Commerce Building, Portland, Oregon. 



University of Pennsylvania 

School of Architecture 

FOUR YEAR COURSE. (Degree B.S. in Arch.) Options in design and 

architectural construction. 
GRADUATE YEAR. (Degree M.S. in Arch.) Allowing specialization in 

advanced work. Fellowships. 

SPECIAL COURSE of two years. (Professional Certificate.) For qualified 
draftsmen. 

ADVANCED STANDING granted for equivalents completed elsewhere. 
SUMMER SCHOOL in architecture and allied subjects. Special circular. 
YEAR BOOK illustrating work in design, drawing, etc., mailed without 
charge. 

FULL INFORMATION will be sent on application to the Dean of the College 
Department, Dr. George E. Fisher, University of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 



Z' 



BOILERS AND RADIATORS 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Water Tube and Return Flue Boilers 

Plain and Ornamental Direct Radiators 
Direct-Indirect Radiators 
Indirect Radiators 

For Steam and Water Warming 

Send for complete illustrated catalog 

THE H. B. SMITH CO. 



*V.. 



Westfield, Mass. 
Philadelphia 



New York 
Boston 



Linoleum and Cork Covering 
FOR CEMENT FLOORS 



Linolemn secured by waterproof cement to concrete 
foundation can be furni.shed in plain colors or in inlaid 
effects. 

Cork Carpet in plain colors. 

Elastic, Noiseless, Durable. 

Is practical for rooms, halls, and particularly adapted 
to public buildings. 

Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing skilled workmen. 

Follounng e.vamples of our work : 

Bronkline Public Library. R. Clipston Sturgis, Esq., Architect. 
Suffolk County Court House, Boston. George A. Clough, Esq., 

Architect. 
Registry of Deeds, Salem, Mass. C. H. Blackall, Esq., Architect. 

A small book on this subject, and quality samples, mailed 
on application. We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 

646-658 WASHINGTON STREET - BOSTON, MASS. 

Continuously in this business for 93 years 



i 



224 THEBRICKBUILDER. 

THE BRICKBUILDER'S ANNUAL ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA COTTA COMPETITION. 

Problem: A Store and Loft Building from Four to Six Stories High. 



FIRST PRIZE, $500. SECOND PRIZE, $250. THIRD PRIZE, $150. 

FOURTH PRIZE, $100. HONORABLE MENTIONS. 



COMPETITION CLOSES AT 5 P.M., MONDAY, JANUARY 8, 1912. 



PROGRAM. 

TllE'i)n.l)leni is a COMBINATION STORE AND LOFT BUILDING FROM FOUR TO SIX STORIES HIGH. 
The site is assumed to be in the middle of a i-ity block located in the shopping; district. The land is level and has 50 
feet frontage and is 100 feet deep. The building is to cover the entire lot on first floor only, with suitable jirovision 
for natural lighting of rear portion of this floor. The lighting of other floors is left to the designer. The basement, first 
and second floors are to be occupied by a concern doing a retail business. Since the character of the business may 
influence the design it is suggested that the store portion of the building be treated either for the sale of pianos, jewelry, 
millinery, men's furnishings, boots and shoes, furs, sporting goods, or some similar line of business. The ])lans above the 
second story are to be of the loft type. 

The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in architectural terra cotta, and it is suggested that at least 
portions of the walls be treated in color. It is further suggested that provision be made in the design for the jilacing 
of signs. 

The object of this competition is to encourage a study of the use of architectural terra cotta in this particular type of 
building. There is no limit set on the cost, but the design must he suitable for the character of the building and for the 
material in which it is to be executed. 

The following points will be considered in judging the designs : 

A — The general excellence of the design, its adajjtabilily to the prescribed material and character of the building 
under consideration. 

B — The excellence of the first-story plan which, in addition to an attractive frontal treatment, must provide an entrance 
to a hallway in which will be located an elevator and staircase. 

DRAWING REQUIRED. (There is to be but one.) 

On a sheet of unmounted white paper measuring exactly 35 inches by 26 inches, with strong border lines drawn one 
inch from edges, giving a space inside the border lines of 33 inches by 24 inches, show : 

The front elevation drawn at a scale of four feet to the inch. 

The first-floor plan and a typical loft plan drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch. 

A sufficient number of exterior details drawn at a scale of one-half inch to the foot to completely fill the remainder of 
the sheet. 

The details should indicate in a general way the jointing of the terra cotta and the sizes of the blocks. 

The color scheme is to be indicated either by a key or a series of notes printed on the sheet. 

All drawings are to be in black ink without wash or color, except that the walls on the plans and in the sections may 
be blacked-in or cross-hatched. 

(jraphic scales are to be shown. 

Each drawing is Ut be signed by a nom de plume, or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with 
the nom de plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawing is to be delivered flat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing) at the office of THE 
KRICKBUILDER, 85 Water street, Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or before January 8, 1912. 

Drawings submitted in this competition must be at the owner's risk from the time they are sent until returned, although 
reasonable care will be exercised in their handling and keeping. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THIv BRICKBUILDER, and the right is reserved to publish or 
exiiibil any or all of the others. Those who wish their drawings returned may have them by enclosing in the sealed envel- 
opes containing their names, ten cents in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by three or five well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed firit in this competition there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $250. 
For the design placed third a prize of $150. 
For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 

The manufacturers of architectural terra cotta are patrons of this competition. 
The competition is open to every one. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XX 



NOVEMBER 1911 



Number 1 1 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 



Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 



Copyright, 1911, by ROGERS * MANSON 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ........ $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ..................... SO cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............... $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ................. $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by xhe American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 



Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



Agencies — Clay Products 
Architectural Faience 

,, Terra Cotta 

Brick .... 



PAGE 
II 
II 

II and III 
III 



Brick Enameled 
Brick Waterproofing 
Fireproofing 
Roofing Tile 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



PAGE 

III and IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

GREEN & WICKS; WILLIAM B. ITTNER; MAURAN & RUSSELL; FRANK B. MEADE; 

PERKINS & HAMILTON. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

CHURCH TOWER, MEXICO CITY Frontispiece 

COMPARATIVE COST OF VARIOUS TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION FOR THREE HOUSES 

George Hunt IngraJiani 225 

THE SMALL HOUSE OF BRICK IN SUBURBS AND COUNTRY — PART 11 Robert C. Spencer Jr. 229 

HOUSE AT GARDEN CITY, L. I., N. Y., AYMAR EMBURY II, ARCHITECT 236 

LEGAL HINTS FOR ARCHITECTS — PART V William L. Bowman 237 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS — DESCRIPTION 240 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 241 

THE BRICKBUILDER ANNUAL TERRA COTTA COMPETITION PROGRAM 246 




CHURCH TOWER, MEXICO CITY, 



One of the most elaborate tile towers in Mexico, em- 
ploying yellow, blue, and white glazed tile, and un- 
glazed red tile. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

NOVEMBER, 1911 



VOLUME XX. 



NUMBER 11. 



Comparative Cost of Various Types of Construction for 

Three Houses. 



GEORGE HUNT INGRAHAM. 



IT IS the purpose of this article to present the com- 
parative costs of building three types of houses, each 
house having been figured in several types of construc- 
tion. The three examples chosen for treatment are the 
work of Boston architects and a different set of con- 
tractors was employed to figure each house and each 
type of construction. The labor and materials have 
been figured at the prevailing Boston prices of to-day. It 
is felt that the arrangement of the data, which has been 
obtained at the expense of a great deal of careful work, 
will enable any architect to readily figure the difference 
in cost of different types of construction when applied to 
his own work. A fairly accurate idea of the different 
costs for the different types of construction is not only 
desirable but necessary, since the average client of to-day 
desires to know what the cost of his house will be if built 
of brick, terra cotta blocks stuccoed, wire lath and stucco, 
or regular wood construction. 

The costs given do not include heating, plumbing, 
electric work, interior decorations, wall papers, and light- 
ing fixtures. The reason for omitting these items is that 
it is desired to present the comparative costs on construc- 
tion only. There would be little value in comparing the 
cost of a house heated by a hot air furnace with one 
heated by steam or hot water. Then again the character 
of the plumbing fixtures varies according to the per- 
sonal taste of the owner, and one electric fixture in a 
house may equal the cost of all that would be put into 
another. 

In addition to the original cost of a house it is of grow- 
ing importance, especially to the owner, to take into con- 
sideration the cost of maintenance, and the figures relating 
to same which are here given are representative of the 
consensus of opinion held by several architects and 
builders of large experience. 

The costs of all three houses are computed with shingle 
roof, dipped in stain before laying and given one brush 
coat after laying. A more permanent form of roof cover- 
ing would be desirable, but this form was adopted for 
uniform comparison only. 

The brick houses are all figured with Dover River 
water-struck brick, costing $19.00 per thousand delivered 
on the job. 

The terra cotta block houses are of 8-inch block made 
by the National Fireproofing Company. 



The cypress siding houses are of 8-inch cypress siding, 
painted three coats of lead and oil paint. 

Of the houses under consideration, Putnam & Cox 
were the architects for number one, George Hunt In- 
graham for number two, and James Purdon for number 
three. These houses have all been built, as may be seen 
by the illustrations. The estimated cost of each house 
if of wood construction is as follows: 



TABLE I. 



Wire Lalh 
and Stucco. 



Number one . 
Number two _ 
Number three 

Number one, 
Number two, 
Number three, 



Cypress Siding 
(painted white). 

$7,800.00 
16,400.00 
19,625.00 



Clapboards 
(painted white). 

$7,800.00 
16,500.00 
19,625.00 



18,100.00 

16,970.00 

]9,68S.00 

Cost Cost Cost 

per cu. ft. per cu. ft. per cu. ft. 

34,089 cubic contents 23c. 23c. 23c. 

84,837 cubic content.s 20c. 19c. 19c. 

72,380 cubic contents 27c. 27c. 27c. 



Shingles 
(stained). 

$7,875.00 

16,200.00 

19,625.00 

Cost 
per cu. ft. 

23c. 
19c. 
27c. 



If built of brick or terra cotta blocks stuccoed the es- 
timated cost is as follows: 



TABLE II. 



Brick. 



Number one $8,820.00 

Number two 17,125.00 

Number three... 21,780.00 

Cost 
per cu. ft. 

Number one, 34,089 cubic contents 26c. 

Number two, 84,837 cubic contents 20c. 

Number three, 72,380 cubic contents 30c. 



Terra Cotta Blocks 
(stuccoed). 

$8,580.00 
17,465.00 
20,900.00 

Cost 
per cu. ft. 

25c. 

20>^c. 

29c. 



The per cent increase in cost of brick construction 
over wood and wire lath and stucco is as follows: 



Over Wood. 

Number one 12.71% 

Number two 4.63% 

Number three 10.98% 



Over Wire Lath 
and Stucco. 

8.89% 

.91% 

10.64% 



The per cent increase in cost of terra cotta blocks 
stuccoed construction over wood and wire lath and 
stucco is as follows: 



Number one .. 
Number two __ 
Number three _ 



Over Wood. 

9.65% 
6.72% 
6.50% 



Over Wire Lath 
and Stucco. 



5.93% 
2.92% 
6.17% 



The clapboard houses are covered with best quality of 
spruce clapboards, laid 4j:4 inches to the weather, and 
painted three coats of lead and oil paint. 



226 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



/1TT/C nooe Fu/v 




NUMBER ONE. 

HOUSE AT CHESTNUT HII.L, MASS. 

Putnam & Cox, Architects. 




NUMBER THREE. 

HOUSE AT WESTWOOD, MASS 

James Purdon, Architect. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



227 




^VrCCu^ *n.OOE*rLA ^ 



NUMBER TWO. 

HOUSE AT MILTON, MASS. 

George Hunt Ingraham, Architect. 






Ge^l\«vK>i3ed 




HOUSE NUMBER TWO. 

DETAIL SHOWING WALL CONSTRUCTION. 

George Hunt Ingraham, Architect. 



£V3'.3tido , 



r 






y/M//, 



■BR.ICK I2'7^lck.- f 



HOUSE NUMBER THREE. 

DETAIL SHOWING WALL CONSTRUCTION. 

James Purdon, Architect. 



228 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The shingle houses are covered with clear sawed cedar 
shingles, laid 5 inches to the weather, dipped in Cabot's 
Creosote stain before laying, and brush coated one coat 
after laying. 

House number one is built of terra cotta blocks stuc- 
coed. House number two is built of wood frame, wire 
lathed and stuccoed. House number three is built of 
brick. 

The types of exterior wall construction for the three 
houses are as shown in cuts a, b, and c. 

INSURANCli. The insurance rates on the different 
types of construction are as follows: 

TABLE III. 

X' I- _ Cost Cost 

Number one. for5Y«rs. for is Years. 

Wood construction (wire lathed and stuc- 
coed) 75c. per 100. $182.25 

Wood construction (siding, clapboards, 

shingles) 75c. per 100. 175.00 

Brick 50c. per 100. 132.50 

Terra cotta blocks stuccoed 50c. per 100. 128.70 

Number two. 

Wood construction (wire lathed and stuc- 
coed) 75e. per 100. 375.82 

Wood construction (siding, clapboards, 

shingles) 75c. per 100. 371.25 

Brick... 50c. per 100. 256.87 

Terra cotta blocks stuccoed 50c. per 100. 261.97 

Number three. 

Wood construction (wire lathed and stuc- 
coed) 75c. per 100. 442.91 

Wood construction (.siding, clapboards, 
.shingles) _. 75c. per 100. 441.56 

Brick 50c. per 100. 326.70 

Terra cotta blocks stuccoed 50c. per 100. 313.50 

REPAIRS. In estimating the cost of repairs, it is 
allowed that the wood house would need painting every 
three years after the first three years, besides general 
repairs to outside woodwork. The replacing of the 
shingle roofs is not included: 

TABLE IV. 

„ . Average Cost per Total Cost for 

Number one. Year for Pamtmg 15 Years 

and Repairs. 

Wood construction (wire latbed and stuc- 
coed) $25.00* $375.00* 

Wood construction (siding, clapboards, 

.shingles) 75.00 1,125.00 

Brick 25.00* 375.00* 

Terra cotta blocks stuccoed 25.00* 375.00* 

Number two. 

Wood construction (wire lathed and .stuc- 
coed) 35.00* 525.00* 

Wood construction (siding, clapboards, 
.shingles) 100.00 1,500.00 

Brick 35.00* 525.00* 

Terra cotta blocks stuccoed 35.00* 525.00* 

Number three. 

Wood construction (wire lathed and stuc- 
coed) 35.00* 525.00* 

Wood construction (siding, clapboards, 

shingles) 100.00 1,500.00* 

Brick 35.00* 525.00* 

Terra cotta blocks stuccoed- _ 35.00* 525.00* 

* These figures are for painting and repairs on exterior 
woodwork only. No attempt has been made to give the 



cost for upkeep of a wire lath and stucco wall. The 
efficiency of this type of construction, as is generally 
recognized, is dependent on the style of house, its loca- 
tion and exposure, quality of workmanship, quality of 
materials used, etc. But it is no exaggeration to say 
that in the matter of durability alone it will not compare 
with a wall built of brick or one built of terra cotta 
blocks and stucco, on either of which types the cost of 
upkeep would be very little, not only for 15 years but 
for a very much longer period. 

Comparative Costs After Fifteen Years' Occupancy. 

TABLE V. 

Wood Construction (siding, 
clapboards, shingles). 

Number One. Number Two. Number Three. 

Original Cost $7,800.00 $16,400.00 $19,625.00 

Repairs 1,125.00 1,500.00 1,500.00 

In.suranee 175.00 371.25 441.56 

Totals $9,100.00 $18,271.25 $21,566.56 

Wood Const ruction (wire 
lathed and stuccoed). 

Original Cost. $8,100.00 $16,970.00 $19,685.00 

Repairs 375.00 525.00 525.00 

Insurance- 182.25 _J75^2 442 .91 

Totals .- $8,657.25 $17,870.82 $20,652.91 

5% Interest on difference 
in original cost over 
wood construction 225.00 427.50 45.00 

$8,882.25 $18,298.32 $20,697.91 
Brick Construction. 

Original Cost $8,820.00 $17,125.00 $21,780.00 

Repairs 375.00 525.00 525.00 

Insurance 132.50 256.87 326.70 

Totals $9,327.50 $17,906.87 $22,631.70 

5'; Interest on difference 

in original cost over 

wood construction 765.00 543.75 1,616.25 

$10,092.50 $18,450.62 $24,247.95 
Terra Cotta Blocks Stuccoed. 

Original Cost $8,580.00 $17,465.00 $20,900.00 

Repairs 375.00 525.00 525.00 

Insurance. 128.70 261.97 313.50 

Totals -. $9,083.70 $18,251.97 $21,738.50 

5'f Interest on difference 

in original cost over 

wood construction 585.00 798.75 956.25 

$9,668.70 $19,050.72 $22,694.75 

The figures here given, although not so favorable to 
the better type of construction as may be obtained in 
many other localities, furnish, nevertheless, evidence that 
more houses should be built with permanent construc- 
tion, especially as the cost is so little in excess, and also 
that after fifteen years the repairs and deterioration on 
a wooden house are very much greater as the house 
grows older, while on the more permanent construction 
the repairs and deterioration after fifteen years remain 
practically the same year by year, to say nothing of the 
better salable value of the more permanent types. And, 
finally, from an artistic point of view, they add more 
dignity and tone to the vicinity in which they are 
erected. Also, the better types of construction are 
cooler in summer and warmer in winter, and require less 
fuel for heating. 



\ 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



229 



UE SMALL HOUSE op miCK 
m SUBURBS ^ COUi^TRY^ 



<i^ BY RpBERJC- SPENCER. JR,- 




■\ 






2_A 



BRICK BUAJGALOW FOf^A huaidr^ed foot suburban lot- 



^ 

nia 




S TO the planning and designing of small 
brick houses, there is little to be said which 
does not apply to domestic work in general. 
Owing to the relatively complex bed- 
room floor arrangement of the very much 

closeted American house, the planning has grown more 

difficult with the growing demand for two or three bath 

rooms, instead of the one which was 

good enough fifteen or twenty years 

ago; a house must be planned after 

the general scheme has been roughed 

out, from the second floor dozvn rather 

than from the ground ?<-/, in order to 

secure the maximum of compactness, 

simplicity, and convenience in ar- 
rangement. The architect's difficul- 
ties are increased in the case of a 

brick house by the fact that there 

must be more complete coincidence 

between the first and second floor 

plans than in the case of a house 

built entirely of frame, or of brick in 

the first story and frame above. The 

flexibility of the latter, which may 

be called the "Composite" type, is 

really a better justification for its 

adoption (aside from the picturesque 

"half timber" in combination) than 

any saving in cost over an all brick 

construction. This saving is, how- 
ever, comparatively slight and in 

some cases disappears entirely. It 

often happens, however, that so much 

more space is really required for 

family needs on the second than on 

the ground floor that the overhangs 

easily obtainable in frame construc- 



tion help out a great deal. This same result, however, 
can usually be obtained by placing the porches, at least 
the principal porch, within the outline of the second 
floor. 

As to p/an, there are three general types of the small 
house, each of which is illustrated herewith: the three- 
bedroom type with a bedroom at each corner and stair- 
case occupying the fourth ; the four- 
bedroom type with one or two bath 
rooms; and the four- or five-bedroom 
type. The last type has two or more 
bath rooms on the second floor and a 
small library or reception room on 
the first floor in addition to a hall, 
dining room, service quarters and 
relatively large living room, which 
have become the typical subdivision 
of the three- or four-bedroom type 
of American house. 

The roomy porch, often preferably 
planned for convenient use as an out- 
door dining room, screened in sum- 
mer and now commonly arranged for 
enclosing with sash in winter, is 
the one feature which particularly 
differentiates the American from 
the English modern suburban 
house. When properly planned 
and designed it adds not only to the 
apparent size and importance of the 
small house, but greatly enhances the 
charm and picturesqueness of the 
building as a composition. It mars 
the house only when built in the 
rather stupid and hackneyed manner 
still widely prevalent, as an exagger- 
ated "lean-to" blanketing too much 




230 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 





ii — *'^ 



riR^T ripoR_ PLAn 



COMPOSITE BR.1CK AHD 
"HALF TIMBEfl. HOUSE 
AT OAK PAR.K, ILL- 
WITH 5AAALL 5LEEPI-NG 
POR<lH • 

C05T LES5 THAAl MIAJE 
THOUSAND DOLLARS' 





5ECO/ND riPO^l PLAA1 



RRST story WALLS, 

rough, deep red 
paver,5 laj gray mortar 
Roof,- light r.ed 
clover port ky 5hiajgle 

TILE- 
STUCCO - CR,EAMY BUFF- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



231 





SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE. AT RJVER^ FOf^E5T 
ILLI/MOI5' WALL6, 

CHICAGO COM* BRICK FACED WITH 
DAAIVILLE ILL' KILAJ-R^UAI PAVER,6 
LAID lAi PALE R.LD MORTAR^- 

E)A5L, 5ILL5 Er COpl/MGS, BUFF 

bedford 5toajl. - 

Roof, light rosy red 
kentucky shiajgle tile. * 

ALL WIAJDOWS, 0R,A1AMEAITAL 
GLA55 IM ZIMC BAR^WITH ROSE. 
MOTIF lAJ DULL AMBEf^ AND 

iridescemt gla55 - 
Library fire-plac^ below ^ 




232 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



AFIR^EPLAC^oF 

ROMAAI BR^ICK 
SHOWIA4G the: 
EFFECTIVEAIE56 
OF A BROAD, 
QUIELT T[?_EATMEAIT 

WITHOUT the: 
hackajeyeid 
3helf amd other^ 
u5ually over- 
done details 

Tallmadge. and 

WAT5 0AJ AR(:h't5* 




of the building and cutting off too much of the needed 
winter sunshine from the rooms within. 

Another characteristic feature is the so-called "sleep- 
ing porch," or outdoor bedroom, which in the small 
house may be just large enough for one or two cots or a 
hammock. 

Starting with a well-proportioned plan lending itself 
to a simple, quiet scheme of roofing, the character of the 
house design is largely determined by the character of 
the fenestration, by the type, pitch, and overhang of 
roofs, by the treatment of the eaves and gables, and by 
the use made of the possibilities of wood and stucco in 
combination with the brickwork. 

As to fenestration, the bias of the designer will largely 
determine its character. The writer has always particu- 
larly favored casement windows arranged in muUioned 
groups rather than as individual formally spaced upright 
openings in the masonry. The former give broad pic- 
tures of the attractive views to be had from within which 
would be unpleasantly broken at the eye level by meet- 
ing rails. They also give freedom and simplicity, par- 
ticularly to an informal composition. Where English 
casements are used they afford the maximum of warm 
weather ventilation, lending themselves readily to the 
use of Venetian blinds folding into overhead pockets, for 
openings much exposed to the direct rays of the sun. 
These broad muUioned openings in brickwork are eco- 
nomically spanned with steel angle lintels, or lintels of 
timber may be used as a substitute if resawed from old 
weather-seasoned stock after the common old English 
fashion. 

One of the many charms of brick is the readiness with 
which, for the small house, it may be structurally com- 
bined with wood. Except for certain individual features, 
such as entrances and small porches, arches are more 
expensive than lintels and unless carefully placed and 
studied they tend seriously to disturb the composition. 

In many cases the roof pitch, high or low, a powerful 



element in house expression, may be determined largely 
by the bias of the architect. 

Inasmuch, however, as a house with a given plan, con- 
sidered apart from closely neighboring buildings, may 
be designed to look just as well with a roof of sharp pitch 
as with low roof lines, the question should be largely 
one of utility, particularly in the small house where 
space must be economized. Where the owner's require- 
ments as to bedroom space are small a low roof-pitch 
affording just enough attic for storage purposes is suffi- 
cient, — the servants' bedroom and bath being located 
either on the first or second floor. Where the required 
bedroom accommodations are large in proportion to the 
building appropriation a gabled roof is naturally indi- 
cated with a good pitch for space, the gables providing 
ample light and cross ventilation with a minimum 
number of dormers. The designing of gables in brick 
where ample attic fenestration is needed requires careful 
study and affords opportunity for no little ingenuity. In 
most English houses the difficulty is avoided by placing 
small windows only in the gables, or omitting them 
entirely, the attic spaces not being considered of much 
importance. 

Stucco, or wood and stucco, may often be used with 
good effects in the gables of a brick house where the 
eaves overhang. It is also a more substantial looking 
soffit covering than wood. While the difference in cost 
is probably small, the treatment of gables with stone or 
tile copings instead of overhanging verge boards tends 
to give a somewhat severe and formal look to the small 
house, although perhaps the most simple and logical 
treatment for solid masonry walls. 

No one feature of the small house offers wider scope 
for ingenuity and good taste in design than the living- 
room fireplace. Many different interesting designs are 
possible in brick alone, the possibilities increasing with 
the use of wood, stone, tile, cast-cement and stucco com- 
position for decorative effect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



233 



'A SMALL BR.ICK 
AMD STUCCO HOUSE 
lAI P^OCHESTER,, AJ-Y 
BA!)E- & 5ILL5 
AR.E. op &F^CK 
OAJ EDGEL '^ 

DLSIGMELD BY 
CLAUDE. F. BRAGDOM' 




Since the average owner seems to have a fatal predi- 
lection for overloading //rr fireplace or so-called " man- 
tel-shelf " with miscellaneous bric-a-bric, it is not a bad 
scheme to omit the shelf entirely wherever no serious 
opposition is offered. If the owner insists upon the 
shelf for a brick fireplace, let it be of stone or cement, as 
the cost will be little more than that of wood. 

For paving terraces and the floors of porches, bricks 
laid in cement mortar on a good bed of concrete are less 
expensive and rather more harmonious for the brick 
house than quarry tiles. Good cement pavements cost 
about ten cents less per square foot than Roman bricks 
laid flat in herringbone or basket patterns. Although 
smoother and easier to keep clean than brick, cement is 
less desirable, particularly for surfaces exposed to the 
sun, as it reflects too much light and heat during our hot 
summers and tends to mar the quiet color harmony 
which results from the use of burned clay, not only for 
the exterior of the house, but for its outdoor accesso- 
ries as well. For the same reason the walks about the 
grounds should also be of brick. Many suburban and 
country places are seriously marred by the hard, glar- 
ing, white lines of the too popular cement walk. A 
fairly true paver, laid flat on concrete with the joints 
well grouted with liquid cement, is not at all difficult to 
keep clear of snow in winter, a general prejudice to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 

For very small places where the strictest economy 
must be observed, brick paving, not only for walks but 
for porches and terraces, may be laid on a bed of sand or 
fine gravel and the joints filled with fine sand, to be 
grouted if desired at some future time with cement after 
all danger of further settlement has passed. 

Perhaps the most difficult question in connection with 
this subject of brick house building is that of cost. There 
are such wide variations in local conditions as to costs of 



materials and labor, so many possible variations in design 
and selection of material which affect cost, that every arch- 
itect must depend to a large extent in casting his horo- 
scopes for brick-loving clients upon his own past experi- 
ence. 

To say that a frame house may be redesigned without 
essential change of plan and built of brick for an addi- 
tional cost of ten to twenty per cent over the cost of frame 
construction, does not give the owner of limited means 
quite as definite advice as he would like to have. Yet it is 
not wise for the architect to be more definite until work- 
ing plans for either the brick or frame house have been 
prepared and the contractor's estimate obtained, showing 
more definitely the difference in cost involved in the 
proposed change of material. 

In the vicinity of Chicago the cost of building identi- 
cally the same house varies considerably. As between the 
" North Shore " and the western suburbs it averages at 
least ten per cent more in the former section. The writer 
knows of cases where during the past year good frame 
and stucco houses with shingled roofs cost as high as 22 
cents per cubic foot on the North Shore, whereas during 
the year previous a very thoroughly constructed and fin- 
ished solid brick house with shingle tile roof was built in 
a nearby western suburb at 24 cents per cubic foot. 

It would seem that the longer the architect specializes 
in residence work, the more difficult it becomes for his 
clients to pin him down to definite advance statements 
as to cost. Clients whose appropriations are limited 
usually ivant and ultimately pay for buildings costing 
from thirty to fifty per cent more than the amount of the 
appropriation to which they limit the architect when 
authorizing him to prepare preliminary sketches. They 
dare not be frank. 

We are often asked if the cost of building in brick is 
likely to grow materially less in the future. It would 



234 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 






■F ■ 




r— 


r 1 

JOUTH POCCH 






.1 


ti^-'"it~-ii 


1^ 


LJ^ 


4q DOOM 


LlVihQ COC 


-'1 
I. 




ip:....^ 





u ♦ 



o^ 



U 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



HOUSE AT SHELBYVILLE, ILL. 



SPENCER & POWERS, 
ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. U. PLATE 141. 




CHAPEL FOR THE LITTLE HELPERS OF THE HOLY SOULS. ST. LOUJS, MO. 

Mauran & Russell, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 11. PLATE 142. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 11. PLATE 143. 







THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 11. PLATE 144, 




Pli 



^ 



Ss3 



^ 



^ 



Hr4 



;^ 



1 



TT 



< o 




1^ ^ i 8 1-T 



o < 

z . z 

5 o ; 

< o Q 

cc I 2 

1- y ~ 

< I 2 
D O P 

< ^ 
2 5 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 11. PLATE 145. 



'/ ^•r . j^^-r..^c*..-. -^ 




MANUAL TRAINING HIGH SCHOOL, WHITING, IND. 
Perkins & Hamilton, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 11. PLATE 146. 



r 




■DETAILS OF- 
CENTER PAVILION 



MAI NT 
ENTRANCfe; 



MANUAL 

TRAINING 

HIGH 

SCHOOL, 

WHITING, 

IND. 



Perkins 
& 

Hamilton, 
Architects. 



THE BRIC K B U I L D ER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 11. PLATE 147. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 11. PLATE 148. 





o 






7. 


. 


CO 




^ 


h- 


Q 




o 
III 


J 


7, 


H 


—1 




I 


D 


<f 


o 


tu 


D 


< 


U 


O 


CO 


U 


D 


o 


o 


< 
H 

< 


5 

III 


H 


X 


lij 




u 


e5 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 11. PLATE 149. 





THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 11. PLATE 150. 






THE FIELD HOUSE AND GYMNASIUM BUILDING AT HANNIBAL HAMLIN PARK, CHICAGO. 

Perkins & Hamilton, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 11. PLATE 151. 




ty -I" fv, ijtjr :-"«"■ *.•»■..« ^' ■* ■ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 11. PLATE 152. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 11. PLATE 153. 




£ASU1tyi/r FLA/V 



THE NEW MERAMEC SCHOOL, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

William B. Ittner, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 11. PLATE 154. 




O 

X 

o 

Q t 

ry UJ 

^ t 

< X 

w < 

W g 
U ^ 

< 

o 
< 

< 

o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



235 




House at .Shelbyville, 111., walls faced with red Danville shale brick in pale red mortar. Roofs, Cloverport shingle tile. Stucco, creamy buff, 

float finish. Outside rough timber work, etc., stained a warm brown. Terrace and porch floors of Welsh cjuarry tiles. 

The boldly projecting living porch connects living and dining room without darkening them. 

The unusual treatment of the gables avoids the usual baldness of the all brick gable and provides for large windows lighting bedroom, 

store room, and billiard room. 



seem that the only hope in that direction is in the in- 
creased skill and efficiency of average brick masons and 
in the growth of their numbers. In the meantime the 
cost of frame construction will continue gradually to 
advance, until it so nearly approximates that of brick 
that the latter will be chosen regardless of the small dif- 
ference in cost, because of its many superior qualities. 

In small or remote places it is easier for an architect to 
superintend the construction of a frame than a brick house. 

In many small towns the carpenter is often the only 
competent builder capable of reading plans and building 
the special designs of the city architect without serious 
mistakes, his business requiring that he himself be an 
architect to the extent of drawing plans for the average 
small house of his town. 

The work of the village mason is mostly confined (at 
least in the middle West) to the building of basement 
walls and chimneys, and more often than not he depends 
upon the carpenter for the correct laying out of his work, 
being incapable of reading plans correctly himself. 
His methods are sometimes so wofully slack, that taken 
together with his other shortcomings and those of the 
village carpenter, the architect and owner are indeed 
relieved when he is finally off the job. 

A little personal experience in connection with the 
building of a brick house last year in the Illinois "Corn 
Belt " has its laughable side, the humor of which did not 
particularly appeal to us at the time. There being no 
clerk of the works on the job the stone water table was 
laid at grade and the walls run up to first floor between 



visits. Owing to lack of " team-work " between carpen- 
ter and mason (the former having studied the plans nights 
until on the verge of nervous prostration) the joists were 
found all set about five inches too high, brick courses out 
of level, and water table two inches " off " between front 
and one side. On cross examination the carpenter was 
proven an accessory to the crime as to joists through 
failure to check up on mason. The mason was found 
guilty as to water table, having interpreted the specifica- 
tion-clause "accurate measuring and leveling instru- 
ments " to mean the following : Fifty feet of rubber 
hose, two men to operate ends of same around corners 
of building, and one large tin cup with which to replenish 
water escaping from hose, said hose being very old and 
leaky. A sensitive "leveling instrument " indeed when 
full and stationary, but its accurate reading was nullified 
owing to said leaks and diverted attention of operator 
while trying to offset leakage with water from the tin cup. 

While no amount of close personal supervision will 
secure first-class workmanship from careless or incompe- 
tent mechanics, the employment of a clerk of the works, 
at least until completion of the mason's work would have 
resulted in a much more satisfactory job^ — with a saving 
of worry and trouble to both owner and architects. The 
architect or his superintendent seldom sees the work 
often enough. 

When bad brickwork has been run up in his absence, 
he can only order it torn down and relaid, and relaid 
brickwork is seldom as satisfactory as that which is done 
properly as it progresses. 



1^6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Legal Hints for Architects. — Part V. 



237 



WILLIAM L. BOWMAN, C.E., LL.B. 



DUTY TO CONTRACTOR. 



IN HIS whole-heartedness and sincerity in serving his 
employer, the architect sometimes fails to remember 
that by superintending the construction work he has as- 
sumed certain obligations to the contractor. These obliga- 
tions vary somewhat in the different jurisdictions of the 
United States on account of conflicting legal interpreta- 
tions of the building contract clauses, but in general the 
principles involving the architect are almost universal. 
While as the interpreter of the plans and specifications 
he is generally considered the agent of the owner, yet 
he is sometimes considered the mutual agent of both the 
oivner and the contractor, and sometimes an arbitrator. 
Under any of these relations he can only demand or 
require what the plans and specifications actually specify 
and not what he thinks they should call for or what he 
may have intended they should require. The language 
used in the specifications should be given its usual and 
ordinary meaning save when it is used in a well-known 
technical sense. Where the architect is a mutual agent 
or an arbitrator he practically assumes a judicial function 
and his determinations and decisions which often are 
binding and final upon the parties should be governed 
by the same principles of honor, integrity, and justice 
which we expect and demand from our judges on the 
bench. Since many of the questions upon which he may 
be called to determine may be due to his own mistakes, 
omissions, or negligence, and since he may by a decision 
in favor of the contractor lose not only his compensation 
but any future employment, the architect occupies a 
unique and questionable position in the possible legal 
relations among men. There are many who do not be- 
lieve that any person should be put in such a position 
where there is a premium upon wrong doing and deciding 
wrongly, and this is especially so where there is no pos- 
sibility of punishment for such action, the architect not 
being reponsible at law either for want of skill nor even 
for negligence when acting in this capacity. 

Regarding the making of estimates and the issuing of 
certificates the architect is almost universally considered 
as an arbiter whose decision is binding and final except 
where bad faith, fraud, or collusion can be proven by a 
preponderance of legal evidence. This raises the ques- 
tion as to what is sufficient evidence to enable a con- 
tractor or owner to be relieved from the architect's 
certificate. While there is some difference of opinion 
on the subject, there seems to be a general consensus 
that an * arbitrary or unreasonable refusal to issue an 
estimate or certificate is of itself fraud. So a refusal 
upon grounds known to be fictitious or without founda- 
tion; where a mistake in estimating or of opinion is so 
absurd or ridiculous as to be palpable; where stone fur- 
nished in strict accordance with the specifications have 
rusted to some extent; where there is collusion with the 
owner, or in other words, obeying the owner's orders not 
to issue estimates or certificates ; where the contractor has 
not done something not required by his contract; where 



there has been a substantial performance of the contract ; 
refusals on such grounds or under such circumstances 
have each been held to amount to fraud on the part of 
the architect and to entitle the contractor to recover for 
his work without the production of such architect's cer- 
tificate. On the other hand, bad faith or fraud has been 
held not to be shown where a certificate has been given 
when as a matter of fact the work specified in the con- 
tract lacked a few dollars of completion ; nor where 
defects are discovered in the work after the certificate 
has been given; nor where the quality of the work is 
poor unless the judgment of the architect was not fairly 
exercised; nor by mere incompetency or negligence of 
the architect unless the same is very gross. 

Where payment is conditional upon the architect's cer- 
tificate and where there is a requirement that the archi- 
tect sliall make a monthly estimate, nothing should 
prevent the issuing of some kind of an estimate if any 
work is done, even if the owner's orders are to the con- 
trary. I have known of instances where without any 
contract provision the architect has arbitrarily held up his 
certificate until the time within which mechanics liens 
could be filed had passed; or where because of some 
trivial dispute involving a few hundred dollars, a pay- 
ment of thousands is arbitrarily held up although the 
owner might have other thousands in retains in his pos- 
session ; personally this seems to be nothing short of 
blackmail in the way that it is sometimes worked. Be- 
fore leaving this subject there is one such striking example 
of what an architect ought not to do that I shall give the 
facts in some detail so that it may help others should 
they ever become involved in a similar situation. 

A contractor entered one of those cut-throat con- 
tracts perpetrated by municipalities and others, with 
ancient specifications, as loose and ambiguous as could 
be imagined and containing all the saving clauses 
conceivable. By the contract itself, the work was 
to be done under the direction of a certain official 
and to his satisfaction, while the general conditions 
of the specifications put it under the direction and to 
the satisfaction, approval, and acceptance of the oivner 
and the architects. The contract made the decision of 
the official and the architects final as to the true meaning 
and construction of the drawings and specifications; the 
specifications required all questions of that nature to be 
referred to the architects, whose decision had to be 
accepted as final and conclusive and without appeal. Ac- 
cording to previous decisions in the jurisdiction such a 
clause made the architect's power absolute. Work was 
started with an inspector of the owner and another of 
the architects daily upon the ground ; the architects per- 
sonally made weekly and the officials about monthly 
visits. Certain materials were rejected and others re- 
quired ; work was taken out and replaced until the 
contractor had in his opinion completed the entire under- 
taking. The contract further provided that payments 



238 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



should only be made upon the architects' certificate, and 
that on or about the first of the month an estimate should 
be made by the architects "of the relative value of the 
work done and materials furnished and accepted, to be 
judged of by them, " and also that as each building was 
completed and accepted by tlie owner a certificate for the 
payment of the retained money on that building should 
be made. Throughout the work the monthly estimates 
and certificates were made and paid until the last two 
months. After all the many thousand feet of finished 
flooring had been laid and varnished, presumably to 
every one's satisfaction, the official made one of his 
monthly visits, and, although there was no requirement, 
that the pine flooring should be matched nor that only a 
certain length butt was essential, he raised a row and 
refused to accept the flooring because of its failure to 
please his hitherto unknown personal taste in these 
regards. At the same time the window glass was very 
severely criticized and any light with the slightest or 
most minute air bubble, etc., was ordered rejected. Other 
minor items were ordered changed. Although the con- 
tractor during the construction had already sunk a couple 
of thousand dollars to correct mistakes of the architects 
or their clerk of the work, and to supply omissions in the 
specifications, and in his general view of making the job 
one of his best for purposes of advertisement, yet he 
decided to assume the additional burden of reasonably 
satisfying the personal tastes of the official. Many hun- 
dred feet of flooring was replaced, thousands of lights 
changed and all of the minor items corrected, although 
the furnishers of the various materials were ready and 
willing to stand by them as being within the specifica- 
tions. Time for an estimate came, then for a payment, 
but neither was forthcoming although a large amount was 
due for other classes of work completed, such as mill 
work, hardware, plumbing, etc., regarding which there 
never was any question raised then or thereafter. An- 
other month of work passed with no estimate nor pay- 
ment. By this time the contractor had completed his 
undertaking and done all he could reasonably to comply 
with the official's complaints. The inspector for the 
owner, a practical builder, then made his certificate of 
good and substantial completion of the entire contract. 

From the first complaint of the official the architect in 
charge completely reversed himself, and where he had 
previously expressed himself aswell pleased with thework 
and issued certificates upon practically all the particular 
work complained of, thereafter he would do nothing ex- 
cept follow blindly each and every order of the official. 

Acting under such instructions the architects refused 
to issue certificates either for the monthly work or for 
buildings completed, one of which was even occupied. 
Regarding the completed buildings previous to the last, 
both the official and the architects failed to note that the 
retains were payable upon the ozvner's acceptance and not 
the officials. Certainly such acceptance was shown by 
the certificate of the owner's inspector, and this in ad- 
dition required the architect to act in this regard. Again, 
during the work some extra work was done which was 
ordered so that the contractor could be paid for it. The 
contract required payment for such work to be made the 
same as for the regular work, but the architect failed to 
issue his estimates or certificates and of course no pay- 



ments were made. Although the personal tastes of the 
official only affected two of five separate buildings and 
involved at an exorbitant estimate not more than $1,000, 
and although the owner had §14,000 in retained percent- 
ages beyond the $6,000 actually due, yet the architects ab- 
solutely refused to do anything for the contractor on 
their own part, nor could the official be persuaded to 
help the contractor out with the needed money long past 
due under the express terms of the contract. 

When the architect in charge was informed that his 
action amounted to a fraud upon the contractor he was 
truly indignant, and as an excuse for the refusal to do 
anything stated that he was acting under orders of the 
official, thus admitting the fraud in his own statement of 
denial. As other excuses for his attitude he stated that 
he was employed and paid by the official and not by the 
contractor, and that therefore he did not have to consider 
any suggestions or demands of the contractor; also that 
if the official wanted to pay, he could do so without 
their certificate. Of course the official was to blame for 
the situation, which was chiefly caused by his deliberately 
ignoring the terms of the contract and specifications and 
by his lack of building experience. The architects, how- 
ever, by issuing their estimates and certificates as re- 
quired by the contract, could and should have done their 
duty by the contractor and at the same time upheld their 
own professional ethics and manhood, if it might be so 
called. The real trouble with them was that the official 
had future building operations in his hands which the 
architects felt they could secure and control provided 
they did nothing to cross him, so that for the sake of 
future work they sacrificed their professional honor. 

The position which an architect should assume in such 
circumstances has been well expressed in the following 
judicial statement: "I cannot come to the conclusion 
that the architect's sole duty was to protect the interests 
of the building owner against the builder. I think that 
... he owed a duty to the builder as well as to the 
building owner. The effect of his agreeing to act . . . 
was that he undertook the duty towards both parties of 
holding the scales even and deciding between them impar- 
tially as to the amount payable by the one to the other." 

The example last given may be cited also as an in- 
stance of the failure of some architects to recognize a 
well established legal and equitable doctrine that the 
architect is charged with the duty of accepting or reject- 
ing material or workmanship as soon as there is a reason- 
able opportunity for inspection of it. Where the architect 
or his inspector is daily on the job a reasonable time in 
which to decide such matters is limited to a reasonable 
time for proper inspection. Failure to object, condemn or 
reject material or workmanship seasonably and in the 
manner contemplated by the usual contract operates as 
a waiver of defects in regard thereto and as an irrevo- 
cable acceptance of such material or workmanship as 
satisfactory under the contract. Why should this not be 
so where the architect can order any material away and 
secure the dismissal of any man on the job whose work 
or personality is not acceptable to him? Most of the 
courts of the country hold that this is an equitable and 
just doctrine, because the owner stipulates for inspec- 
tion and approval as the building is constructed and 
for a representative of his own to compel compliance 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



239 



with the contract at every step, and if the architect fails 
to perform his duty the loss should fall upon the owner 
and not be shifted to the builder, who may have been 
lured into the belief that his workmanship and material 
were satisfactory until too late to remedy defects therein 
without serious loss. Architects then should be guided 
in their superintending work by the theory that "when 
the architect is present and has knowledge of the char- 
acter of the material being placed in the improvement 
without objection at the time, his conduct is an approval 
of the same which cannot be revised by him to the 
prejudice of the contractor." 

The experienced architect is now saying to himself, 
how about the contract clause that no certificate save the 
final is conclusive nor an acceptance of improper mate- 
rials or defective work ? Yankeelike my answer is. What 
are improper materials and what is defective work? Im- 
proper is defined as "not suitable," "not fitting to the 
design or end." Thus where "g inch pine flooring is 
called for by the specifications, and the contractor, logi- 
cally assuming that for a public charity building trade 
i^Kiii inch and not special "b inch is meant, orders the 
former, which is duly inspected, accepted, and laid, cer- 
tainly no one could honestly hold that such flooring could 
be rejected as not suitable or as unfit for the building. 
Similarly, where long leaf flooring is put in a building 
under the same circumstances, short leaf being called 
for by the specifications, would any fair-minded archi- 
tect desire to go on record that such was an improper 
material? 

Defective work may be defined as that work which is 
"wanting in something," "incomplete," or "imper- 
fect." This phrase must however be considered in con- 
nection with the requirement as to the character or work- 
manship demanded. The type or class of building must 
also help determine this cjuestion. Where the contract 
merely required a " workmanlike manner, "it was held to 
require only sufficient skill to conform to the received 
rules of the art and so as Xo proximately effect the desired 
end. " Plain, substantial, and workmanlike manner " im- 
plies that the work shall be done perfectly/(7r the charac- 
ter of the job contemplated ; while a " good and workman- 
like manner " requires the work to be done in a manner 
generally considered skilful by those capable of correctly 
judging such work. The common failing in this regard is 
a neglect to consider the kind, character, and cost of 
the building involved; for example, a first class floor 
for a stable should not be required to equal a first 
class floor for a mansion on Fifth avenue. While 
there is some conflict of authority as to what extent the 
clause regarding acceptance permits the rejection of incor- 
porated work, it would seem that when it is considered 
to be consistent with the usual progress estimate or pay- 
ment clause, such a clause does not prevent the progress 
estimates or certificates from being conclusive as an 
acceptance of the estimated work and as to patent defects 
therein. Such seems to be the usual and reasonable 
construction of the ordinary building contract. Of course 
the situation is entirely different where there are latent 
defects not discoverable with reasonable inspection or 
where the contractor purposely and intentionally attempts 
to and does deceive the architect or his inspector. In 
such cases it is proper and the duty of the architect 



upon discovering such defects to order its removal 
and correction. Again, this rule will not cover those 
cases where the contract has special clauses regarding 
what kind of work may be ordered removed or replaced 
even after incorporation, but such special requirements 
will be very strictly interpreted, hence the architect must 
be assured of their significance before making or taking 
any serious step thereunder. 

There is one other duty of the architect towards the 
contractor that needs some consideration, and that is 
the ordering of alterations, additions, or extras. While 
these words are to many synonymous, yet in some juris- 
dictions they have entirely different legal meanings: 
alterations being actual changes made in the specifica- 
tions which ordinarily are not covered by any require- 
ment of the contract or specification as to the method of 
ordering, etc.; additions being work necessarily required 
in the performance of the contract, not intentionally 
omitted from the contract and not reasonably implied 
therein, and yet evidently necessary to the completion 
of the work; and extra work being work outside of and 
entirely independent of the contract and not required in 
its performance. The building contract does not always 
consider these distinctions in the jurisdictions that make 
the distinctions, and this often causes the architect 
trouble not only with the contractor but with the owner. 
The architect's authority in this regard will be later con- 
sidered, but here it should be noted that to be on the safe 
side and to properly protect the contractor the architect 
should give a written order for everything that he orders, 
whether it be alteration, additional, or extra work, other- 
wise the contractor may do the work and later find that 
since the architect only ordered it orally he cannot re- 
cover or get his pay for the same. There seems to be 
a marked policy on the part of some architects to issue 
as few written orders as possible, but they should realize 
that in so doing they are acting dishonestly. If the con- 
tractor is entitled to compensation beyond his contract 
price a written order should be given, and if on the other 
hand the architect considers the work within the contract 
he should give a writing anyway, stating that to be his 
opinion and ordering said work to be done pursuant to 
such opinion. Then if occasion arises both parties have 
a memorandum of the circumstance which may prevent 
serious conflict of oral testimony. 

Summarized briefly, the architect's chief duties to the 
contractor demand correct and honest estimates or certi- 
ficates of payment at the time called for by the contract, 
based upon his personal architectural knowledge and 
experience; such superintendence and inspection as the 
work requires to obtain determinations regarding the 
materials and workmanship before or at the time of 
incorporation into the improvement; and written orders 
or instructions regarding alterations, additions, or extras, 
especially where there is a difference of opinion on the 
part of the contractor. These considerations show that 
the architect's duty to the contractor is largelydetermined 
by particular clauses in the building contract, and hence 
if serious conflict becomes imminent the architect should 
at once seek good legal advice, otherwise he may not 
only seriously involve the owner, financially embarrass 
the contractor, but become personally responsible for his 
unauthorized and unjustifiable conduct. 



240 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Plate Illustrations — Description. 



Chapel, St. Louis, Mo. Pi-ates141 143. In planning 
this " community " Chapel, the architects were privileged 
to work in conjunction with the Mother Superior of this 
order lately driven out of France. The brick upon the 
exterior is a mottled gray taken at random from "culls," 
giving a resultant tinge of the gray monotone with sug- 
gestions of yellow and pink. It is laid up in natural 
colored mortar with wide weathered joints horizontally 
and close water-struck joints vertically. The trimmings 
are of buff Bedford stone. Upon the interior the floor is 
of pink Tennessee marble with honed surface and in 
general effect unites with the slightly yellowish natural 
rough plaster to give warmth to the otherwise undeco- 
rated nave and side aisles. The gallery rail in wrought 
iron is painted a dark green, flecked with a lighter green, 
while the ceiling rafters of the gallery are of dull dark 
oak. The benches are replicas of those in the Mother 
Chapel at Paris and the glass is especially designed, 
undecorated and baked like the French grisaille. The 
chancel rail of wrought iron is flanked by the two " Am- 
bons" of marble inlaid with Tiffany glass mosaic. The 
altar is also of marble inlaid with glass mosaic and illu- 
minated with vertical mirror angle reflectors concealed 
behind the pilasters. In the rear are the sacristies fitted 
with vestment cases and the working rooms for the 
Sisters. The building cost when completed $23,000 and 
contains 87,204 cubic feet reckoned from the ground 
only, as the foundations were in place and the new work 
began with the first floor. The price per cubic foot was 
approximately 26.4 cents. 

The Fiem) House and Gymnasium, Chicago, III. 
Plates 149, 150. The Hamlin Park improvement is one 
of several small parks recently established in the Lincoln 
Park district. It is the largest and most complete, pro- 
viding all the facilities and appurtenances which have 
been accepted as a part of an institution of this kind in 
its latest development. The total area of the park 
is approximately ten acres. In addition to the large 
athletic field is provided a separate outdoor gymnasium 
for men, women, and children, indoor gymnasiums, one 
for each sex, an assembly hall, club rooms, a branch of 
the Chicago Public Library, locker rooms, toilet rooms, 
shower baths, and an outdoor natatorium with acces- 
sories which are capable of accommodating the maximum 
capacity of 5,000 per day. This institution is operated 
on an entirely free basis, — lockers, towels, bathing suits, 
soap, etc., being furnished free to each applicant and 
thoroughly laundered after each use. The assembly hall 
is given for free use upon written application. The 
buildings are entirely of pressed brick and terra cotta 
both inside and out, the exterior being of a dull red wire 
cut brick and the interior of a smooth impervious yellow 
brick. The roofs are of green glazed tile. The total 
cost was $100,000. 

The New Ashland School, St. Louis, Mo. Plate 
151. The building is faced with a mixture of ordinary 
hard and red brick in appropriate mortar color, and 
roofed with slate. The site contains 138,884 square feet 
and the building covers an area of 22,700 square feet. 
Deducting the area of the building and the planted sec- 



tion in front, the playground contains 58,376 square feet, 
or 48.64 square feet per pupil. The normal capacity of 
the building is 1,200 pupils. Upon the interior the finish 
is of oak and the floor of maple. The main corridor on 
each floor is 14 feet wide and the secondary corridors 
8 feet wide, all receiving direct outside light. In order 
to prevent loss of time by the pupils during school hours, 
a limited number of toilet fixtures are placed on each 
floor in the four toilet rooms. Each class room is 24 feet 
by 31 feet 6 inches, unilaterally lighted, and provided with 
wardrobes 5 feet 3 inches by 16 feet. The building is 
heated and ventilated by the steam plenum system. Fire- 
proof construction is used throughout with the exception 
of the roof. The basement story is 11 feet 8 inches in 
height, and the first and second stories 12 feet; the win- 
dows being carried directly to the ceiling. The cost of 
the building complete, ready for equipment of furniture 
and including the improvement of the site, was $189,519, 
making the cost per cubic foot 16.2 cents and the cost 
per room $7,897. 

The New Franklin School, St. Louis, Mo. Plate 

152. The site, 61,624 square feet, being restricted in 
area and located in the city district, made it advisable to 
erect a three-story building. The plan covers an area of 
30,613 square feet, which leaves 25,449 square feet for 
playground and planting area or 19.6 square feet per 
pupil. The location of this building with reference to 
the surrounding schools made it advisable to provide 
several features not ordinarily included, namely, shop 
capacity for a double manual training and domestic sci- 
ence center and an auditorium. The building has been 
arranged for both day and night sessions. Upon the 
interior the finish is of oak and the floors of maple. Four 
stairways are provided, two of which lead from the 
ground floor directly to the third floor and are enclosed 
in wire glass and metal partitions from top to bottom. 
The auditorium is 60 feet by 90 feet and provided with 
galleries opening on the first floor corridor, which per- 
mits of its use independent or with the school. The 
room is well lighted and capable of seating 1,300 per.sons. 
The building is fitted with fixtures for electric lighting, 
with synchronizing clock and bell system, and house 
telephones intercommunicating between the principal 
rooms. The boiler and fuel rooms, ash pit, etc., are 
located just outside of the walls of the main building, 
well lighted and accessible. The building is heated and 
ventilated by the steam plenum system, and of fireproof 
construction throughout. The basement is 14 feet 
3 inches in height, and the first, second, and third stories 
13 feet 3 inches high, all in the clear, the windows being 
carried directly to the ceiling. The cost of the building 
complete ready for furniture and including the improve- 
ment of the site was $209,987, making the cost per cubic 
foot 17.1 cents and per room $8,076. 

The New Meramec School, St. Louis, Mo. Plate 

153. The building is faced with ordinary hard and red 
brick in appropriate mortar color and the roof laid in 
tile. Deducting the building area of 12,536 square feet, 
and the planted section in front, the total playground 
approximates 48,251 square feet, or 87.5 square feet per 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



241 



pupil. The plan is arranged so that the east and west 
wings ma}^ be lengthened, providing four additional 
class rooms. The normal capacity of the building is 550 
pupils. Upon the interior the finish is of birch with 
maple flooring. The main corridor on each floor is 14 
feet wide and the secondary corridors 8 feet wide, all 
receiving direct outside light. The nine class rooms are 
23 feet by 31 feet, unilaterally lighted and provided with 
wardrobes 5 feet 3 inches by 16 feet. The building is 
heated and ventilated by the steam plenum system, the 
air being washed before passing to the heaters and fans. 



Thirty cubic feet of air per minute is supplied to each 
pupil, the apparatus being designed to furnish from eight 
to nine changes of air per hour in the class rooms and four 
changes per hour in the corridors and play rooms. Foot 
warmers will be installed in the ground floor corridor. 
The building is of fireproof construction throughout 
with the exception of the roof. The basement story is 

11 feet 8 inches in height, and the first and second stories 

12 feet, the windows being carried directly to the ceiling. 
The cost of building complete was $119,989, making the 
cost per cubic foot 18 cents and the cost per room |;7,999. 



Editorial Comment and Miscellany. 

WORKINGMEN'S HOMES IN BERLIN. 



THOMAS A. EDISON in a recent interview for the 
New York Times, referring to the home life of the 
working people in Germany as compared with those in 
America, draws quite a contrast between Berlin and New 
York City. He says that the buildings which the work- 
ingmen of Berlin occupy are not "tenements" similar 
to those which disgrace and deface New York's crowded 
districts, but are fine apartment houses, beautifully 
constructed, perfectly supplied with light and air, safe 
against fire and made 
up of large and con- 
veniently arranged 
rooms. Each story 
has its iron balconies, 
generally filled with 
flowers. In America, 
however, flowers 
upon the balconies 
are violations of the 
law for they might 
obstruct their use as 
fire escapes. In the 
German city the flow- 
ers do not imperil 
human life, since the 
buildings are con- 
structed of good ma- 
terials and really 
fireproof. Mr. Edi- 
son cites the rentals as extremely moderate, proportioned 
to the incomes of the men who live in them far more 
reasonably than are the rentals of the much less desir- 
able apartments which men of the same walks of life 
must use in American cities. There is no overcrowding 
— absolutely none. He claims that the laws in the 
United States, providing that each resident of such a 
building shall have certain air space, that all apartments 
shall have certain light and ventilation, and that certain 
precautions against fire loss shall be taken both in man- 
agement and construction, are not strictly carried out. 
In Germany, however, law means law and is enforced. 



and suitable building on an eligible site for the allied 
arts. The members of the new organization include the 
Academy of Design, the Water Color Society and Water 
Color Club, the American Institute of Architects and the 
Architectural League, the vSculpture Society, Municipal 
Art Society, Miiral Painters and Illustrators. The 
Mayor, the members of the Chamber of Commerce, the 
directors of libraries, and members of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art have been invited to co-operate. All the 
great exhibitions will be held in the new building, which 
will also contain a permanent exhibition of American 

Art in all its branches. 
This is the first tangi- 
ble result of the many 
efforts to provide an 
art center for the 
metropolis. 




T' 



DETAIL OF CAPITAL, 
FLORIDA LIFE IN- 
SURANCE BUILDING, 
JACKSONVILLE, FLA. 
15 feet in width, 
12 feet in height. 



E.xecuted in terra cotta 

by the Atlantic Terra 

Cotta Company. 

H. J. Klutho, 

Architect. 



A HOME FOR ART, NEW YORK CITY. 

ANEW National Academy Association has been 
formed in New York City with a prospective fund 
of $1,500,000. The aim of the society is to erect a new 



NEW HOSPITAL 
AT PARIS. 
HE De La Nou- 
velle Pitie Hos- 
pital, Paris, which 
was begun in 1905 
and recently com- 
pleted, consists of a 
: ' Cotta Conipany. series of buildings 

for medical and 
surgical treatment, 
together with a ma- 
ternity hospital. The 
buildings cover a plot of ground approximately 600,000 
square feet, built of brick and connected throughout by 
an underground passage. Each building has a separate 
underground passage connectingwith the kitchen through 
which meal trucks pass to the various lifts fitted in all 
parts of the hospital. The hospital has about 40,000 
square feet of courts and gardens. It can accommodate 
1,000 in-patients and cost approximately $2400 per bed. 
The architect of this group of buildings was M. Justin 
Rochet. 

"BROADWAY GARDEN" TO REPLACE 
MADISON SQUARE GARDEN. 

ANEW " Madison Square Garden " will be erected in 
Times Square, occupying the block on Broadway 
between 47th and 48th streets, and extending back to 
within a hundred feet of Eighth avenue. The main 



242 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




an aggregate loss of eight per cent for the month of Octo- 
ber, as compared with the same month of 1910. The past 
ten months of the present year show a decline of five per 
cent, as compared with the same months of the past year, 
(iains of over twenty-five per cent for October were 
made at: Buffalo, 49 percent; Chattanooga, 88; Dallas, 
61; (irand Rapids, 113; Hartford, 35; Manchester, 68; 
Memphis, 27; Milwaukee, 36; Pittsburg, 111; St. Louis, 
36; Scranton, 58; Toledo, 26; Worcester, 81. 



DETAIL IIV WHEELER \ STERN, ARCHITECTS. 
The New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 

entrance to the Garden will be on Broadway with the 
remainder of the frontage occupied by storeF. An office 
building six stories in height with a tower 200 feet high 
is planned for the 48th street corner. The 47th street 
side will have a theater on the ground floor, with a seat- 
ing capacity of 



T' 



1,100 and a stage 
30 feet deep. Two 
other theaters and 
a covered winter 
garden will occupy 
the roof. The 
arena, which will 
seat about 20,000 
persons, will be 
250 feet long and 
156 feet wide. 
Including the gal- 
1 e r i e s it will 
furnish 160,000 
square feet for 
exhibition pur- 
poses. On both 
sides will be tiers 
of seats, the ends 
being occupied by 

boxes. Underneath the arena will be another one of 
exactly the same size, available for show purposes but 
designed primarily for storage. A large rathskeller 
will be built in the basement and a cafe on the main 
floor. The plans have been prepared by Walker & 
Gillette and will cost approximately $1,500,000. 



NP:W BRITISH MUSEUM WING. 
'HE exterior of the supplementary buildings to the 
British Museum, which are to be known as the 
King Edward VII. (lalleries, has been completed, and 
presents a magnificent front at the approach from Tor- 
rington Square. The interior finishings and decorations 
will require another year to execute. At each end of the 
fa(^ade rises a tower, 90 feet high, ornamented with 
statuary. The new thoroughfare on which the galleries 
are located is to be known as British Museum avenue. 

The land and 
buildings cost 
$2,000,000. 




HOTEL DIEU 

AT LYONS, 

FRANCE. 



T' 



DETAIL liY TOLEDANO *: WOGAN, ARCHITECTS. 
Executed by The Northwestern Terra Cotta Company. 



forty acres. 
in that city. 



HIS charm- 
ing old build- 
ing will soon be 
demolished and in 
its place will be 
erected a large 
general hospital. 

The new insti- 
tution will ac- 
commodate some 
fifteen hundred 
patients and 
cover a site of 
It will form a part of the university located 



ACCORDING to the report of the State superinten- 
dent of public instruction, in the five years ended 
with June 30, 1911, the valuation of school property in 
Kansas increased an even one hundred per cent or from 



SUMMER HOME FOR OUR PRESIDENTS. 

THE proposed home for the Nation's Capitol is on 
Mount Falcon, fifteen miles from Denver, Colorado, 
in the front range of the Rockies. All the details of the 
plan have been perfected and ground has been broken 
for this castle of gray granite. The design of the build- 
ing calls for a picturesque style wholly in keeping with 
the natural scenery. James B. Benedict, architect, has 
prepared the plans. 

BUILDING OPERATIONS FOR OCTOBER. 

FORTY- FOUR representative building centers 
throughout the country, as officially reported to and 
compiled by The American Contractor, New York, show 




JWe^ -tam'iiL^. 



DETAIL FOR MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOL. 

Executed by South Amboy Terra Cotta Company. 

E. F. Guilbert, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



243 



$5,000,000 to $10,000,- 
000. During this 
period two hundred 
and thirty high schools 
have been established 
with six hundred ad- 
ditional teachers. The 
growing demand for 
agricultural knowl- 
edge is shown by the 
fact that practically all 
rural schools offer ele- 
mentary instruction, 
and a practical course 
is offered in ninety-six 
high schools. 




and sincerity of 
Mr. Berlage has 
already won for him 
wide recognition in 
(iermany, Austria, 
and Switzerland, as 
well as in his own 
country. 



O' 



THE fire losses in 
the United 
vStates during the 
year 1910, according 
to the National Board 
of Fire Underwriters, 
was $214,003,300. In 

addition to the enormous destruction of property hun- 
dreds of lives were sacri- 
ficed. In America the per 
capita loss is $2.51 while 
that in the cities of the 
six leading European 
countries amounts to 33 
cents. This is attribu- 
table to the difference in 
the responsibility of the 
inhabitants in the various countries; the difference in 
the construction of the buildings, 
and the laws governing materials 
and conditions together with their 
enforcement. 



THE RAILWAY Y. M. C. A. BUILDING, RICHMOND, VA. 

Faced with brick made by the Ironclay Brick Company. 

Wilson, Harris & Richards, Architects. 



kN THE site of 
the log cabin at 
Hodgenville, Ky., in 
which Abraham Lin- 
coln was born, an 
imposing granite 
building — a memorial 
to the war President — 
was dedicated Novem- 
ber 9th and accepted 
for the Nation by 
President Taft. 



IN GENERAL. 




DETAIL BY GILLESPIE & CARREL, ARCHITECTS. 
New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company, Makers. 



THE grand jury at the inter- 
national art exposition, Rome, 
has awarded the grand prizes for 
the best sculpture work. Consid- 
erable regret is felt that the Amer- 
ican artists were excluded from the 
competition because of the closing 
of the American pavilion by the 
American Commissioner before 
the final award had been made. It 
is conceded that if the American 
works had been judged John vSinger 
Sargent would have received a 
grand prize. 



AT THE invitation of the arch- 
itectural school of Harvard 
University and the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, H. P. 
Berlage, the Amsterdam architect, 
will lecture this coming winter on 
"The Foundation and Develop- 
ment of Architecture. " The ability 




DETAIL FOR POST OFFICE. 

Executed by Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta 

Company. 

J . Knox Taylor, Architect. 



Herbert G. Jory has 
opened an office for the practice of architecture in the 

Munsey Bldg. , Baltimore, 
Md. Manufacturers' 
samples and catalogues 
solicited. 

H. E. Weeks and F. R. 
Walker have formed a 
copartnership for the 
practice of architecture 
under the firm name Walker & Weeks, with offices at 
1900 Euclid avenue, Cleveland, 
Ohio. Manufacturers' samples and 
catalogues solicited. 

The architectural firm of Trunk 
& Heim, St. Joseph, Mo., has been 
dissolved. Benjamin W. Trunk 
and William Gordon have formed 
a copartnership under the firm 
name of Trunk & Gordon, with 
offices in the Donnell Court Bldg. 

J. Earl Henry has recently been 
appointed architect and engineer 
for the Board of Education, Louis- 
ville, Ky., with offices in the 
Administration building. Manu- 
facturers' samples and catalogues 
solicited. 

The architectural firm of Walker 
& Hazzard has been dissolved. 
Hobart A. Walker will continue the 
practice of architecture at 437 Fifth 
avenue, New York City, and Elliott 
W. Hazzard will be associated with 
the firm of Hazzard, Erskine & 
Blagdon at the same address. 



The Fred A. Jones Building Co., 



244 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




of Dallas and Houston, Texas, announces the opening of 
a permanent branch office at 1009-1011 Empire Building, 
Birmingham, Ala. Carroll Blake, formerly general sup- 
erintendent for the 
company at Hous- 
ton, will be the 
manager for the 
Birmingham 
branch, and Carl 
Symonds, who has 
been associated 
with Mr. Blake for 
the past ten years, 
will become the 
manager of the 
Houston office. 

The facing tile 
used in the An- 
drews Hotel at 
Minneapolis, illus- 
trated on this page, 
were 4 x 4 x 12^ 
inches in size. The 
tile cost a little 
more than forty 
per cent less than 
a first quality of 

brick, and the saving in laying approximates nearly forty 
per cent more, depending somewhat upon the character 
of the building and the shade of tile selected for use. 

The brick used in the house at Chestnut Hill, Pa., by 
Brockie & Hastings, architects, 
illustrated in the October issue 
of The Brickbuilder, Plate 
129, was furnished by Fiske & 
Co., Inc. 

A meeting of the Gargoyles 
was held recently at the Hof- 
Brau House, New York City. 
At this gathering of young 
architects Professor Vining of 
Columbia University gave a 
talk on Business Psychology 
and Mr. Pierre Laird related 
his experiences abroad. 

The Ohio Mining & Manu- 
facturing Co., 96 Wall street. 
New York City, are looking 
for established parties to rep- 
resent them in the following 
southern cities: Charleston, 
Memphis, Birmingham, New 
Orleans, and Houston. 

The Columbus Brick & Terra 
Cotta Co. furnished the mater- 
ials for: the Union Pacific 
Headquarters, Omaha, Neb., 
Jarvis Hunt, architect; the 
Southern Pacific Headquarters, 



ANDREWS HOTEL, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

Faced with rose tinted tile made by the Twin City Brick Company. 

H. L. Stevens & Company, Architects. 



Houston, Texas, Jarvis Hunt, architect; the Wheeler 
residence, Indianapolis, Ind., Price and McLanahan, 
architects; the Rike-Kumler Building, Dayton, Ohio, 

Schenk & Wil- 
liams, architects; 
the Uihlein resi- 
dence, Milwaukee, 
Wis. ; the addition 
to the McCormick 
Building, Chicago, 
111., Holabird & 
Roche, architects; 
and the Otis Build- 
ing, Chicago, 111., 
Holabird & Roche, 
architects. 

Tables for Calcu- 
lat ing S izes of 
Steam Pipes for 
Low Pressure 
Heating, by Isaac 
Chaimovitsch, 
M. E., Price $2.00. 
Chicago: Domestic 
Engineering. 




SCHWEITER BUILDING, WICHITA, KAN. 

Built of gray Astrakhan Brick furnished by the Columbus 

Brick & Terra Cotta Co. 

Richards, McCarty & Bulford, Architects. 



Three million 
dollars is being 
expended for the construction of a great market place at 
the foot of Thirty-Sixth and Thirty-Seventh streets, 
Brooklyn. The improvement will include the erection 
of one hundred and sixty-four buildings, a great market 
square, and two public piers, on one of which will be 

built a recreation shed. Other 
features will be a public bath, 
a fire engine, truck house, and 
a police station. 

A twenty-story hotel will 
soon be erected at Dallas, 
Texas. The exterior will be 
treated in red velvet brick with 
stone trimmings and cost 
$1,000,000. Barnett, Hayes & 
Barnett of St. Louis are the 
architects. 



Mr. William L. Bowman has 
removed his offices from 38 
Park Row to 60 Wall street. 
New York City. 

The building for the new 
School of Fine Arts, Pittsburg, 
has been erected in connection 
with the Carnegie Technical 
School. In the center of the 
edifice is a large atrium pro- 
vided as a general concourse 
for the students. The top 
story is given over to painting 
studios, while the basement 
contains a large modeling 
room. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



245 








DETAIL BY J. B. BENEDICT, ARCHITECT. 
American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Co., Makers. 



Madison Square, which in its day held some of New 
York's finest dwellings, is fast developing into a mecca 

of office and 
loft buildings. 
It was one 
of the elite 
sections of 
the city for 
many years. 
With its high 
stoop houses 
andbigsquare 
windows, the 
place had a 
homelike ap- 
pearance. 
Every house 
had its silver 
name plate, 
its silver 
knocker and 
its silver door knobs, resembling a square in London. 

During the last few years, however, the old houses 
have been coming down in twos and threes, so that only 
a few remain of the many stately, handsome residences 

Automatic Straight-Lift Elevators 

Designed to be used in buildings of any number of stories, 
as automatic receiving and delivering stations may be provided 
for as many floors as desired. Each station is supplied with 
electric solenoids, which enables a single operator to open or 
close any station above or below by electric switches. Will 
handle boxes of various dimensions, a patented loading device 
permitting only one box at a time to enter the elevator. 

We design and build Open Gravity Friction Spiral Chutes 
and Double Roller Gravity Spirals. We invite inquiries from 
architects regarding these modern labor-saving devices, address: 

Mathews Gravity Carrier Company, 

ST. PAUL, MINN., U. S. A. 

Boston, 164 Federal St. 

New York. 30 Church St., Room 337 

Philadelphia, 1002-3 Drexel BIdg. 

Chicago, 213 Roanoke Bldg. 

St. Louis, Box 368 



^ 



CANADIAN MATHEWS CO.. Ltd., 28 Sheppard St., TORONTO 
BRITISH MATHEWS CO., Ltd., 147 Upper Thames St.. E.C.. LONDON 



University of Pennsylvania 

School of Architecture 



FOUR YEAR COURSE. (Degree B.S. in Arch.) Options in design and 
architectural construction. 

GRADUATE YEAR. (Degree M.S. in Arch.) Allowing specialization in 
advanced work. Fellowships. 

SPECIAL COURSE of two years. (Professional Certificate.) For qualified 
draftsmen. 

ADVANCED STANDING granted for equivalents completed elsewhere. 

SUMMER SCHOOL in architecture and allied subjects. Special circular. 

YEAR BOOK illustrating work in design, drawing, etc., mailed without 
charge. 

FULL INFORMATION will be sent on application to the Dean of the College 
Department, Dr. George E. Fisher, University of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 



that surrounded the little patch of greensward ten or 
fifteen years ago. 

Frank A. Bourne has been appointed to study Copley 
Square and other parks and squares in Boston with a 
view of protecting the city's interests in the arrange- 
ments for the new subway as well as facilitating the 
traffic and improving them in an artistic manner. 

On the first Monday in May, June, July, and August, 
1912, four county seat towns in southwest Kansas will be 
moved to other locations on the new vSanta Fe line. 
vSanta Fe, New Ulysses, Hugoton, and Richfield will 
change locations, the distances varying from six to 
twenty-five miles. 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Office of the Supervising 
Architect, Washington, D. C, November 2, 1911. 

SEALED PROPOSALS will be received at this office until 3 o'clock 
P.M. on the 14th day of December, 191 I, and then opened for the recon- 
struction, etc. (including plumbing), of the U. S. Marine Hospital, at 
Stapleton, Staten Island, Nevir York. The work consists of the construc- 
tion of two three-story wings having a total ground area of 1,150 square 
feet, reconstructing the entire interior of the old building and adding a 
fourth story to a portion thereof. Drawings and specifications may be 
obtained from the Custodian of the building, or at this office at the dis- 
cretion of the Supervising Architect. 

JAMES KNOX TAYLOR, Supervising Architect. 



BOILERS AND RADIATORS 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Water Tube and Return Flue Boilers 

Plain and Ornamental Direct Radiators 
Direct-Indirect Radiators 
Indirect Radiators 

For Steam and Water Warming 

Send for complete illustrated catalog 

THE H. B. SMITH CO. 



V_ 



Westfield, Mass. 
Philadelphia 



New York 
Boston 



THE MANSIONS OF ENGLAND 
IN THE OLDEN TIME 

By JOSEPH NASH 

Interiors and exteriors of the old halls, abbeys, courts, etc., with 
their old furniture, carved woodwork, staircases and interior 
decoration. Depicting the most characteristic features of Domestic 
Architecture of the Tudor Age. Fa<;ades, portals, gates, etc. Fire- 
places, mantels, carved ceilings, etc., with a great richness of detail. 

One hundred and four plates, thirty-two of which are repro- 
duced in all the beauty of the full colors of the originals. The 
plates are not alone wonderful reproductions of actual houses of 
the period, but they preserve all the "atmosphere" and charm 
that made these halls such delightful homes. 

NEW EDITION. One volume, size 10 x 13^ inches. Bound in full canvas. 
$10.00 

THE BRUNO HESSLING COMPANY 

64 East 12th Street, NEW YORK, N. Y. 



246 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The architectural firm of Kennerly & Iredell, St. 
Louis, Mo., has dissolved partnership. Mr. Kennerly 
will continue the practice of architecture at St. Louis, 
and Mr. Iredell will open an office at 722 Congress ave- 
nue, Austin, Texas. Manufacturers' samples and cata- 
logues solicited. 



The mural decorations in the Boston Public Library 
will soon be enriched by another of the Sargent decora- 
tions, the first of which was completed some time ago. 
Mr. Sargent is at present working on the scheme for the 
long side of his room, the subject being the " Sermon on 
the Mount." 



"TAPESTRY" BRICK 

TRADE MARK - REG. U. S. PATENT OFFICE 

BULLETIN 

RECENT WORK, illustrated in this issue of 
THE BRICKBUILDER 

Garage at Cleveland, Ohio Plate 1.S4 

Frank B. Mn.xDii:, Architect 



'PISKE er COMPANY INC 

Iace bricks/ establish 

llRE BRICKSl ED IN 1864 



25 Arch St., Boston 



Arena Building, New York 



Linoleum and Cork Covering 
FOR CEMENT FLOORS 

Linoleum secured by waterproof cement to concrete 
foundation can be furnished in plain colors or in inlaid 
effects. 

Cork Carpet in plain colors. 

Elastic, Noiseless, Durable. 

Is practical for rooms, halls, and particularly adapted 
to public buildings. 

Should be placed on floors under pressure and best 
results obtained only by employing skilled workmen. 

I-'ollowing examples of our work : 

Brookline Public Library. R. Clipston Sturgis, Esq., Architect. 
Suffolk County Court House, Boston. George A. Clough, Esq., 

Architect. 
Registry of Deeds, Salem, Mass. C. H. Blackall, Esq., Architect. 

A small book on thi.s subject, and quality samples, mailed 
on application. We solicit inquiries and correspondence. 

JOHN H. PRAY & SONS CO. 

Floor Coverings — Wholesale and Retail 
646-658 WASHINGTON STREET - BOSTON, MASS. 

Continuously in this business for 93 years 



THE BRICKBUILDER'S ANNUAL ARCHITECTURAL TERRA 

COTTA COMPETITION. 

Problem : A Store and Loft Building from Four to Six Stories High. 



FIRST PRIZE, $500. 

FOURTH PRIZE, $100. 



SECOND PRIZE. $250. 



THIRD PRIZE, $150. 
HONORABLE MENTIONS. 



COMPETITION CLOSES AT 5 P.M., MONDAY. JANUARY 8. 1912. 

PROGRAM. 

THE problem is a COMBINATION STORE AND LOFT BUILDING FROM FOUR TO SIX STORIES HIGH. The site is assumed to be in ihe 
middle of a city block located in the shopping district. The land is level and has 50 feet frontage and is 100 feet deep. The building is to cover the entire lot on 
first floor only, with suitable provision for natural lighting of rear portion of this floor. The lighting of other floors is left to the designer. The basement, first 
and second floors are to be occupied by a concern doing a retail business. Since the character of the business may inHuence the design it is suggested that the 
store portion of the buildine be treated either for the sale of pianos, jewelry, millinery, men's furnishings, boots and shoes, furs, sporting goods, or some similar line of 
business. The plans above the second story are to be of the loft type. 

The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in architectural terra cotta. and it is suggested that at least portions of the walls be treated in color. It is 
further suggested that provision be made in the design for the placing of signs. 

The object of this competition is to encourage a study of the use of architectural terra cotta in this particular type of building. There is no limit set on the cost, but 
the design must be suitable for the character of the building and for the material in which it is to be executed. 
The following points will be considered in judging the designs ; — 

j4 — The general excellence of the design, its adaptability to the prescribed material and character of the building under consideration. 

/*' — The excellence of the first-story plan which, in addition to an attractive frontal treatment, must provide an entrance to a hallway in which will be located an 
elevator and staircase. 

DRAWING REQUIRED. (There is to be but one.) 

On a sheet of unmounted white paper measuring exactly -^5 inches by 26 inches, with strong border lines drawn one inch from edges, giving a space inside the border 
lines of 33 inches by 24 inches, show : 

The front elevation drawn at a scale of four feet to the inch. 

The first-floor plan and a typical loft plan drawn at a scale of 16 feet to the inch. 

A sufficient number of exterior details drawn at a scale of one-half inch to the foot to completely fiU the remainder of the sheet. 

The details should indicate in a general way the jointing of the terra cotta and the sizes of the blocks. 

The color scheme is to be indicated either by a key or a series of notes printed on the sheet. 

All drawings are to be in black ink without wash or color, except that the walls on the plans and in the sections may be blacked-in or cross-hatched. 

Graphic scales are to be shown. 

Each drawing is to be signed by a nom de plume, or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the nom de plume on the exterior and containing 
the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawing is to be delivered flat, or rolled (packaged so as to prevent creasing or crushing) at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, S5 Water street, Boston, 
Mass., charges prepaid, on or before January M, 1912. • ■ l ■ 

Drawings submitted in this competition must be at the owners' risk from the time they are sent until returned, although reasonable care will be exercised in their 
handling and keeping. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, and the ri^ht is reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. Those who 
wish their drawings returned may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names, ten cents in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by three or five well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500. For the desisn placed third a prize of $150. 

For the design placed second a prize of $250. For the design placed fourth a prize of $100. 

The manufacturers of architectural terra cotta are patrons of this competition. 
The competition is open to every one. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Volume XX DECEMBER 1911 Number 12 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY ROGERS & MANSON 

85 Water Street - - - Boston, Massachusetts 

Entered Rt the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. Copyright, Oil, by ROGERS A MANSON 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States, Insular Possessions and Cuba ........ $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ..................... SO cents 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in Canada ............... $5.50 per year 

To Foreign Countries in the Postal Union ................. $6.00 per year 

SUBSCRIPTIONS PAYABLE IN ADVANCE 
For sale by all news dealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order : 



PAGE 

Brick Enameled ........ Ill and IV 

Brick Waterproofing ....... IV 

Fireproofing ........ IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



PAGE 

Agencies — Clay Products ...... II 

Architectural Faience ....... II 

,, Terra Cotta II and III 

Brick Ill 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 

CONTENTS 
PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 

From Work by 

BIGELOW & WADSWORTH AND R. CLIPSTON STURGIS; FRANK CHOUTEAU BROWN: 

COPE & STEWARDSON; ELLICOTT & EMMART; IRA W. HOOVER; 

HORNBLOWER & MARSHALL; FRANK B. MEADE. 

LETTERPRESS 

PAGE 

TOWER CF CHURCH LA SANTISIMO, MEXICO CITY Frontispiece 

THE FORTY-FIFTH ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE A. I. A 247 

HOW ARCHITECTS WORK. — I. OFFICES OF NOTED ARCHITECTS D. Eferelt IVaid 249 

COMMEMORATIVE MONUMENTS. — I >/. I'an Iliiren Magonigle 253 

THE DESIGN OF A PHYSICAL LABORATORY ^. P. Carman 257 

LEGAL HINTS FOR ARCHITECTS. — PART VI William /,. Bmvnian 261 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND MISCELLANY 265 

COMPETITION PROGRAM FOR A BRICK BUNCiALOW 270 




TOWER OF THE CHURCH 
LA SANTISIMO, MEXICO CITY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

DECEMBER, 1911 



VOLUME XX. 



NUMBER 12. 



Forty-fifth Annual Convention of the American 

Institute of Architects. 



AFTER a convention last year held on the Pacific 
Coast, the Institute of Architects returned again to 
Washington for its Forty-Fifth Annual Convention, held 
on December 12th, 13th, and 14th. While the convention 
was not marked by any new spectacular legislation on 
the part of the Institute, it was one marked by conspicu- 
ous unanimity of opinion on all the essential points of the 
various matters to which the Institute has given its atten- 
tion for the last few years. The first morning session, 
on Tuesday, December 12th, was largely taken up by 
the registering of delegates, an address of welcome by 
General John A. Johnson, Commissioner of the District 
of Columbia, the address of the president, Mr. Irving K. 
Pond, and the appointment of the special committees 
who would have charge of the general work of the 
convention. Following this the reports of the Board 
of Directors, the treasurer, and the various standing 
committees were taken up, as well as the special commit- 
tees, and these carried the convention over into its 
afternoon session, after which, as is usual in afternoon 
sessions, there were two interesting papers read. The 
real work of the session began on Wednesday morning, 
following the reports of the committees appointed to 
consider the various reports of officers and standing 
committees. This work again carried over into the 
afternoon session and was followed by a paper and then 
by general discussion on the subject of architectural 
education. In the evening occurred the interesting 
ceremony of the presentation of the gold medal of the 
Institute to Mr. George B. Post, in the National Museum. 
The remaining business and papers were largely confined 
to the morning session on Thursday, the announcement 
by the tellers of the election of officers for the coming 
year being put over to the afternoon session, which 
closed at an early hour with a few brief words by Mr. 
Walter Cook, the newly-elected president. The other 
officers elected were as follows: First Vice-President, 
R. Clipston Sturgis; Second Vice-President, Frank C. 
Baldwin; Secretary and Treasurer, Glenn Brown; 
Directors, I. K. Pond, John M. Donaldson, and Edward 
A. Crane; Auditor, T. J. D. Fuller. 



The report of the retiring president, Mr. Pond, hinted 
briefly at the work accomplished and the progress made 
during the past year, and called for the unselfish support 
by the members of the Institute of all the vital matters 
which the Institute has at heart, the firm development 
of which means so much to the whole profession in the 
United States. The same attitude was echoed in the 
report of the Board of Directors with special reference 
to the great question of competitions, to which the recent 
committees have given such conscientious labor and the 
profession serious consideration. 

The treasurer reported a most encouraging condition 
of the reserve fund and the general treasury. 

The labors of the Standing Committee on contracts 
and specifications have reached fruition in the shape of 
a first standard edition, arrangement for the publication 
of which has been made with E. G. Soltmann in New 
York, who has for some years been the publisher of the 
Uniform Contract. These documents may well meet with 
complete adoption by many architects. In any case they 
cannot fail to be of very real value as standard forms by 
which an architect may measure up his own documents, 
which he has developed along personal lines and which 
he does not therefore wish to abandon, but which may 
well profit by comparison with standard documents such 
as the committee has put forth. 

The Committee on Education has for the past year 
been particularly concerned with the development of the 
various lines of education open to draftsmen in addition 
to the regular courses in architecture at the universities. 

From the committee's report it was very evident that 
it considered that too great specialization, by the com- 
paratively young draftsman, in the matter of design is a 
very dangerous factor, and it urged everywhere the coor- 
dinating of courses in design with other courses in allied 
subjects, such as mathematics, construction, and history, 
in order to give the beginner in the profession some idea 
of the breadth of training necessary for one who expects 
at some time to be an architect in independent practice. 

Mention may best be made here of the most admirable 
paper read by Mr. Lloyd Warren on Phases of Architec- 



248 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



tural Education, in which he made a most eloquent plea 
for a broader development of the aesthetic perceptions of 
students of architecture through training in the allied 
arts of painting and sculpture. His remarks were greeted 
with no little enthusiasm by the convention, and it was 
immediately voted that his paper be printed by the 
Institute for general circulation. 

The question of competitions was perhaps the one 
which brought forth the keenest general interest. The 
report of the Committee on Competitions reviewed 
briefly the various competitions which had been brought 
to its attention during the year, and it was of great in- 
terest to note the widespread acceptance of the code by 
owners, and also the evident desire upon the part of the 
members of the Institute to abide strictly by these terms. 
There were, of course, instances cited where competi- 
tions were frankly carried on at variance with the general 
rules laid down by the Institute, due either to a lack of 
understanding on the part of the owner or to legal diffi- 
culties, or in some cases to a definite refusal to modify 
personal desires to conform to an order of procedi:re 
which the Institute lays down for its own members, 
simply as one which in its opinion is best calculated 
to produce the best results both for the owner and 
for the architect. The fundamental point in the vote 
of the Institute two years ago in the matter of compe- 
titions was that it should be considered unprofessional 
conduct for a member of the Institute to take part in 
any competition zchick had not been previously approved 
by the Standi)ig Committee on Competitions. The ques- 
tion as to whether the program for a competition con- 
forms to the various rules of the Institute code con- 
cerns merely the committee and its various local sub- 
committees. The only question which a member of the 
Institute has to consider is whether the committee has 
definitely approved the program. That the ascertaining 
of this one fact is all that concerns the prospective com- 
petitor will be much more generally understood after the 
open discussion in the convention. A suggestion that 
the whole code be made merely advisory in nature, thus 
removing the mandatory character of certain provisions 
and destroying the fundamental strength of the code as 
now in operation, was overwhelmingly defeated. The 
fact of most general significance is that the evidence of 
the Committee on Competitions shows that the general 
public is rapidly coming to the conclusion that the rules 
laid down for the governing of the actions of members 
of the Institute in the matter of competitions are rules 
which should also govern the owner in the conducting of 
competitions if he is desirous of obtaining the most 
satisfactory result. 

Perhaps the one other most important business of the 
convention was the authorization of the appointment by 
the Directors of a Committee on Public Information. 
For several years the Philadelphia chapter has had such 
a committee, and during the past year similar commit- 
tees have been established in other chapters. Without 
question much can be done by a properly organized and 
active committee of this sort, through the distribution to 
individuals and publications of all matters of interest 
occurring at meetings of the various bodies of architects. 
In this way, for instance, the principles of the Institute 
code on competitions can be clearly set forth for the 



enlightenment of all architects, whether members of the 
Institute or not, and of the general public. It should 
not be a difficult task also to complete the work, already 
started by the existing local committees, of creating a 
custom of giving proper acknowledgment of the archi- 
tect when illustrations of recent work are published in 
the daily press. Seldom is a painting referred to in a 
newspaper to-day without due reference to the name of 
the painter; similarly with a work of sculpture. There 
surely can be no reason, other than a careless lack of 
appreciation, to excuse the very frequent publication of 
a building with no reference whatever to the architect, 
who not only designed the work but on whom rests the 
large business responsibility of carrying the execution of 
the work to a successful conclusion. The profession 
may well look for beneficial results from the establish- 
ment of this committee. 

The Committee on Conservation of Natural Resources 
laid particular stress in its report this year upon the 
efforts which should be made to preserve the banks of 
the Potomac in the near vicinity of Washington by the 
formation of a national park, and the general commenda- 
tion by the convention of such a scheme was expressed. 

Mr. Totten, of Washington, made report of the last 
International Congress of Architects, held in Rome, and 
the convention voted to urge the holding of the Con- 
gress in 1917 in Washington, and urged the sending of a 
complete set of photographs of American architecture to 
the convention to be held in St. Petersburgh in 1916. 

Stress was laid upon the need of attention to system- 
atic development of city and town planning, and it was 
urged by the convention that the work of this committee 
be so developed, if possible, as to bring the approval of 
the Institute, through its Board of Directors, directly to 
the attention of such bodies as are considering the devel- 
opment of districts through properly organized and ade- 
quately financed commissions. 

A paper was read on the advantages of licensing of 
architects, by Mr. H. B. Wheelock, of Chicago. 

Mr. J. Milton Dyer read a paper on the effect of com- 
petitions on design, showing that the government com- 
petitions under the Tarsney Act have helped largely in 
creating a government architecture at the present day 
vastly better than that which obtained before. 

A most interesting talk on recent developments in 
paint technology was given by Mr. H. A. Gardner, 
Assistant Director of the Institute of Industrial Research. 

The Octagon has been enriched by the gift, from the 
vSan Francisco Chapter, of the table on which President 
Madison signed the treaty of Ghent. He was at that 
time occupying the Octagon as his official residence, the 
White House having been burned down by the British. 

The convention was brought to a close as usual by a 
banc[uet, on Thursday evening, at which the principal 
speakers were Senator Chamberlain of Oregon, Senator 
Hitchcock of Nebraska, Representative Slaydon of 
Texas, and Representative Kent of California. It was 
apparent from their remarks that the commission's plan 
for Washington, especially its site for a Lincoln Memo- 
rial, is not without its ardent supporters in Congress; 
but that the architects themselves should do their part in 
the forming of public opinion, and the bringing of that 
opinion to the attention of the members of Congress. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



249 



How Architects Work. 



D. EVERETT WAII). 



I. — OFFICES OF NOTED ARCHITECTS. 



A STUDY of what architects do, where they do it, 
and the means they use, — is intended to be briefly 
compassed under the title, " How Architects Work." 

As an introduction, it may be interesting to many to 
catch a glimpse by means of plans and photographs of 
the interiors of the workshops of some of the well-known 
members of the profession. Each observer will detect 
for himself the extent to which each workshop shows a 



drafting room swells remarkably and suffers succes- 
sive protoplasmic separations of private office, consulta- 
tion room, library, specification room, engineer's room, 
superintendent's room, drawing file room, testing labora- 
tory, photographic room, sample room, etc. 

Let us imagine that our first visit to such a develop- 
ment of a real architectural shop is a call upon a great 
designer of hotels. He is located in a plain office build- 




OFFICES OF H. J. U A RUEN I'.ERc; H, 47 W. 34TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 



tendency as^between an 
artist's stitdio and a cold 
business office; as be- 
tween a dominant 
serene and well-lighted 
drafting room and 
an engineer's vibrant 
executive headquarters. 
Each imaginative visi- 
tor may speculate for 
himself as to the influ- 
ence on the plan of 
each office due to the 
personal qualities and 
taste of each architect, 
or the volume of his 
work, or the class of 
work, if he specializes, 
or all those factors. 

An architect's office 
in its beginning is a single room with one lone drafts- 
man to give it a name. As soon as he scents a job and 
material dealers get wind of it and call too numerously, 
he curtains off an entry and gets a boy to close the door. 
The drafting room is still the consultation room for 
the client, and letters and plans and specifications are 
concocted on the same drawing board. In good time 
the entry grows to be divided into a business office 
for stenographer, letter files, and contractors; and the 




ing, and inasmuch as 
his reception room is 
nothing more than a 
piece of the plain pub- 
lic corridor of the 
building, we are disap- 
pointed, and, in fact, 
are not quite sure that 
we have arrived. The 
open door at the left, 
however (marked on 
plan "Contractor's 
Room "), d iscloses a 
wide-awake office boy 
sorting blue-prints to 
issue to bidders or to 
file in the very small 
filing closet, and he 
takes our card and dis- 
appears. Very quickly 
he returns to conduct us through the "Anteroom" 
(where first we perceive that we have entered an archi- 
tect's domain) to the "Private Office." There alone, in 
a quiet spot, — so silent that not even the hum of New 
York streets or the distant rumble of elevated trains can 
be heard, is Mr. Hardenbergh quietly writing specifica- 
tions. The roll-top desk is made to fit its place and the 
beautiful Florentine chair revolves as comfortably as 
the ugliest business chair could possibly do. As we are 



250 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



greeted courteously by this gentle host, and the conver- 
sation turns to the table, the mantel, the rug, even the 
interesting fixtures which he has designed to light the 
mural paintings, and note the soft color harmony illu- 
mined by six plain leaded glass windows, which, at the 
same time, shut out unpleasant neighbors, we feel that 
the individuality of the architect must be impressed upon 
the client who comes here. This is not a domestic room, 
a room in a palace, nor an office. It is the studio of an 



Next we turn our steps to 24th street and enter the 
T planned outer office of Mr. Cass Gilbert. Here our 
first impression is unmistakable; we are in an architect's 
office. Sculpture and rendered drawings of magnificent 
buildings hold us enthralled while we try to propitiate 
the guardian who issues blue-prints over the counter at 
one side. Beyond the "Outer Office" everything 
seems business-like as we pass through the rooms of 
"Mr. G.," "Mr. A.," the secretary, and into the ex- 




OUTER OFFICE 



)RAKTING ROOM. 



OFFICES OF CASS (ULHERT, 



ST 24TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 



architect. The library 
near at hand is not dif- 
ferent from others. 
Aside from its treasures 
of books, there is a con- 
ference table in the 
middle of the room and 
under one window an 
engraving case, such as 
one sees in print shops, 
in which are kept for 
easy reference some of 
the fine interior scale 
drawings which should 
not be ruined and lost 
among files of blue- 
prints. We pass 
through the suite of 
simply furnished rooms, 
note the two draft- 
ing rooms with boards 
all neatly protected with 
cloth covers (it is Satur- 
day noon and the 
draftsmen have gone 
home), and the engineer- 
ing and specification 
rooms. Before we end 

our call we have seen the floor plan of a Titanic new 
hotel with its admirable scheme of circulation, and then 
Mr. Hardenbergh refers to that nuisance of an archi- 
tect's office, the filing of drawings, expresses the pref- 
erence for flat filing instead of rolls, and mentions as hope 
deferred the famous file room of Carrere & Hastings. 




ecutive offices of "Mr 
VV. " and "Mr. R." 
Bidders probably take 
drawings to their own 
offices and never see 
the "Contractor's" 
room, which is in reality 
a sample room. The 
walls are lined with 
"unit" bookcases 
whose glass fronts save 
the necessity of dusting 
innumerable pieces of 
hardware, bricks, and 
marble. This is also 
the mailing and general 
utility room . The 
wealth of the library is 
easily accessible from 
either the drafting 
room or the executive 
offices. When we enter 
the drafting room we 
get a vista of endless 
drawing boards. Roll- 
top desks are located on 
opposite sides of the 
column, one for the 
mechanical engineer and one for the specification writer. 
Immense steel cases stand against the side wall, with 
drawers six feet long or more, topped with box files of 
drawings of completed buildings. Each draftsman 
has a wire wardrobe locker placed as indicated. The 
room designated on plan "Mr. J." is a small drafting 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



251 




2J £yi3r 2Gth STJ^ttT 



room, a desirable feature in every 
large office. Business is in prog- 
ress, a conference is on in the 
reception room, so we must call 
again to see that handsome sanc- 
tum which opens from Mr. Gilbert's 
private office and commands a fine 
view of Madison Square. 

Many of the New York architects 
are to be found around Madison 
Square. We shall wish to call upon 
three, all in one building at the 
north end near Madison Square 
Garden and the Society for Preven- 
tion of Cruelty to Animals. The 
first of these is the firm who de- 
signed the Lion House, the Reptile 
House, and others in Bronx Park, 
where is to be found the finest Zoo, 
not even excepting that at Amster- 
dam. Heins & La Farge, now La 
Farge & Morris, have a long nar- 
row drafting room with eastern 
light. The reception room and 
library looks out on the Park 
through south windows. It is 
simply furnished, but has a rever- 
sible table worth going a mile to 
see. An attractive decorative 
effect is given by the books, a piece 
of tapestry, a large example of Japanese carving, 
and a fine perspective of the Cathedral of St. John 
the Divine. One passes from the "Anteroom" 
or from the " Reception Room," into the " Private 
Office, " where both members of the firm have their 
desks. The very plain " Entrance Lobby " which 
one sees first on entering this office is floored with 
richly colored tiles. Opening a glass screen door, 
the visitor then finds himself in a spacious " Ante- 
room " with a floor which is a testing out of an 
almost white composition. The plan suggests 
clearly the arrangement and furnishing of the convenient 
and well-lighted office of La Farge & Morris. 

If we take elevators to the roof of this same twelve- 




VIEW OF DRAFTING ROOM AND 

PLAN. OFFICES OF 

MAYNICKE & FRANKE 

25 MADISON SQUARE NORTH, 
NEW YORK CITY 



story building, which was designed by our next victims, 
Maynicke & Franke, we shall see an example, an excep- 
tional one, of a New York "pent house." Since they 



252 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



have all there is of a thirteenth story, we land from the 
elevators in, not a public corridor, but their own private 
hall, which is simply decorated with enough perspectives 
to impress the visitor that he is in an architect's oilice. 
The "Hall" is part of the generous "General Office," 
which is made impressive with an immense color repre- 
sentation of St. Mark's at Venice, hung opposite the 
fireplace. Before one can reach the hotel-like counter, 
his approach is detected by the telephone lady and he 
can quickly learn whether he may see one of the firm. 



flooding the room with draftmen's soft northern day- 
light, which combine to make an exceptionally spacious 
and well-ventilated and lighted workroom — another 
worthy architectural studio. 

Turning our attention now to a third office in this 
same building, we call upon Donn Barber. We enter 
the " Reception Hall," which is treated in tones harmo- 
nizing with light oak. It breathes a gentle, refined wel- 
come and makes us know at once that a designer's atelier 
is somewhere near. There is, however, at the guardian's 




DRAFTING ROOM. 

On this occasion, we 
are ushered into Mr. 
Franke's room, which 
has a floor of cork tiles, 
and walls covered with 
very white oak wainscot 
and bookcases. The 
table covered with rare 
books, the flat-top desk, 
and the chairs, are dark 
mahogany. When we 
visit Mr. Maynicke's 
room, we may discover 
that both partners are 
expert amateur photog- 
raphers and can show us 
some of the marvels of 
color photography and 
a model dark room in 
which they are devel- 
oped. A new exclama- 
tion of surprise is 
elicited when we go into 
the drafting room. 
Here is the Grand Central 
This pent house, not ham 
lofty vaulted ceiling and 



OFFICES OF DONN liARHEK, 2=; FAST 26TH STREET, NEW \fiKK (;IT\'. 




Terminal of drafting rooms, 
pered with a low roof, has a 
four great bays of windows 



PRIVATE OFFICE. 

desk in front of us a 
smiling, polite, young 
major domo, who knows 
that Mr. Barber is out 
at the present juncture, 
and who is sure more- 
over that we could not 
possibly be interested in 
an office without Mr. 
Barber in it. He is 
quite right, for we be- 
lieve that the plan tells 
quite a bit about Mr. 
Barber. Note how he 
placed t'ne business end 
of the office, touching 
the drafting room at 
one end, and the recep- 
tion room at the other, 
and how the primary 
designing board is 
hedged on both sides. 
The interestingarrange- 
ment of the office and 
relation of its parts are evident on plan. Perhaps we 
may have some details to consider in a subsequent 
issue. 



THE ARCHITECT'S LIBRARY: J. H. Sellars, in 
discussing "The Architect's Use of a Library," 
says that it is doubtful if the old architects understood 
the history of art as we do to-day. Knowledge of history 
obtained through our books and photographs impresses 



upon us the fact that great styles are based on reason 
and logical construction, and that buildings to be con- 
sidered great must fulfil their purpose. Wide reading 
will aid us in the formation of an artistic character and 
a power of aesthetic reasoning. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Commemorative Monuments. — I. 



253 



H. VAN BUREN MAGONIGLE. 



ONE of the most admirable impulses of men is that 
which moves them to the erection of memorials 
that shall be visible reminders through the years of the 
great dead who played their parts well in the theater 
of human affairs. 

A certain pathos attaches to monuments to men who 
were not appreciated in their lifetime or were contemned 
or actually vilified; but to the living, struggling against 
adversity or prejudice perhaps, they should be at once 
an inspiration and a consolation; for Time is the only 
touchstone by which the ultimate value of any effort may 
be tested; the final verdict rests with posterity — and 
if the work be well done, if the idea is one worthy of 
what in our finite way we call Immortality, if a man has 
made a real contribution to the sum of human progress, 
he may be sure that sooner or later the world that 
follows him, and finds the spark he kindled still alight 
because of the life in it, will honor him according to his 
desert. Of all the workers, of all the leaders in thought 
and action, only a few will be selected by the forces of 
time and opinion for honor by visible memorials. For 
the vast majority the work itself must be the sign of 
their passing; and 
this is especially true 
of architects and 
other artists; memo- 
rials to them are 
rare; but in every 
work that leaves 
their hands, by lov- 
ing thought and care, 
by devotion to duty, 
and to beauty as it is 
given them to see it, 
they may build their 
own monument and 
write their own epi- 
taph in terms more 
true and trustworthy 
than the words of 
the epigraphist; no 
one can doubt the 
innermost character 
of a Bramante as 

revealed by his work ; we feel that we are in the presence 
of a gentleman with a gentleman's restraint and refine- 
ment; that his mind was subtle, his sense of beauty sure 
and true. One need not read Cellini's autobiography to 
know his traits — the dash, the freedom, the contempt 
of convention amounting to lawlessness — these are in 
his works. 

It is only in modern times, however, that monuments 
have arisen by reason of the desire of the people to honor 
their great men. In earlier days men erected memorials 
to themselves or to their gods; the narrow ways of 
Grecian Olympia were crowded with statues of victors 
in the games, paid for, with exquisite modesty, by them- 
selves; the despot, king or emperor, decreed his own 
monument and superintended its erection, having no 



LION OF LUCERNE, LUCERNE, SWITZERLAND 



faith in the judgments of posterity. These have no 
significance for us except as marking the monstrous and 
pathetic egotism that Shelley has laid bare in 

OZYMANDIAS OF EGYPT 

I met a traveler from an antique land 

Who said : Two vast and trunkless legs of stone 
Stand in the desert. Near them on the sand, 

Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown 
And wrinkled lip and sneer of cold command 

Tell that its sculptor well those passions read 
Which yet survive, slamp'd on these lifeless things, 

The hand that mock'd them and the heart that fed ; 
And on the pedestal these words appear : 

' My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings ! 
Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair !' 

Nothing beside remains. Round the decay 
Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare. 

The lone and level sands stretch far away. 

The statues, arches and columns of the Roman emperors 
may be considered as manifestations of a similar spirit; 
the Caesar did not wait for a venial senate and a servile 
populace to come forward, but attended to the matter 
himself. In Gothic times men's eyes were fixed upon 

another world and 
we find but monu- 
ments to God, to the 
Virgin and to the 
saints; save those 
sepulchral monu- 
ments which also 
show their preoccu- 
pation with thoughts 
of death and a life 
beyond the grave. 
In all ages, to be 
sure, the tomb or 
funeral monument 
received a large 
measure of thought 
and care; ancient 
cities had their 
streets of tombs, 
stretching away 
from the city gates, 
crowded on either 
hand with cenotaphs of every form ; and from the Mauso- 
leum of Halicarnassus down to the humblest stele that 
affection had raised over some beloved clay, the last 
resting place of king or helot has been the object of 
tender commemoration. In the Helen of Euripides 
occurs this invocation: "All hail! My father's tomb! 
I buried thee, Proteus, at the place where men pass in 
and out, that I might often greet thee; and so, even as I 
go out and in, I, thy son Theoclymenos, call upon thee, 
father!" But these were marks of personal or family 
affection, vestiges of the ancient propitiatory worship of 
the ghosts of the departed, as others we have noted 
were the products of personal vanity; and it is not until 
the Renaissance that the modern spirit is made manifest ; 
then, men nurtured in the Christian faith but made 




254 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




STATUE OF CHESTER ALAN ARTHUR, NEW YORK CITV. 

mentally free by a new contact with the antique world 
of thought and art began to build monuments to others 
than themselves or their immediate family and friends, 
out of a real desire to do them honor. 

There is another class of monuments that must be 
noted — those which signalize an event or an idea or ab- 
straction, and in which the individual has no part or a 
very subordinate one. These present a still greater 
ethical advance — the " Triumph of the Republic," the 
"Peace Monument," the " Dying Lion of Lucerne" ; at 
the Ecole des Beaux Arts one of the problems given was 
a monument "To all the Glories of France. " In such 
monuments the mind is entirely divorced from the per- 
sonal and is centered upon a pure abstraction. 

Allied to these are memorial fountains which may be 
so conceived as to appeal to us by their beauty or inter- 
est, and the great part they may bear in the general 
monumental aspect of a city. 

It is not proposed here to treat of monuments as iso- 
lated facts either from their human side or as mere 
masses of stone and bronze ; they are to be discussed as 
forms in which men have sought to embody their sense 
of reverence for the great man or act or idea; in refer- 
ence to their merits or demerits as works of art; but 
also we are to consider them on broader lines as ele- 
ments that may under proper conditions contribute to 
the beauty of a city; without monumental conditions we 
fail of truly monumental effect; in Europe we find the.se 
conditions in far greater measure than here; and espe- 
cially in France the treatment of the site, approach, and 
entourage are given careful consideration. Upon the 
harmonious interrelations of these depend much of the 
effect of the monument upon us whether we are actively 
conscious of it or not. 

To be properly successful, a monument must be de- 
signed for a definite spot, and designed in reference to 
that spot and to no other. 

The designer must take many things into account — 



he must study the approach, the effect from a distance, 
the scale of the parts to the whole, and the scale of the 
whole in relation to that of the immediate surroundings. 

If the monument is to be placed where it will have a 
building as a background, he must study the architecture 
of that building, and if this is broken and restless, the 
quieter and simpler his design the better. If the build- 
ing is severe in character, he could permit himself a 
richer silhouette, and more action in the sculptural ad- 
juncts, bearing constantly in mind, however, that har- 
mony must result. 

Again, if the composition is to be placed at the inter- 
section of several streets or at any point where a distant 
view of it, outlined against the sky, is to be had, he must 
design the silhouette as it will appear against the sky, 
and having thus determined the form and the accent that 
will tell best at a distance, subordinate the details to this 
general effect. 

The problem in a park is to be solved in an entirely 
different way, and yet in obedience to the general prin- 
ciple that the surroundings must determine the character 
of the design. In a park the question of the color of 
the monument plays an important part in its relation to 
that of the foliage. It is fairly questionable if a dark 
bronze statue, for example, is seen to the best advantage 
with trees as a background; its color and its shadows 
confuse themselves with those of the foliage, and the 
essential elements of clarity and repose are lost. In 
France white marble is a favorite material for park 
sculpture and tells best against the green. If bronze is 
to be used for the sculpture, it would seem reasonable to 
so design the composition that the bronze may be seen 
against a background of light stone, which in turn defines 
itself against the trees and shrubs. 

It is to be borne in mind that a monument in any form, 




STATUE Ol- NATHA.N HALE, NEW YORK CITY. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 



255 




\IK\\ 1 RUM CUPOLA OF ST. PETKRS IN ROME, ITAI.V 



whether it be a statue, a shaft or a fountain, is a formal 
thing — that it commemorates something — some man, 
some act, some word or idea, and to the poorest and least 
artistic is thereby imparted a certain dignity which 
demands a set- 
ting and ap- 
proach of equal 
dignity. 

It is more- 
over what we 
may term an 
artificial form, 
bounded by 
more or less 
rigid and con- 
ventional lines, 
and its imme- 
diate entourage 
must be so 
treated as to 

blend these lines imperceptibly into the lines of its sur- 
roundings, whatever these may be. This is a principle so 
obvious that it seems scarcely necessary to enunciate it, 
but to judge from the examples we have in our midst of 
a neglect or non-recognition of this principle, we might 
be led to believe that it does not exist, 
r In a park or square with trees and shrubbery, it is 
imperative that just around our monument, at least, 
there should be an ade- 
quate formal treatment of 
the paths with perhaps a 
certain modeling of the 
ground and turf that will 
serve to unite the conven- 
tional architectural lines 
with those of that strange 
imitation of nature with 
which most of our land- 
scape architects provide 
us. 

I have in mind, among 
others, two particularly 
vicious examples of 
neglect of this basic prin- 
ciple in New York — one 
is the statue of President 
Arthur in Madison Square, 
which rises in sweet sim- 
plicity, sometimes out of 
a flower bed, sometimes 
out of the turf, as the 
fancy of the gardener dic- 
tates, in such a manner 
as to suggest irresistibly 
the conclusion that it also 
is a vegetable growth — 
the other is the statue of 
Nathan Hale, a really 
beautiful thing, in City 

Hall Park, and which is also placed without relation to 
anything whatever except the grass that grows around it. 

In paved open spaces there are to be found, in the 
circumjacent buildings and sidewalks, lines that will help 




STATUE OF MARCUS AURELIUS, ROME, ITALY. 



to support and repeat those of the monument — yet even 
here a tie, a more obvious relation is needed such as a 
fine pavement affords, designed in relation to the monu- 
ment, as in the great square before vSt. Peter's in Rome; 

or in the court 
on the Capito- 
line hill around 
the statue of 
Marcus Aurel- 
ius. 

So much for 
the treatment 
of the monu- 
ment and its 
setting; the 
broader ques- 
tion — that of 
the absolute 
necessity for 
monumental 
conditions if the monument is to produce its proper 
effect — is the one I wish to emphasize, and that not 
only a harmonious setting but a proper approach are 
absolutely essential to dignity. 

As things are at present, the designer of a monument 
is seriously handicapped. He designs his monument for 
a certain site, and as much as possible in harmony with 
what he finds about it. The monument is erected ; the 

next day ground is broken 
close by for a twenty-story 
building, and his monu- 
ment is killed. 

The " sky scraper " thus 
creates a new condition, 
and will probably banish 
all monuments, other than 
low fountain basins and 
perhaps statues, to the 
parks where they will not 
be forced to compete with 
the mass of these enor- 
mous structures. The 
tall building has come to 
stay, is the outcome of 
legitimate conditions, and 
must therefore be reck- 
oned with. 

There is thus a distinct 
relation between the char- 
acter of the city street or 
square and any monu- 
mental project. Let us 
take a street in Paris and 
assume that the vista is 
closed by an important 
monument. The build- 
ings on each side have 
cornices of a uniform 
height, and horizontal 
divisions that coincide, and within these limits composi- 
tions that vary sufficiently for their individual interest. 
Calm, quiet, monotonous if you please, but the monument 
tells — it carries, and we find, when we analyze the effect 



256 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



of the vista upon us, that this calm, that this quiet monot- 
ony is a foil, a preparation for the richer composition 
that fronts us at the head of the street — that the eye is 
unfatigued and can there- 
fore appreciate. 

Now let us assume for a 
moment that we have a 
street in New York leading 
up to an important monu- 
ment (we haven't, but 
never mind); a typical 
street, with the buildings 
leaping to all sorts of 
heights on either hand, 
each more ornate than its 
neighbor, each making its 
own frantic appeal for 
notice. What would be- 
come of the monument? 
Would you care for it when 
you reached it? Would 
your eye feel rested and 
ready to examine it with 
interest? Wouldn't you 
feel as you would if you 
had dined entirely on cake 
• — that pudding was super- 
fluous? 

Mark the difference! 
Both are commercial 
streets; in both instances 
the buildings are commer- 
cial buildings and have no 
claim upon our special interest. But the monument has. 
It stands for something greater and finer than mere busi- 
ness, and should be led up to ; the attention should not be 
distracted, but directed, and we should carry away with us 
a definite impression of the nobility and grandeur of the 
composition of which street and monument should be inte- 
gral parts. It is the whole monumental effect of things 
that is of real 
importance. 
Monotony has 
its uses. Abso- 
lute monotony 
is as tiresome as 
const.ant vari- 
ety, but it is the 
just relation and 
proportion of 
each that makes 
for the monu- 
mental. 

In stating 
that we have no 

street in New York leading up to an important monument, 
I want to make an exception in favor of Fifth avenue and 
the Washington Arch, and the streets leading up to Colum- 
bus Circle and the column there. For this, the present 
plan of the city is responsible. 

Let us compare the plan of the city of Washington 
with that of New York. 




washin(;ton arch, new vork city. 




PLACK DK I. A 1;ASTI I K 



There we find radial avenues of magnificent width, 
starting from well defined and monumental centers, 
intersecting each other at minor centers where small 

parks are managed. These 
small parks, and other 
larger ones, lie on the axes 
of these avenues, so that 
any public embellishment 
placed there will have an 
axial approach in at least 
four and often more direc- 
tions. 

The minor streets are 
laid out on the gridiron 
plan so familiar to us, and 
where the diagonal ave- 
nues cut across them nu- 
merous triangular spaces 
are created. 

With what result? A 
varied and rich perspec- 
tive, a series of charming 
vistas accented or closed 
by some object of interest 
— a statue, a fountain, or 
a building. 

Return to New York 
and we are struck at once 
with the fact that Broad- 
way is the one diagonal 
street above the down- 
town district, and that the 
only points at which real 
architectural interest is possible are created by its inter- 
sections with the avenues. 

.Some of these triangular spaces along the line of 
Broadway are occupied more or less adetjuately by 
monuments; others are found in the badly planned 
parks and squares, where winding paths take you just 
where you don't want to go, in a silly, futile eff"ort to 

produce a rus 
in urbis ; and 
scarcely one sat- 
isfactory site 
can be found in 
them for any 
m on u m e n tal 
purpose. I do 
not wish to be 
understood as 
insisting that 
parks and 
squares should 
be created for 
the purpose of 
putting monuments in them. But I do insist that it is 
silly to attempt to produce the effect of a pastoral land- 
scape in the heart of a city in any space of the size of 
our principal squares, that a certain formality of treat- 
ment is imperative in a city square, and that then, when 
a monument is to be placed, a decent and dignified 
approach and setting may be found. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 12. PLATE 155. 




HOUSE AT ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 12. PLATE 156. 





u o 

SCO 

< I- 

— O ^ u 
O J °» ^ 





THE BRICKBUII. DER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 12. PLATE 157. 




O 



D 
O 

_1 

H 



^ ^' 

C/3 o 

—' Q 

s < 

i: 5 



«a 



W CO 

W 

u 

ZLU 
a. 

< o 

H 
Z 

w 
o 



,.^^1 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 12. PLATE 158, 




O 
2 



D 
O 
J 

h [2 
(/} o 

UJ 

< o 

CC 

Ui < 

§1 

<-^ 

U Hi 

'^ Q. 

UJ o 
Q O 

O 
S 

h 

u 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20. NO. 12. PLATE 159. 








r^WW- 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 




ENGINE HOUSE, BALTIMORE, MD. 
Ellicott & Emmart, Architects. 



SECOND FLOOR PUN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 12. PLATE 160. 



■'mmw^^^m 



Biiirsisik^ 




.-.rfTfTL 






(£ 








HI 






l/> 


5 

o 




_j 
< 




-J 


<« 


I/) 


K 


z 




QZ 


I 


cc 




< 


o 


o 




> 


tr 


X 






< 



■sm^ 



-I 



iifadSi 



CO 

d 



u 



UJ z 

(n O 

o o 

X z 

f: < 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 12. PLATE 161 




HOUSE AT WEST NEWTON, MASS. 
Frank Chouteau Brown, Architect. 



1 ti r. J3KlL;iS.lJUlL,UIiK. 

VOL. 20, NO. 12. PLATE 162. 




HOUSE AT WEST NEWTON, MASS. 
Frank Chouteau Brown, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 12. PLATE 163. 




^=Mi 



THE BRICKBUI LDE R. 

VOL. 20, NO. 12. PLATE 164. 




BANK OF YOLO, WOODLAND, CALIFORNIA. 
iRA w. Hoover, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 12. PLATE 165. 




K 
O 
U, 

!j 
<; 

". t 

O "J 
J < 

o y^ 

O o 

ds; 
J < 

?« 
o 

< 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 12. PLATE 166. 



I 




2 

K 
O 

U. 

< 

o 
Q 

z 

< 

Q 
O 
O 



O S 

o ■< 

> 

Uh o 

OS 

< E 

m 

CO 

< 
h 
W 
Q 

W 
O 

< 

h 

U 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 12. PLATE 167. 





n^oLflL/Vr F/yi/V 



rmr nm fuia 



• • • • 

5LCQA0 riwe PM/V 



AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY BUILDING, WORCESTER, MASS. 

BiGELOW & WADSWORTH AND R. CLIPSTON STURGIS, ASSOCIATED ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 20, NO. 12. PLATE 168. 




< 



oc ■ 

CO t 

U q: 

cr; < 

O P 



o ° 

. z ^ 

« I— I ^ 

5 Q <«- 

y J 5 

> ^ q: 

g D ? 

g Dq« 

UJ Z 

H >-, O 

111 [-1 « 

Q W ^ 

< O " 

g O C 

^ 2 1 

s § 



H 



^ o 

_1 

A. y 



w 
< 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

The Design of a Physical Laboratory. 



257 



ALBERT P. CARMAN. 



THE design of a highly specialized building like a 
university physical laboratory presents many prob- 
lems outside the experience of the general architect. 
The literature on the design of such biiildings is very 
meager. A number of laboratories have been described 
in a general way, but often with particular emphasis on 
fittings and apparatus and with little, if any, discussion 
of the problems supposed to be solved in the design. 
The following article, it is hoped, will help fill this defi- 
ciency. The writer had the responsibility of making 
specifications for the design of a physical laboratory for 
the University of Illinois, and was in consultation with 
architects and superintendents during the erection and 
equipping of the building. It is believed that an explana- 
tion of the plans finally used will aid those who have to 
design this type of building. 

About twenty leading physical laboratories in this 
country were visited, and the floor plans of practically 
all of the recent laboratories secured. Several months 
were spent in making floor plans after various schemes. 
In this preliminary work an architectural student was 
employed to make drawings to exact scale. The possi- 
bilities and advantages of various schemes were thus 
made manifest, and the 
essential principles to 
be followed in the de- 
sign became evident. 
In these preliminary 
studies as well as later, 
Prof. J. M. White of 
the Department of 
Architecture and Prof. 
C. T. Knipp of the 
Department of Physics 
were active workers. 
This preliminary work 
was done before the 
election of the archi- 
tect, there being a 
delay of several months in his election, and the result 
was that a very complete and definite list of conditions 
was furnished him. The architect found the general 
results of these preliminary stixdies very helpful, and 
nowhere asked for a sacrifice of technical requirements 
to get architectural efiiects. 

The character of the work in physics, which consists of 
the usual undergraduate courses, and of a considerable 
and growing amount of graduate work and of investiga- 
tion, fixed the number and general character of the 
rooms desired. The site was also fixed, a rectangular 
space of about 250 feet square with a south front for the 
building. Fortunately or unfortunately, the University 
has adopted no style of architecture, so there was no 
question of adapting ecclesiastical windows or project- 
ing buttresses or classical columns to the requirements 
of unrestricted light. vSuch architectural styles present 
very difficult problems in laboratory design. They have 
been solved more or less successfully, but the difficulty 
is such that we cannot wonder that more than one pro- 




LAIiORATORY OF PHYSICS, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URKANA, ILL 
W. Carbys Zimmermann, Architect. 



fessor has suggested that the best style for a laboratory 
would be that of the common workshop, and perhaps 
with saw-tooth roof construction. But efficiency is not 
in conflict with dignified architecture, and a university 
physical laboratory should be .an attractive building to 
conform to the importance of the science in university 
work. The exterior of a physical laboratory is impor- 
tant to the man of physics, principally in its allowing a 
convenient window spacing, with unobstructed light, as 
well as being inexpensive, so that no interior convenience 
need be sacrificed. The style chosen as appropriate to 
our surroundings fitted our requirements and money, 
and gave us a dignified and pleasing exterior without 
sacrificing interior plans. The elevation and the four 
plans discussed below are shown in the accompanying 
illustrations. 

Freedom from mechanical disturbances is of such ob- 
vious importance for much of the work in physics that it 
received early consideration. Since the laboratory is for 
university instruction the location is necessarily central, 
and that means in the midst of various activities which 
may cause vibrations. The first thing decided was to 
use extra heavy masonry walls and as far as possible to 

carry the floors on ma- 
sonry walls rather than 
on steel columns. This 
involves many cross 
walls which run the full 
height of the building 
and give a rigid cellular 
design as seen in the 
floor plans. Over three 
million bricks were 
used, probably twenty- 
five per cent more than 
would be used with 
steel columns in a 
building of this size. 
Next came the effect 
of room arrangement and of equipment on stability. To 
avoid the disturbances caused by the movement of large 
classes of vigorous students the large laboratories and 
the class rooms are put on the west side of the building. 
Most of the students naturally use the west entrance, 
so that this design minimizes the travel across the build- 
ing. The east side of the building is thus given over to 
the twenty-five smaller laboratories which are used by 
advanced students and individual investigators for the 
more delicate experiments. This side of the building 
is much heavier in construction owing to numbers of 
interior masonry walls. 

An equally important question was the location of 
moving machines. The ventilating fans, the liquid air 
plant and department machine shop are placed in an 
annex building which has a foundation separate from 
that of the main building. A hydraulic plunger eleva- 
tor was installed partly on account of its simplicity and 
safety, but mainly because it introduced no rotating 
machinery. All the rotating machinery in the main 



258 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



building is concentrated in the students' workshop at the 
northeast corner. The floor of this room is a thick block 
of reinforced concrete floated on 18 inches of sand and is 
independent of the walls and foundations. On this are 
mounted several machine tools with shafting and motor 
for the use of instructors and advanced students. This 
method of isolating machinery has been used in several 
laboratories and found satisfactory. It would of course 
be easy to restrict work in this shop at times if any par- 



Bureau of Standards. These laboratories do not depend 
upon the basement for delicate experimental work. The 
objections to basement rooms are that they are not cheer- 
ful and that they are liable to be damp at certain seasons 
of the year. In the level prairie country with the black 
soil of the "corn belt," basement rooms are certainly not 
desirable where long hours must be spent in experimen- 
tal work. While we have a large basement cemented 
throughout, part of it is cut by the ventilating ducts and 




I.AUORATOUV OF I'lIYSICS THIRD ri 01)11 



I.AIIOKATORY 01" PHYSICS — rOlRTU FLOOR 




I.AllOIiATOICV OK I'llVSirS— FIRST FLOOR 






„ „Tm-| f^°^'^ 11 " /UJ.65-0 Ag£«!ATllf BOOM J", ■ '' 

I 'i iih Iv _j I 

I ii|i: ^ ''' l " l cotcJDoa. *< , '. : ,1 ■{ 




jJL»raBE 




i.ahoratokv of imiymcs -skcond floor 



LABORATORY OF PHYSICS, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URHANA, ILL. 
W. Carbys Zimmermann, Architect. 



ticular experimental work was disturbed, but our expe- 
rience indicates that this will rarely occur. As heat and 
electric power come from the University power plant we 
have had no problem with boilers and prime-motors. 

An equally important question was the i:se of the base- 
ment. Many professors regard the basement as the 
choicest room on account of its stability. That it is not 
necessary to go to the basement for stability is shown by 
the two fine research laboratories in Washington, the 
Geophysical Laboratory and the Laboratory of the 



the piping, and part is used for even-temperature rooms, 
a large battery room, and storage room, much needed in 
working laboratories. All the first floor laboratories and 
the lecture room desks have independent masonry piers 
for experiments. The wall brackets have, however, been 
found equally stable. Even on the upper floors the wall 
brackets have been satisfactory for all general purposes 
and are particularly good near the intersections with the 
cross walls. 

There are occasionally demands of stability made by 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



259 




26o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



physical experiments which test to the limit the standard 
masonry pier. To meet this exceptional but important 
demand three special piers were constructed after the plan 
shown in the accompanying illustration. A heavy block 
of concrete was built on a thick bed of loose gravel. By 
using oil cloth over the gravel the concrete formed with- 
out becoming part of the gravel, and was thus " floated " 
on the gravel. The pier was then erected in this float- 
ing foundation. The loose gravel transmits few if any 
vibrations and the inertia of the heavy concrete founda- 
tion and pier is an additional protection against vibra- 
tions. A pier of this kind will stand the test of a free 
mercury surface. 

While stability is demanded in a physical laboratory, 
the question of convenient arrangements, service rooms 
and "circulation " or ready access is none the less impor- 
tant in a laboratory as large as this one. The first ques- 
tion in arrangement was the location of the large 
experimental lecture room. A lecture room requires 
higher ceilings than the ordinary room on account of 
the raised seats and its size. It must also be 
convenient to a preparation room and the appa- 
ratus cabinets, and should be easily accessible to 
the auditors. To obtain the higher 
ceiling without breaking floor levels 
the lecture room is often put on the 
top floor. This would have involved 
in our case a climb of two or per- 
haps three flights of stairs which 
was undesirable for several reasons. 
The problem was finally solved by 
using the court between the wings 
for two lecture rooms and a prep- 
aration room. The access is easy 
and the location reduces the dis- 
turbance of the coming and going to a minimum. The 
lighting is by skylights with a north exposure and no 
side-lights; allowing the room to be quickly and com- 
pletely darkened by horizontal screens rolling on tracks 
between the skylights and the glass ceiling. The size 
of the lecture rooms forms a question on which there is 
evidently much difference of opinion. After a thorough 
test it was decided that 50 feet should be the maximum 
distance of any seat from the lecture desk for an experi- 
mental lecture. Using a standard opera chair with fold- 
ing tablet arm there are 265 seats within this radius, 
which number is ample since, for teaching efficiency, a 
lecture section of over 200 is undesirable. The second 
lecture room seats 120 and shares the preparation room 
with the larger lecture room. An apparently minor 
point that caused much thought in the lecture room 
design was the position of the entrance. A rear en- 
trance is undesirable because it is not in full view of the 
lecturer and so encourages tardiness. The entrance 
should be placed so as not to interfere with the passage 
from the desk to the preparation room. In a physics 
lecture room it is desirable to have a diagonal curtain 
across one front corner so that a lantern can be operated 
for projecting experiments. These requirements are 
met very satisfactorily in the larger lecture room and 
fairly so in the smaller lecture rooms. There is a scheme 
used in some foreign laboratories of having the entrance 
to the preparation room and cabinets directly back of the 




PHYOIC3 RUUXiIMC 



lecture desk, with sliding blackboards and a projection 
curtain coming down over this entrance. It seems, how- 
ever, better to keep the needed blackboard and curtain 
independent of an entrance. 

The location and arrangement of the apparatus cabi- 
nets is a special feature of the design. These are placed 
in the north central part of the building and extend 
through three stories. The principle of the library stack 
is used, a mezzanine floor being introduced on each story. 
This scheme practically doubles the available apparatus 
room. These stacks are accessible from each corridor by 
a special stairway and by an elevator. The elevator 
shaft runs from the unpacking room in the basement to 
the fourth floor and has openings to the main corridor on 
each floor, and also to each of the six floors with appa- 
ratus stacks. By using large rubber-tired trucks which 
can be run on the elevator it is easy to transfer heavy 
apparatus to any part of the building. The central 
location of these apparatus stacks makes them convenient 
to all the working rooms of the building. Indeed the 
preparation rooms for the lecture rooms and for 
the large laboratories on the second and third 
floors open directly into these stacks. In addition 
to these central cases each small 
laboratory is fitted with a case for 
the apparatus and supplies which 
are in current use in that room. 

For each large laboratory there 
is a preparation room supplied with 
facilities for adjusting apparatus 
and making minor repairs, and also 
an administration office with assis- 
tants' desks where reports are cor- 
rected and records kept. On each 
floor there is a chemical room and 
one or more photographic rooms. Interior dark rooms are 
also found in several of the smaller laboratories. Some 
of these laboratories are fitted with double curtains held 
in place by deep side slots so that the room can be easily, 
darkened for ordinary purposes. The device of using 
double curtains bound together but mounted on separate 
spring rollers fixed vertically over each other is due to 
Prof. 1). C. Miller. It is inexpensive and satisfactory. 

The class rooms, seminary room, offices, coat rooms, 
etc., involve no questions peculiar to laboratory design. 
The experimental electric circuits and switchboards, and 
the distribution of gas, water, and compressed air are 
important features in a modern laboratory, but they are 
perhaps more in the nature of equipment rather than 
subjects of design. For the extension of this wiring and 
piping either temporary or permanent accessible shafts 
are provided in all parts of the building. This provision 
cannot be neglected in a fire-proof building. 

The fourth floor is also completely finished. It contains 
extensive photographic rooms with a large north skylight 
and rooms which are available for various experiments in 
light, sound, and electric waves. There are no special 
points of design involved in the planning of this floor. 

In addition to the question of general design in the 
planning of a laboratory there arise many questions in 
the design of the individual rooms and in their fittings, 
but these questions of detail are beyond the purpose of 
this paper. 



Siyj-ta^ED EXFTlt3IMEiHT/\L PIER rOU/n7.«CriOAI 



u/iTVEiagiTY or ilumoi.3 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



261 



Legal Hints for Architects. — Part VL 



WILLIAM L. BOWMAN, C.E., LL. 



Architect's Authority. While our considerations of 
the duties of the architect have naturally given us a 
general knowledge of his authority, yet, even at a risk of 
some repetition, it is felt that a more specific considera- 
tion of this most important subject is essential. The 
legal status of an architect may vary considerably by 
reason of or during an employment. There have been 
instances recorded where he has been not only agent for 
the owner but also for the contractor, an independent 
contractor himself and also an arbitrator or quasi-judicial 
officer. This statement in itself shows how careful an 
architect must be not only in the various engagements 
which he may accept upon a single job but in his actions 
and decisions, torn as he usually is by many opposing 
claims of interest and acting as he frequently does in 
situations which require determinations and decisions 
adverse to his own personal interests. The architect 
well knows that primarily he is the agent of the owner, 
the man who pays him and he acts accordingly, but he 
often fails to remember that he cannot act for or receive 
compensation in any way, shape or form from a con- 
tractor, subcontractor or material-man without securing 
the previous consent of his employer. This matter has 
just lately been considered in an important decision. 
An architect who had the usual contract of employment 
with an owner contracted with a certain firm of engineers 
without the knowledge of his employer and without tell- 
ing him about the arrangement, whereby the engineers 
were to prepare the plans and specifications for the 
mechanical equipment of the building, with the under- 
standing that if they obtained the contract for the work 
they would make no charge for such plans and specifi- 
cations so prepared. Later these engineers did get the 
contract, being the only bidders. As a matter of fact 
the arrangement did not in any way increase or decrease 
the amount which the owner paid for his complete plans 
and specifications. After the owner learned the facts he 
refused to pay the architect, and upon action brought 
for the architectural services the court held that the con- 
tract was severable, and by this breach of duty upon 
the part of the architect, he had thereby destroyed his 
right to compensation for any part of the contract in 
which the arrangement could have any bearing or in- 
fluence. The court then decided that upon these facts 
the architect could not recover for superintendence nor 
for the furnishing of the completed plans and specifica- 
tions, or in other words he could only recover for his 
preliminary plans and specifications. This seems a very 
drastic decision under the circumstances, but the opin- 
ion states that it is based upon sound public policy and 
asks the following pertinent inquiry: "Under these cir- 
cumstances, how could they (the architects) give their 
best judgment and experience, to say nothing of good 
faith, in passing upon the working plans furnished by 
McW. & Co., or in advising their principal as to the 
best bid for furnishing and installing the mechanical 
equipment ? " 

This principle of fair dealing with the employer and 
owner entitles him after knowledge of any surreptitious 



dealing between the architect and any other person con- 
nected with the work to dismiss the architect. In 
addition to the loss of employment such architect may 
be sued and the employer permitted to recover not 
only whatever money the architect has secretly received 
but even the commissions earned and previously received 
from the employer. 

As the owner's agent,, the architect is spoken of either 
as the general agent for all purposes within the contract, 
or as a special agent with limited powers. From the 
standpoint of the architect he should consider himself a 
special agent and construe his authority strictly. The 
general rule of agency as between the employer and a 
third party is "that the extent of the agent's authority 
is to be measured by the extent of his usual employ- 
ment." Hence as a practical matter the architect's au- 
thority must be gathered from the clauses of the building 
contract, the general conditions of the .specifications, and 
as they can be inferred from the acts of the employer or 
by custom. The contractor is not bound by any special 
instructions given the architect by his employer which 
are not made known to him. For example, if there is a 
secret arrangement that the building shall not cost more 
than a certain sum, and where the builder is by the con- 
tract bound to obey the directions of the architect as to 
the work he shall do, such secret agreement is not bind- 
ing upon the builder, and such restriction of the archi- 
tect's authority will not be permitted to prejudice the 
builder's rights. 

Where the limits of the architect's authority are clearly 
set out in the building contract, such authority must be 
strictly followed, but at the same time the authority 
given will be ordinarily construed to include permission 
to use all necessary or even usual means of carrying into 
effect the purpose and intent of the employer. Regard- 
ing these implied powers, a few examples will be given 
to show their application. There could be no implied 
authority of the architect to allow adjoining owners to 
build the projecting ends of their girders or roof beams 
into the wall of the house, but a provision that all extras 
or additions should be paid for at the price fixed by 
the architect does imply power in said architect to deter- 
mine what are extras under the contract. The mere 
employment of an architect by an owner cannot imply 
authority to select and engage a contractor for the work, 
although in England employment would probably give 
the architect power to engage a quantity surveyor to 
take out the quantities. Thus it will be seen that the 
implied authority of the architect must depend chiefly 
on direct and clear inference from the express terms of 
the building contract or on custom. 

Speaking generally then, as the owner's agent the 
architect is intrusted only with power to see that the work s 
and building construction contemplated by the con- 
tract are properly executed and completed. He cannot 
obtain bids nor enter into a contract for his employer, 
nor can he change, alter, or modify such a contract or 
its conditions. H there are omissions in the plans and 
specifications, the architect has no implied authority to 



262 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



order such omissions, and this is true even if the plans 
and specifications are impracticable as they exist. An 
architect cannot invite people into a building being 
constructed and thereby render his employer liable for 
any damages accruing to such persons by reason of the 
defects of the building. The weight of authority seems 
to be that an architect cannot waive the contract condi- 
tions as to the method of ordering extras, additions, etc., 
nor the contract conditions as to payment and architect's 
certificates. A verbal extension of time to complete a 
building given where the contract has a time limit and 
requires a written extension has been held not to 
bind the owner nor enable the contractor to take advan- 
tage of such honest and equitable extension. The archi- 
tect cannot receive or disburse moneys for the owner 
unless specially authorized. As agent of the owner he 
probably does not warrant the plans and specifications 
as correct, nor that the work can be successfully exe- 
cuted according to said plans and specifications. Notice 
that this merely means that a builder can not recover 
from the owner damages for such defects, or in case of 
accident the person injured cannot recover his damages 
from the owner. In this phase of the employment the 
architect is considered an independent contractor, and as 
such he is personally liable for defects in his plans and 
specifications or for his failure to reasonably superintend. 

The result of acting without authority will now be 
briefly stated so that it may be kept in mind when we 
come to consider the various building contract clauses 
of interest herein. Where the architect orders material 
or work professing to act for his employer, he impliedly 
warrants to the contractor or subcontractor that he in 
fact possesses the authority which he assumes to exer- 
cise, and for the breach of such warranty he becomes 
liable for the damages suffered. If the architect's action 
is with knowledge that he does not possess the authority, 
it is probable that he could be held liable by the con- 
tractor for the damages in an action for deceit. Again, 
if, as has happened, the contractor first sues the owner 
who wins the case on the ground that the architect had 
no authority to order the material or work in question, 
then upon action brought against the architect the con- 
tractor can recover not only for the material and work 
which he furnished, but also as damages recover the 
expenses of his action lost to the owner. 

As has already been shown, in the ordinary everyday 
employment of an architect there is no specific and defi- 
nite contract of employment, so that the architect has to 
depend principally upon the building contract to ascer- 
tain his legal position and rights. On this account we 
will continue our consideration of this subject in con- 
nection with our consideration of the most common con- 
tract clauses now in general use. 

Contract Clauses. Experience has shown that the 
early contract statement, " which drawings and specifi- 
cations are identified by the signatures of the parties 
hereto," is often neglected, thereby causing much trouble. 
The contract is always made in duplicate and signed and 
exchanged by the parties thereto; why should not the 
same method be followed regarding the plans and speci- 
fications which are the real basis of the contract ? Any 
disputes or lawsuits over a building contract always 
involve the architect, and it is to his interest, not only 



professionally but also from a financial standpoint, to do 
everything in his power to prevent misunderstandings 
and legal proceedings as far as possible. 

Since the plans and specifications "become hereby a 
part of this contract," the architect should take care that 
his "General Conditions" in the specifications are con- 
sistent with the contract. There seems to be a necessary 
conflict in this regard because in such general conditions 
the architect always tries to relieve himself of as much 
responsibility as possible, while the owner in drawing or 
having the building contract drawn is primarily thinking 
of the obligations which the builder and he are about to 
assume. While the general rule of construction is that 
the contract clauses control the general conditions of the 
specifications, yet there is also a legal rule of construc- 
tion that where it is possible each and every part of a 
contract (including the plans and specifications) must be 
given its full meaning. Hence the conflicts between the 
contract clauses and the general conditions are a constant 
source of mischief and litigation which with more care 
on the part of the architect could probably be avoided. 
This raises another interesting question for the architect. 
Suppose the architect has general conditions containing 
the following: "The architects do not assume any 
responsibility of any kind, financial or otherwise, in 
issuing these instruments of service, but are considered 
simply as advisers of the owner," and the owner refuses 
to accept such a condition and the architect refuses to 
change it. Such a situation did arise after an owner 
had accepted the completed plans and specifications and 
was about to sign a contract with a builder, with the 
result that the architects were dismissed and had to sue 
for their commission. The trial justice held that it was 
a question of fact for the jury to decide whether or not 
the refusal of the architects to omit that clause consti- 
tuted a breach of their contract of employment. Un- 
questionably the architects in such a case should recover 
for the work done, the contract being severable, and the 
only question of difficulty is whether the owner could 
dismiss them and cause them to lose the profits which 
they would have made upon the superintendence. 

The phrase requiring performance "under the direc- 
tion " of the architect must be considered in connection 
with the intent and purpose of the contract as a whole. 
It has been held that these words do not authorize the 
architect to reduce the thickness of a concrete column 
foundation. Yet in another case where there were 
numerous different contractors, each of whom was re- 
quired to furn